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(Comp. p. xiv.) 

Approximate Equivalents. 






Lire. \ Cent. 


Doll. 1 Cts. 









- ! 5 

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Distances. Since the consolidation of the Kingdom of Italy the 
French mitre system has been in use throughout the country, hut the old 
Italian miglio (pi. le miglia) is still sometimes preferred to" the new kilo- 
metre. One kilometre is equal to 0.62138, or nearly Vsths, of an English 
mile. The Tuscan miglio is equal to 1.65 kilometre or 1 31. 44 yds.; the 
Roman miglio is equal to 1.49 kilometre or 1630 yds. 


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With 1 Panorama, 7 Maps, and 24 Plans. 

Fifth Remodelled Edition. 


The right of translation is reserved. 

"Go, little book, God send thee good passage, 
And specially let this be thy prayere 
Unto them all that thee will read or hear, 
Where thou art wrong, after their help to call, 
Thee to correct in any part or all." 



The objects of the Handbook for Italy, which consists 
of three volumes, each complete in itself, are to supply the 
traveller with a few remarks on the progress of civilisation 
and art among the people he is about to visit, to render 
him as independent as possible of the services of guides and 
valets - de - place , to protect him against extortion, and in 
every way to aid him in deriving enjoyment and instruction 
from his tour in one of the most fascinating countries in the 
world. The Handbook will also, it is hoped, be the means 
of saving the traveller many a trial of temper ; for there is 
probably no country in Europe where the patience is more 
severely taxed than in some parts of Italy. 

The Handbook is based on the Editor's personal ac- 
quaintance with the places described, which he has lately 
revisited for the purpose of obtaining the newest informa- 
tion ; and he is indebted to the kindness of a number of his 
English readers for many valuable suggestions and correc- 
tions, of which he has gratefully availed himself. The Editor 
will as heretofore highly appreciate any new information 
with which travellers may favour him, but he regrets that 
he cannot undertake to answer all communications. 

The fifth edition of Central Italy and Home, like its pre- 
decessor, has been carefully revised and considerably aug- 
mented, while the routes to Rome through Tuscany, Um- 
bria, and the Marches have been almost entirely remodelled. 
The description of the antiquities of Eome, for which the 
Editor is indebted to Professor H. Nissen of Marburg, has 
again been recast and amplified. The introductory articles 
on art by Prof. R. Kekule of Bonn and Prof. A. Springer 
of Leipsic have been adapted for the use of English trav- 
ellers with ,the kind assistance of Mr. J. A. Crowe, the 


eminent historian of art. Professor Springer has also con- 
tributed many valuable incidental remarks on modern art. 

The Maps and Plans, on which special care has been 
bestowed , will abundantly suffice for the use of the ordinary 
traveller. The Plan of Rome (scale 1 : 15,000) (is divided 
into three sections with a view to obviate the necessity of 
unfolding a large sheet of paper at every consultation , and 
its use will be further facilitated by reference to the small 
clue-plan inside the cover at the end of the volume. 

Heights are given in English feet (1 Engl. ft. = 0,3048 
metre), and Distances in English miles (comp. p. ii). 

Hotels (comp. p. xxii). In no country does the treat- 
ment which the traveller experiences at hotels vary more 
than in Italy, and attempts at extortion are perhaps no- 
where so outrageous. Besides the modern palatial and ex- 
pensive establishments, the Handbook also contains a selec- 
tion of modest , old-fashioned inns , where gentlemen trav- 
elling alone will not unfrequently find good accommodation 
at moderate charges. The asterisks indicate those hotels 
which the Editor has reason to believe from his own ex- 
perience, as well as from information supplied by numerous 
travellers , to be respectable , clean , and reasonable. The 
value of these asterisks, it need hardly be observed, varies 
according to circumstances, those prefixed to town hotels 
and village inns signifying respectively that the establish- 
ments are good of their kind. At the same time the Editor 
does not doubt that comfortable quarters may occasionally 
be obtained at inns which he has not recommended or even 
mentioned. Although changes frequently take place , and 
prices generally have a strong upward tendency, the average 
charges stated in the Handbook will enable the traveller to 
form a fair estimate of his probable expenditure. 

To hotel proprietors, tradesmen, and others the Editor 
begs to intimate that a character for fair dealing and cour- 
tesy towards travellers forms the sole passport to his com- 


Introduction. Page 

I. Travelling Expenses. Money xiii 

II. Season and Plan of Tour xv 

III. Language xvi 

IV. Passports. Custom-house. Luggage xvi 

V. Public Safety. Begging xvii 

VI. Intercourse with Italians xviii 

VII. Conveyances xix 

VIII. Hotels xxii 

IX. Restaurants, Cafe's, etc xxi: 

X. Sights, Shops, etc xxv 

XI. Post Office. Telegraph xxvi 

XII. Calculation of Time xxvi 

XIII. Climate. Health xxvii 

XIV. Dates of Recent Events xxviii 

Ancient Art, by Prof. R. Kekule xxx 

Mediaeval and Modern Roman Art, by Prof. A. 

Springer xliv 

Index of matters and names of persons contained 

in the historical articles lxi 

First Section. 

S. Tuscany. Umbria. The Marches. 


1 . From Leghorn or Pisa to Rome by the Maremme ... 1 

1. From Leghorn to Civita Vecchia by sea 1 

2. Piombino and Populonia 2 

3. From Grosseto to Rusellse 3 

4. Orbetello. Monte Argentario 4 

5. From Montalto to Vulci 4 

6. From Corneto to Toscanella 6 

7. From Civita Vecchia to La Tolfa 7 

2. Volterra. From Leghorn to Volterra. From Volterra to 
Siena 8 

1. From Saline to Monte Cerboli 9 

2. From Volterra to the copper-mines of Monte Catini . . 10 

3. Elba and the Tuscan Islands 13 

4. From Florence to Siena and Chiusi by Empoli .... 14 

i.'FrOm Poggibonsi to San Gimignano 15 

2. From Asciano to Grosseto. Monte Amiata .... 17 

3. Pienza- 20 

5. Siena 21 

4. Excursions from Siena. L'Osservanza, S. Colomba, etc. 34 
2. Monte Oliveto Maggiore 36 

6. From Florence by Arezzo and Terontola (Chiusi, Rome) 

to Perugia 37 


Route Page 

7. Perugia 46 

1. From Perugia to the Upper Valley of the Tiber. Citta di 
Castello. Borgo S. Sepolcro 54 

2. From Perugia to Narni by Todi 55 

8. From Florence by (Arezzo) Terontola and Chiusi to Rome 56 

1. From Chiusi to Citta della Pieve. Cetona .... 57 

2. From Borghetto to Civita Castellana. Falerii. Mount 
Soraete. Jlepi 62 

9. From Orvieto to Rome by Bolsena , Monteflascone , and 
Viterbo 64 

Excursions from Viterbo. Castel d'Asso. Vetralla. Nor- 

chia. Sutri 67 

10. From Perugia to Foligno and Orte (Rome). Assisi. Spo- 
leto. Waterfalls of Terni 69 

11. From Bologna to Rimini, Falconara (Rome), and Ancona 81 

Excursion to Urbino 87 

12. From Fano through the Furlo Pass to Fossato. Gubbio 92 

13. Ancona and its Environs. Osimo. Loreto 96 

14. From Ancona to Foligno (Orte, Rome) 100 

1. From Fabriano to Sassoferrato 101 

2. High Koad from (Ancona) Civitanova to Foligno (Rome) 102 

Second Section. 


Preliminary Information : — 

Arrival. Police. Embassies and Consulates .... 104 

Hotels. Pensions. Private Apartments 104 

Restaurants. Osterie. Cafes. Confectioners. Gratuities . 105-7 

Baths. Climate. Physicians. Chemists. Bankers . . . 107 
Booksellers. Libraries. Reading -Rooms. Newspapers. 

Teachers of Italian. Music 107-8 

Studios. Art-dealers. Shops 108-9 

Theatres 110 

Cabs. Omnibuses. Vetturini. Saddle-horses .... 111-12 

Railways. Steamboats. Post Office. Telegraph . . . 112 

English Churches 113 

Church Festivals 113 

Popular Festivals. Street Scenes. Garrison .... 115 

Collections, Villas, etc 116 

Diary 118 

Duration of Stay. Principal Attractions 119 

Orientation. Preliminary Drive 120 

History of the City of Rome 120 

Chronological Table of Roman Emperors and Popes . 131 

Topography 135 

/. Strangers' Quarter and Corso 139 

Piazza del Popolo. S. Maria del Popolo 139 

The Pincio 141 

Villa Medici 142 

SS. Trinita de' Monti. Casa Zuccari-Bartholdy .... 143 

Piazza di Spagna. Propaganda 143 

S. Andrea delle Fratte. Fontana di Trevi 144 

The Corso 145 




S. Carlo al Corso. S. Lorenzo in Lucina 146 

Palazzo Chigi. Piazza Colonna. Piazza di Monte Citorio . 147 

Dogana di Terra. Palazzo Sciarra-Colonna 148 

S. Ignazio. Collegio Romano. Museo Kircheriano ... 148 

S. Marcello. S. Maria in Via Lata 151 

Palazzo Doria j51 

SS. Apostoli. Palazzo Colonna 154 

Palazzo di Venezia 1^5 

Palazzo Torlonia. S. Marco |5o 

Monument of Bibulus. Gesii 157 

Villa Borghese 158 

//. The Hills of Rome. Quirinal, Viminal, Esquiline . . lbO 

Piazza Barberini. S. Maria della Concezione .... 161 

Villa Ludovisi ,„ n 16 * 

Gardens of Sallust. Porta Salara. Villa Albani. . . . lfai-M 

Palazzo Barberini 1°° 

Piazza del Quirinale (di Monte Cavallo) . . . . . lj>7 

Palazzo Regio (Apostolico al Quirinale) ,nJ%a 

Palazzo Rospigliosi. S. Silvestro al Quirinale .... Ib»-b3 

S. Agata in Suburra. S. Lorenzo in Paneperna ... 1/0 

S.Bernardo. Acqua Felice. S. Maria della Vittoria. Porta Pia 170 

S. Agnese Fuori le Mura. S. Costanza l'l 

Piazza delle Terme. Thermae of Diocletian. "S. Maria degli 

Angeli J'j 

Wall of Servius. Campo Militare 174 

S. Pudenziana. S. Maria Maggiore 17p 

S. Prassede JJ7 

Arch of Gallienus. S. Eusebio 178 

S. Lorenzo Fuori le Mura 179 

S. Bibiana. Temple of Minerva Medica. Porta Maggiore 180 

S. Croce in Gerusalemme. Amphitheatrum Castrense . . 182 

S. Martino ai Monti. S. Pietro in Vincoli 183 

III. Rome on the Tiber (Left Bank) 184 

Mausoleum of Augustus 185 

Palazzo Borghese 186 

S. Agostino 19° 

S. Luigi de' Francesi 191 

Universita della Sapienza ... 192 

Piazza della Rotonda. Pantheon 192 

S. Maria sopra Minerva 19* 

Palazzo Madama. Piazza Navona 195 

S. Agnese. S. Maria dell' Anima 196 

S. Maria della Pace 197 

Palazzo Vidoni. S. Andrea della Valle. Palazzo Massimi alle 

Colonne 198 

Palazzo Braschi. Piazza del Pasquino. Chiesa Nuova . . 199 

Palazzo della Cancelleria. 200 

S. Lorenzo in Damaso. Palazzo Farnese 201 

Palazzo Spada alia Regola 202 

S. Giovanni de' Fiorentini 203 

S. Carlo a Catinari. Palazzo Costaguti. Palazzo Mattei . . 204 

S. Caterina de' Funari. S. Maria in Campitelli . . . 205 

Ghetto. Colonnade of Octavia 206 

Theatre of Marcellus. S. Niccolo in Carcere .... 206 

IV. Ancient Rome 20 1 

The Capitol 207 

S. Maria in Aracoeli 208 

Piazza del Campidoglio. Palazzo del Senatore. Palace of the 

Conservatori 210 

Collections of the Capitol 211 




Tarpeian Rock. Tabularium 218 

Forum Romanum 21J 

Temple of Saturn 2~- 

Colonnade of the Twelve Gods. Temple of Vespasian . . 2« 

Temple of Concordia. Triumphal Arch of Septimius Severus 222 

Comitium. Column of Phocas 2^3 

Basilica Julia "^ 

Temple of Castor and Pollux. Temple of Caesar . . . 22o 

Temple of Faustina. Career Mamertinus 226 

SS. Luca e Martina. S. Adriano '-'-' 

The Velia . . . . • 227 

SS. Cosma e Damiano 227 

Basilica of Constantine. S. Francesca Romana .... 228 
Triumphal Arch of Titus. Temple of Venus and Roma. 

Colosseum 229 

Triumphal Arch of Constantine. Thermae of Titus ... 232 

Fora of the Emperors. Academy of St. Luke . . . 233 

Forum of Nerva 233 

Forum of Augustus. Forum of Trajan 235 

Trajan's Column 23b 

The Palatine 236 

Palatine Museum. Buildings of Caligula 238 

Buildings of Tiberius. Private House 239 

Palace of the Flavii 240 

Temple of Jupiter Victor 241 

Palace of Septimius Severus 242 

Psedagogium 243 

Velabrum and Forum Boarium 244 

S. Teodoro. Janus Quadrifrons 244 

S. Giorgio in Velabro. Cloaca Maxima. S. Maria in Cosmedin 245 

Round Temple. S. Maria Egiziaca 246 

House of Crescentius or Rienzi. Ponte Rotto. . . . 246 

Via de' Cerchi (Circus Maximus) 247 

The Aventine 247 

Protestant Cemetery. Pyramid of Cestius. Monte Testaccio 243 

S. Sabina 249 

S. Alessio. S. Maria Aventina. S. Prisca. S. Saba . . 250 

S. Paolo Fuori le Mura 251 

The Via Appia within the City 253 

Thermae of Caracalla 253 

SS. Nereo ed Achilleo. S. Cesareo 255 

Tomb of the Scipios. Columbaria. Arch of Drusus . . 255 

The Caelius 257 

S. Gregorio. SS. Giovanni e Paolo 257 

S. Maria in Domnica. S. Stefano Rotondo 258 

S. Clemente 259 

SS. Quattro Coronati 263 

Piazza S. Giovanni in Laterano. Scala Santa .... 264 

S. Giovanni in Laterano 265 

Baptistery 266 

Palazzo del Laterano. Gregorian Museum 267 

Christian Museum 269 

Villa Massimo. Villa Wolkonsky 271 

Quarters of the City on the Right Bank 272 

The Borgo 272 

Ponte S. Angelo. Castello S. Angelo 273 

Palazzo Giraud 274 

Piazza di S. Pietro 275 




S. Pietro in Vaticano 276 

Cimitero dei Tedeschi 284 

The Vatican 284 

A. Paintings: — 

Sala Ducale. Sala Eegia. Sistine Chapel. Pauline Chapel . 287 

Raphael's Loggie and Stanze. Cappella Niccolina . . . 290 

Picture Gallery 296 

B. Antiquities : — 

Galleria Lapidaria. Braccio Nuovo. Museo Chiaramonti . 298 

Museo Pio-Clementino. Raphael's Tapestry 302 

Museo Gregoriano Etrusco 308 

Egyptian Museum 310 

C. Library of the Vatican 311 

The Longara 313 

S. Onofrio 214 

Villa Farnesina 315 

Palazzo Corsini 316 

Trastevere 317 

S. Pietro in Montorio 318 

Acqua Paola. Villa Doria Pamfili 320 

Isola di S. Bartolommeo. S. Crisogono 321 

S. Maria in Trastevere. S. Cecilia in Trastevere . . . 323 

The Catacombs 325 

Third Section. 

Environs of Rome. 

/. Short Excursions in the Campagna 333 

From the Porta Portese : Grove of the Arvales. Magliana . 333 

From the Porta S. Paolo : Tre Fontane 334 

From the Porta S. Sebastiano: Via Appia. Domine Quo Va- 

dis. S. Sebastiano. Circus of Maxentius. Tomb of Csecilia 

Metella. Temple of the Deus Rediculus. Grotto of Egeria. 

S. Urbano 335 

From the Pi >rta S. Giovanni : Via Latina. Porta Furba . . 340 

From the Porta Maggiore : Torre Pignattara. Tor de' Schiavi 341 

From the Porta S. Lorenzo: 342 

From the Porta Pia 342 

From the Porta Salara: Fidense 343 

From the Porta del Popolo: Acqua Acetosa. Via Flaminia 343 
From the Porta Angelica : Monte Mario. Tivoli. Villa Mellini. 

Villa Madama 345 

II. Longer Excursions from Rome to the Mountains and 

the Sea 346 

The Alban Mountains 346 

Frascati 347 

Grotta Ferrata 349 

Marino. Rocca di Papa. Monte Cavo 350 

Palazzuola. Alba Longa 351 

Albano 352 

Castel Gandolfo. Lake of Albano. The Einissarius . . 353 

Ariccia. Genzano 354 

Nemi and its Lake. Civita Lavinia. Velletri .... 355 

The Sabine Mountains 356 

Tivoli 356 

Subiaco 360 



Palestrina .... 363 

Genazzane. Olevano 365 

Monte Gennaro 366 

Valley of Licenza 367 

The Volscian Mountains 367 

Cori 368 

Norma 369 

Segni 369 

Etruscan Towns 369 

Veii 370 

Galera 371 

Bracciano 372 

Csere 373 

The Sea-coast of Latium 374 

Ostia. Castel Fusano. Tor Paterno. Pratica. Ardea . . 374 

Porto. Fiumicino. Isola Sacra 376 

Porto d'Anzio 377 

Uettuno. Astura 378 

Index 379 

List of streets in the plan of Rome 393 


1. Map of Italy, facing title-page. 

2. Environs of Rome, p. 332. 

3. The Roman Campagna, p. 346. 

4. The Alban Mountains, p. 348. 

0. The Sabine Mountains : Plate I. : Tivoli and Valley of the 
Teverone, p. 356. 

6. The Sabine Mountains : Plate II. : Roviano, Subiaco , Capranica, 
p. 360. 

7. The Sabine Mountains: Plate III. : Tivoli, Palestrina, Olevano, 
p. 362. 


1. Siena, p. 20. — 2. Akezzo, p. 38. — 3. Cortona, p. 42. — 4. Perugia, 
p. 46. — 5. Orvieto, p. 59. — 6. Assisi, p. 70. — 7. Terni and its Environs, 
p. 78. — 8. Ancona, p. 96. — 9. Large Plan of Rome and — 10. Clue Plan 
of Rome, both at the end of the book. — 11. Ancient Rome, p. 206. — 
12. Palace of the Conservatory p. 214. — 13. Capitoline Museum, p. 
215. — 14. Forum Eomanum, p. 218. — 15. Palaces of the Emperors on 
the Palatine, p. 236. — 16. Thermae of Caracalla, p. 254. — 17. Section, 
and — 18. Ground-plan of S. Clemente, p. 260. — 19. S. Giovanni in Late- 
rano, and Lateran Museum, p. 264. — 20. S. Pietro in Vaticano and the 
Vatican Palace (survey-plan), p. 274. — 21. S. Pietro in Vaticano (Bra- 
mante's ground-plan), p. 277. — 22. Ground-plan of S. Pietro in Vaticano 
in its present state, p. 280. — 23. Vatican Palace, S. Wing (Sistine Cha- 
pel, Raphael's Loggie and Stanze), p. 286. — 24. Vatican Palace, N. Wing 
(Museum of Antiquities), p. 300. 

Panorama of Rome (from S. Pietro in Montorio), p. 318. 


R. = Room, B. = Breakfast, D. = Dinner, A. = Attendance, L. = 
Light. — r. = right , 1. = left ; also applied to the banks of a river with 
reference to the traveller looking down the stream. — N., S., E., W., the 
points of the compass and adjectives derived from them. — M. = English 
miles; ft. = English feet. 

are employed as marks of commendation. 


'Thou art the garden of the world, the home 
Of all Art yields, and Nature can decree ; 
E'en in thy desert, what is like to thee? 
Thy very weeds are beautiful, thy waste 
More rich than other climes' fertility, 
Thy wreck a glory, and thy ruin graced 
With an immaculate charm which cannot be defaced.' 


From the earliest ages down to the present time Italy has ever 
exercised a powerful influence on the denizens of more northern 
lands , and a journey thither has often been the fondly cherished 
wish of many an aspiring traveller. That wish may now be gratified 
with comparative ease. Prior to 1860 the peninsula possessed but 
few railways, and these were of insignificant extent and exclusively 
of local importance ; but Northern Italy is now connected by a direct 
railway with the southern part of the peninsula , as far as Naples 
and Brindisi , and the approaching completion of a network of new 
lines will soon enable the traveller to penetrate into the interior of 
provinces hitherto untrodden by the ordinary tourist. The facilities 
for travelling have also been greatly increased by the recent intro- 
duction of various important reforms. A single monetary system has 
superseded the numerous and perplexing varieties of coinage for- 
merly in use ; the passport and custom-house nuisance to which the 
traveller was subjected at every frontier, and in almost every town, 
have been greatly mitigated; and energetic measures have been 
adopted in order to put an end to the extortions of vetturini , fac- 
chini , and other members of this irritating class. Persons in search 
of adventure and excitement will now miss many of the characteristic 
elements of former Italian travel , but those who desire the more ra- 
tional enjoyments derived from scenery, art, or science will not fail 
to rejoice in the altered state of the country. 

I. Travelling Expenses. Money. 
Expenses. The cost of a tour in Italy depends of course on the 
traveller's resources and habits, but, as already stated in the first 
part of this Handbook , it need not exceed that incurred in the 
more frequented parts of the continent. The average expenditure of 
a single traveller may be estimated at 25 francs per day, or at 12-15 
francs when a prolonged stay is made at one place ; but persons 
acquainted with the language and habits of the country may easily 
restrict their expenses to still narrower limits. Those who travel as 
members of a party effect a considerable saving by sharing the ex- 


pense of guides, carriages, and other items. When ladies are of the 
party, the expenses are generally greater. 

Money. The French monetary system is now in use throughout 
the whole of Italy. The franc {lira or franco) contains 100 centesimi; 
1 fr. 25 c. = 1 s. = 1 German mark = 50 Austrian kreuzers. The 
precious metals are rarely seen in Italy. In copper (bronzo or rame) 
there are coins of 1, 2, 5, and 10 centesimi. A piece of 5 c. is 
called a soldo, or sou , and as the lower classes often keep their ac- 
counts in soldi, the traveller will find it useful to accustom himself 
to this mode of reckoning. See also the Money Table opposite the 

Banknotes. Since the introduction of a paper currency during 
the war of 1866, at a compulsory rate of exchange , gold and silver 
have entirely disappeared from ordinary circulation, and bulky bun- 
dles of small notes have taken their place. For these the purses used 
in most other countries are quite unsuitable , but one adapted for 
the purpose may be bought in Italy for i l l-i-1 fr. ; in addition to 
which a strong pouch for copper will be found useful. By a law 
passed in 1874 for the regulation of the paper currency , the right 
of issuing banknotes is restricted to six banks, the Banca Nazionale, 
the Banca Nazionale Toscana , the Banca Toscana Industriale e 
Commerciale , the Banca Romana , the Banca di Napoli , and the 
Banca di Sicilia , the notes of which pass in every province where 
these banks have branch offices. Besides these notes , there are the 
Biglietti Consorziali (i/ 2 > lj 2, 5, 10, and20Hre), issued by the 
above six banks in common, available throughout the whole country, 
and intended gradually to supersede the others entirely. As the 
Roman, Tuscan, and other notes do not often realise their full value 
beyond the limits of their respective provinces, the traveller should 
always secure notes of the Banca Nazionale and Biglietti Consorziali 
if possible. The traveller should reject soiled or imperfect notes, 
and be on his guard against the forged imitations which are occa- 
sionally met with. 

Exchange. English circular notes , as well as gold and silver, 
are worth considerably more than Italian banknotes of nominally the 
same value. In 1876-77 the gain on the exchange averaged 10-15 
per cent (a napoleon, for example, realising 22-23 fr., and a sov- 
ereign 27 1 /2- < 28 3 / 4 fr.). If the traveller makes a payment in gold he 
is entitled to decline receiving banknotes in exchange, unless the 
difference in value be taken into account , but the full rate of ex- 
change is rarely given except by respectable money-changers ('cam- 
biavalutd 1 '). As a rule , those money-changers are the most satis- 
factory who publicly exhibit a list of the current rates of exchange. 
The traveller should always be provided with an abundant supply 
of small notes (1, 2, and 5 fr.), as it is often difficult to change 
those of large amount. When a railway fare has to be paid it is a 
wise precaution to be provided with the exact sum beforehand, in 


order that mistakes or imposition may be prevented. Besides the 
small notes, l-l 1 ^ 1 *- in copper should also be carried in a separate 
pocket or pouch. 

Best Money fob. the Tour. Before entering Italy the traveller 
should obtain a moderate supply of French Gold in France or Ger- 
many. Sovereigns are received at nearly the full value (i. e. they 
are reckoned at 26-28 fr. instead of 25 fr.) by the principal hotel- 
keepers, but not in out-of-the-way places. Circular Notes, obtain- 
able at the principal English banks , form the proper medium for 
the transport of large sums , and realise the most favourable ex- 
change. English and German banknotes also realise more than 
their nominal value. 

II. Season and Plan of Tour. 

Season. The season selected for the tour must of course depend 
on the traveller himself, but the colder months are those usually 
preferred. Most travellers bound for the South cross the Alps in 
September and October, and arrive in Rome about the beginning of 
November. Rome is the favourite winter-residence of strangers till 
the Carnival, but most of them leave it in Lent for the gayer scenes 
of Naples , and at Easter it is comparatively deserted , as the chief 
attractions of the festival are now gone. As summer approaches 
most travellers prepare to quit the country , but even during the 
hot season tourists are not unfrequently met with. In this vast and 
ever-varying influx of travellers the English element is always greatly 

No month in the year can be pronounced absolutely unfavourable 
for travelling in Italy, but the seasons recommended are from 15th 
Sept. to 15th Nov., and the months of April and May. The rainy 
winter months should, if possible , be spent in one of the larger 
cities, of which Rome is unquestionably the most interesting. June, 
July, and August are hardly suitable for a tour. The scenery indeed 
is then in perfection, and the long days are hailed with satisfaction 
by the active traveller; but the fierce rays of an Italian sun seldom 
fail to sap the physical and mental energies. This result is not 
occasioned so much by the intensity, as by the protracted duration 
of the heat, the sky being frequently cloudless, and not a drop of 
rain falling for many weeks in succession. The heat generally mod- 
erates about the end of August, when the first showers of autumn 
begin to refresh the parched atmosphere. 

Plan. The plan of a tour in Italy must of course be framed in 
accordance with the object which the traveller has in view. In 
Central Italy the principal attraction is Rome itself, and of the 
other towns described in the present volume the next in importance 
are Siena and Perugia, both of which afford good summer quarters 
owing to their elevated situations. Two other places of great in- 
terest are Orvieto and Assisi, a short visit to which should not be 


omitted. Arezzo, Cortona, Spoleto, Terni, with its imposing water- 
falls, and Chiusi and Corneto, with their Etruscan antiquities, are 
also interesting points, situated near the railway. Volterra, S. Oi- 
mignano , Montepulciano , and Viterbo , though less conveniently 
situated, are also well worthy of a visit. With regard to the towns 
lying on the coast of the Adriatic, comp. p. 81. Besides these 
points of attraction there are many others in the less frequented 
districts of the interior , which the traveller who desires more than 
a superficial acquaintance with Italy should not fail to explore ; and 
the farther he diverges from the beaten track , the more he will 
learn of the characteristics of this delightful country. 

III. Language. 

The time and labour which the traveller has bestowed on the 
study of Italian at home will be amply repaid as he proceeds on his 
journey. It is quite possible for persons entirely ignorant of Italian 
and French to travel through Italy with tolerable comfort ; but such 
travellers cannot conveniently deviate from the ordinary track, and 
are moreover invariably made to pay 'alia Inglese' by hotel-keepers 
and others, i. e. considerably more than the ordinary charges. French 
is very useful, as the Italians are very partial to that language, and 
it may suffice for Rome and some of the main routes; but for those 
who desire the utmost possible freedom, combined with the lowest 
possible expenditure, a slight acquaintance with the language of the 
country is indispensable. ■{• 

IV. Passports. Custom-house. Luggage. 

Passports, though not required in Italy, are occasionally useful. 
Registered letters, for example, will not be delivered to strangers 
unless they exhibit a passport to prove their identity. In the remote 
districts , too , where the public safety demands a more rigorous 
supervision, the traveller is sometimes asked for his credentials. 
The Italian police authorities are generally civil and obliging. 

t "Baedeker's Manual of Conversation in English, French, German, and 
Italian, with Vocabulary, etc." (22nd Edit., Baedeker, Leipsic) , which is 
specially adapted for the use of travellers, with the addition of a pocket- 
dictionary, will soon enable the beginner to make himself understood. — 
A few words on the pronunciation may be acceptable to persons unac- 
quainted with the language. C before e and i is pronounced like the 
English ch; g before e and i like j. Before .other vowels c and g are 
hard. Ch and gh, which generally precede e or «', are hard. Sc before e 
or i is pronounced like sh ; gn and gl between vowels like nyi and lyi. 
The vowels a, e, i, o, u are pronounced ah, a , ee, o, oo. In ad- 
dressing persons of the educated classes 'Ella' or 'Lei', with the 3rd pers. 
sing., should always be employed (addressing several at once, 'loro' with 
the 3rd pers. pi.). 'Voi' is used in addressing waiters, drivers, etc. 'tu' by 
those only who are proficient in the language. 'Voi' is the usual mode of 
address among the Neapolitans, but is generally regarded as inelegant or 


Custom-House. The examination of luggage at the Italian 
custom-houses is usually lenient. Tobacco and cigars are the articles 
chiefly sought for. At the gates of most of the Italian towns a tax 
(dazio consumo) is levied on comestibles, but travellers' luggage is 
passed at the barriers (iimite dazlario) on a simple declaration that 
it contains no such articles. 

Luggage. If possible, luggage should never be sent to Italy by 
goods-train, as it is liable to damage, pilferage, and undue custom- 
house detention. If the traveller is obliged to forward it in this 
way, he should employ a trustworthy agent at the frontier and send 
him the keys. As a rule it is advisable, and often in the end less 
expensive, never to part from one's luggage, and to superintend the 
custom-house examination in person. 

V. Public Safety. Begging. 

Brigandage. Italy is still sometimes regarded as the land of 
Fra Diavolo's and Rinaldo Einaldini's, and the impression is fostered 
by tales of travellers, and sensational letters to newspapers ; but 
the fact is , that travelling in Northern and Central Italy is hardly 
attended with greater hazard than in any of the northern European 
countries, while Southern Italy is unsafe in its more remote recesses- 
only. The traveller should , however , be cautioned against the 
danger of taking up his quarters in inferior or little frequented inns- 
in large towns, such as Rome and Naples. The '■Brigantaggio 1 , 
strictly so called, is a local evil, which may easily be avoided. In 
Tuscany, TJmbria, the Marca , and indeed in the whole of the 
districts to the N. of Rome , it is quite unknown , but in the Roman 
Campagna it is unfortunately not yet quite extinct. For information 
as to the safety of the roads the traveller should apply to the Cara- 
binieri, or gensdarmes (who wear a black uniform , with red facing* 
and white shoulder-straps , and cocked hats) , a respectable and 
trustworthy corps, the strength of which was raised in 1874 from 
1900 to 3297 men. 

Weapons, which for the ordinary traveller are a mere burden, 
cannot legally be carried without a license, obtainable through the 
traveller's consul or ambassador. Those of a secret character, such 
as sword-sticks and stick-guns, are entirely prohibited and are liable 
to confiscation. 

Begging, which was countenanced and even encouraged under 
the old system of Italian politics, still continues to be one of those 
national nuisances to which the traveller must habituate himself. 
The present government has adopted energetic measures for its sup- 
pression, but hitherto with only partial success. The average Italian 
beggar is a mere speculator, and not a deserving object of charity. 
The traveller should therefore decline to give anything, with the 
words, 'non c'e niente', or a gesture of disapproval. If a donation 
be bestowed, it should consist of one of the smallest possible copper 

Baedeker. Italy II. 5th Edition. b 

xviii ITALIANS. 

coins. A beggar, who on one occasion was presented with 2c. and 
thanked the donor with the usual benedictions, was on another pre- 
sented with 50c; but this act of liberality, instead of being grate- 
fully accepted, only called forth the remark in a half-offended tone : 
— 'Ma, signore, e molto poco!' 

VI. Intercourse with Italians. 

Travelling in Italy differs essentially in some respects from that 
in France, Germany , and Switzerland , chiefly owing to the almost 
universal necessity for bargaining. The traveller is regarded by- 
landlords, waiters, drivers, and porters, as their legitimate prey. De- 
ception and imposition are regarded as very venial offences by Ital- 
ians of the lower class, who regard success in these arts as a proof 
of superior sagacity. The traveller who submits complacently to ex- 
tortion is therefore regarded with less respect than he who stoutly 
resists every barefaced attempt upon his credulity. Among the Swiss 
Mountains the judicious traveller knows well when to share the 
contents of his cigar-case or spirit-flask with his guide ; but in this 
country such attentions are only apt to awaken greater cupidity and 

In Italy the pernicious and long established custom of demanding 
considerably more than will ultimately be accepted is universal ; but 
a knowledge of the custom, which is based on the presumed igno- 
rance of one of the contracting parties, tends greatly to mitigate the 
evil. Where tariffs and fixed charges exist, they should be carefully 
consulted. In other cases, where a certain average price is establish- 
ed by custom, the traveller should make a distinct bargain as to 
the article to be bought or service to be rendered, and never rely on 
the equity of the other party. Nor should any weight be attached to 
the representations of waiters , drivers , and guides in matters in 
which they have an interest, and with whom even the inhabitants 
of the place often appear to act in concert. 

Individuals who appeal to the generosity of the stranger, or to 
their own honesty, or who, as rarely happens, are offended by the 
traveller's manifestation of distrust, may well be answered in the 
words of the proverb, 'patti chiari, amicizia lunga\ The equanimity 
of the traveller's own temper will greatly assist him if involved in 
a dispute or bargain , and he should pay no attention whatever to 
vehement gesticulations or an offensive demeanour. The slighter 
his knowledge of the Italian language is, the more careful should he 
be not to involve himself in a war of words , in which he must ne- 
cessarily be at a great disadvantage. 

In a country where trifling donations are in constant demand, the 
traveller should always be provided with an abundant supply of 
copper coins. Drivers, guides, porters, donkey-attendants, etc. in- 
variably expect, and often demand as their right a gratuity (buona 
mano, mancia, da here, bottiglia, caffe, fumata), in addition to the 


hire agreed on, varying according to circumstances from 2-3 sous to 
a franc or more. The traveller need not scruple to limit his dona- 
tions to the smallest possible sums , as liberality is often a source 
of annoyance and embarrassment. Thus if half-a-franc is bestowed 
where two sous would have sufficed , the fact speedily becomes 
known, and the donor is sure to be besieged by numerous other 
applicants whose demands it is impossible to satisfy. 

The demeanour of the stranger towards the natives should be 
somewhat modified in accordance with their various natural char- 
acteristics. The Italians of the North resemble the inhabitants of 
the South of France, and those of Italian Switzerland. The char- 
acter of the Tuscans is more effeminate , their language and man- 
ners more refined. The bearing of the Roman is grave and proud. 
With these, the stranger will find no difficulty in associating: and 
acts of civility or kindness will not be misplaced, even when con- 
ferred on persons of the lower orders. The case , however . is dif- 
ferent with the class of Neapolitans with whom the traveller gener- 
ally comes in contact, and who seem to conspire to embitter one's 
enjoyment of their delightful country (see vol. iii. of the Hand- 
book). It is to be hoped, however, that a better era is dawning under 
the present regime , and that the policy of honesty will at length 
begin to penetrate the Italian mind. 

VII. Conveyances. 

Railways. With the exception of the Bologna and Ancona line, 
the whole of the railways in Central Italy belong to the Ferrovie 
Romane company. As already remarked in the first volume of the 
Handbook, the rate of travelling is very moderate , and the trains 
are often behind time. The first class carriages are tolerably com- 
fortable, the second are inferior to those of the German railways. 
and resemble the English and French , while the third class is 
chiefly frequented by the lower orders. Among the expressions 
with which the railway-traveller will soon become familiar are — 
'pronti' (ready), 'partema? (departure), 'si cambia convoglio' (change 
carriages), and 'uscitd (egress), which are shouted by the" officials 
with characteristic vigour. 

When about to start from a crowded station, the traveller will 
find it convenient to have as nearly as possible the exact fare ready 
before taking tickets. In addition to the fare a tax of 5 c. is payable 
on each ticket, and the express fares are 10-12!/2 per cent higher 
than the ordinary. It is also very important to be at the station 
early, as, in accordance with the regulations, the ticket-office closes 
5 min., and the luggage-office !/ 4 hr. before the departure of the 
train. At the end of the journey tickets are given up at the uscitn, 
except in the case of the very large stations, where they are collected 
before the passengers alight. 

The traveller is recommended to ascertain the weight of his lug- 



gage, if possible, before going to the station, in order to guard 
against imposition. No luggage is allowed free (but see below, inter- 
national through-tickets) , except small articles taken by the pas- 
senger into his carriage. Porters who convey luggage to and from 
the carriages are sufficiently paid with a few sous, where there is no 
fixed tariff. Those who intend to make only a short stay at a place, 
especially when the town or village lies at a considerable distance 
from the railway, had better leave their heavier luggage at the 
station till their return (dare in deposito, or depositare, 10 c. per 
day for each article). 

The best collection of time-tables is the ' Indicatore Ufficiale 
delle Strode Ferrate' , etc. (price 1 fr.) , with which every traveller 
should be provided. The local time-tables of the Tuscan, Roman, 
and Neapolitan lines, which may be procured at the railway stations 
for a few sous, are also useful. 

Through Tickets to different parts of Italy are issued in London 
(at the principal railway stations; by Messrs. Cook & Son, Ludgate 
Circus ; etc.), in Paris, and at many of the principal towns in Ger- 
many and Switzerland. They are generally available for 30 days, 
and each passenger is allowed 56 Engl. lbs. of luggage free. Tickets 
from Italy to Switzerland , Germany, etc. must be partly paid for 
in gold. Travellers about to cross the frontier in either direction are 
strongly recommended to superintend the custom-house examination 
of luggage in person. 

Circular Tickets (viaggi circolari) to the principal towns in 
Italy , available sometimes for 60 days , may be purchased in Lon- 
don, in France, and in Germany, as well as in Italy, at a reduction 
of 45 per cent (but usually without a free allowance of luggage). 
Farther particulars will be found in the time-tables, or at the 
'agemie , or railway-offices in the larger towns. For Central Italy 
alone there are five different circular tours , for which 10-30 days 
are allowed. These tickets require to be stamped at the office at 
each fresh starting-point. 

Return Tickets may often be advantageously used for short 
excursions, but they are generally available for one day only. It 
should also be observed that if the traveller alights at a station short 
of his destination he forfeits the whole of the rest of his ticket. 

Steamboats. There are now so many different railway routes 
from N. Italy to Rome that few travellers will care to travel by 
steamer from Genoa or Leghorn to Civita Vecchia, or from Trieste 
to Ancona , although many will still prefer the sea-voyage to the 
long railway-journey if bound for Naples direct (see vol. iii. of the 
Handbook). In fine weather, especially in summer, when sea- 
sickness need rarely be apprehended, a voyage on the Mediterranean 
is very enjoyable , but as the steamers generally ply at night the 
finest parts of the scenery are often missed. 

Civita Vecchia , the seaport of Rome (p. 7), is at present touched by 
the following lines: — Genoa-Leghorn-Civitavecchia-Naples (vessels of 


Peirano, Danovaro, <£■ Co., office at Rome near the Ponte S. Angelo ; of 
A. <£ L. Fraissinet d- Co., office at Rome at Rosati's, Via Oondotti 6; and 
of Valery Freres et Fils (same office at Rome as the last); Genoa-Leghorn- 
Civitavecchia-Palermo (vessels of J. V. Florio; office at Rome, at Rosati's, 
Via Condotti 6); and Leghorn-Civitavecchia-Maddalena-Portotorres (the two 
last places being in Sardinia; vessels of Rubattino , office at Eome in the 
Piazza di Monte Citorio, 131). 

Ancona (p. 96) is touched once weekly by a vessel of the Austria." 
Lloyd and by another of Peirano, Danovaro, & Co., from Trieste and 

Tickets should be purchased by the traveller in person at the office of 
the company. The ticket is furnished with the purchaser's name and de 
stination, the fare, the name of the vessel, and the hour of departure. The 
saloons and berths of the first class are comfortably and elegantly fitted up, 
those of the second tolerably. Passengers of the second class have free 
access , like those of the first, to every part of the deck. Officers of the 
Italian and French armies, up to and including those of the rank of captain, 
are entitled to second-class berths only. 

Luggage. First-class passengers are allowed 100 kilogr. (2 cwt.), second- 
class 60 kilogr. (135 lbs.), but articles not intended for the passenger's private 
use are prohibited. 

Food of good quality and ample quantity is included in the first and 
generally in the second-class fare. The steward's fee for a voyage of 12- 
24 hrs. is usually 1 fr. 

Embaecatiox, with luggage, generally 1 fr. for each person (comp. 
pp. 1, 7). The fare should not be paid until the passenger and his lug- 
gage are safe on deck. Passengers should be on board an hour before the 
advertised time of starting. 

Diligences. As several of the most interesting places described 
in the following pages lie at some distance from the railway (such 
as Urbino, Gubbio, Viterbo, and >S. Gimignano), the traveller must 
visit them by carriage or by diligence. The Corriere. which carries 
the mails, has seats for 2-3 passengers only, and the fares are high. 
The Diligenza, or ordinary stage-coach, conveys travellers with tol- 
erable speed, and generally at the same fares as similar vehicles in 
other parts of the continent. They are in the hands of private specu- 
lators, and where several run in competition, the more expensive are 
to be preferred. When ladies are of the party the coupe (fare one- 
third higher) should if possible be secured. The drivers and ostlers 
generally expect a few soldi at the end of each stage. — For a 
party of two or four persons the expense of a carriage with one or 
two horses hardly exceeds the diligence fares, while the travellers 
are far more independent. A carriage with one horse may generally 
be hired for s ji-i fr. per miglio, and a single seat in a carriage may 
often be obtained. 

Walking Tours. An Italian never walks if he can possibly drive ; 
and how walking can afford pleasure is to him an inexplicable mys- 
tery. The remark has frequently been made to the Editor: '■Lei e 
signore e va a piedi? !' In the more frequented districts, however, 
such as the vicinity of Rome , the natives are accustomed to this 
mania of foreigners , and are no longer surprised to find them ex- 
ploring the Campagna and the Sabine and Alban Mts. on foot. 
There seems, however, to be a growing taste for walking among 
the Italians themselves , as a great many stations of the Italian 

xxii HOTELS. 

Club Alpino have recently been established for the purpose of ren- 
dering the Apennines more accessible to travellers. Cool and clear 
weather should if possible be selected , and the scirocco carefully 
avoided. The height of summer is of course unsuitable for tours of 
this kind. 

Riding. A horse (cavallo) or donkey (sommaro , Neapol. ciuccio; 
Sicil. cettura, applied to both animals), between which the difference 
of expense is slight , will often be found serviceable , especially in 
mountainous districts. The attendant (pedone) acts as a guide and 
servant for the time being. Riding is now common among the Alban 
and Sabine Mts., where animals are provided for the use of ladies 
also. A previous bargain should be made , tutto compreso, a gratuity 
being added if the traveller is satisfied. 

VIII. Hotels. 

First Class Hotels , comfortably fitted up , are to be found at 
Rome, Siena , Perugia , and at most of the principal resorts of tra- 
vellers in Central Italy. Several of those at Rome are kept by Swiss 
and German landlords. Room 2'/ 2 -5fr., bougie 75 c. to 1 fr., atten- 
dance 1 fr., table d'hote 5 fr., and so on. Families, for whose re- 
ception the hotels are often specially fitted up , should make an 
agreement with the landlord with regard to pension (8-15 fr. each 
person per day). Visitors are expected to dine at the table d'h6te ; 
otherwise the charge for rooms is raised , or the inmate is informed 
that they are required for some one else. The cuisine is a mixture 
of French and Italian. 

The Second Class Hotels are thoroughly Italian in their ar- 
rangements , and they are rarely very clean or comfortable. The 
charges are little more than one-half of the above. There is no 
table d'hote, but there is generally a trattoria connected with the 
house , where refreshments d la carte or a dinner a prezzo fisso 
may be procured at any hour. These inns will often be found con- 
venient and economical by the voyageur en gar$on, and the better 
houses of this class may even be visited by ladies. As a rule, it is 
advisable to make enquiries as to charges beforehand. A dinner, 
for example at 2-3 fr., may be stipulated for, and in bargaining as 
to the charge for a room the 'servizio e candela' should not be foi- 
gotten. Exorbitant demands may generally be reduced without dif- 
ficulty to reasonable limits, and even when no previous agreement 
has been made an extortionate bill may sometimes be successfully 
disputed, though never without long and vehement discussion. 

The best hotels have fixed charges. Attendance, exclusive of 
boots and commissionnaire, is charged in the bill. This is not the 
case in the smaller inns , where I fr. per diem is usually divided 
between the waiter and the faochino , or less for a prolonged stay. 
Copper coins are never despised by -such recipients. 

HOTELS. xxiii 

Hotels Garnis and Private Apartments are recommended 
for a prolonged residence. A distinct agreement as to rent should 
be made beforehand. When a whole suite of apartments is hired, a 
written contract on stamped paper should be drawn up with the aid 
of some one acquainted with the language and customs of the place 
(e.g. a banker), in order that 'misunderstandings' may he prevented. 
For single travellers a verbal agreement with regard to attendance, 
linen, stoves and carpets in winter, a receptacle for coal, and other 
details will generally suffice. 

The popular idea of cleanliness in Italy is behind the age , dirt 
being perhaps neutralised in the opinion of the natives by the bril- 
liancy of their climate. The traveller will rarely suffer from this 
shortcoming in hotels and lodgings of the best class ; but those who 
quit the beaten track must be prepared for privations. In the villa- 
ges the pig (animate nero) appears as a domestic animal, and the 
poultry also have free access to the houses. Iron bedsteads should if 
possible be selected , as they are less likely to harbour the enemies 
of repose. Insect-powder (polvere di Persia , or Keating's) or cam- 
phor somewhat repels their advances. The zanzare, or gnat , are a 
source of greatannoyance a and often of suffering, durings the autum 
months. Windows should, wayls be carefully closed beforean light is 
introduced into the for roo Light muslin curtains (zanzarieri) round 
the beds , masks permp. face , and gloves are employed to ward off 
the attacks of these lam tinacious intruders. The burning of insect 
pow der over a spirit the is also recommended, and pastilles may 
be purchased at the principal chemists' for the same purpose. 

IX. Restaurants, Cafes, Osterie. 

Restaurants (trattorle) are chiefly frequented by Italians and 
gentlemen travelling alone , but those of the better class may be 
visited by ladies also. Dinner may be obtained a la carte, and 
sometimes a prezzo fisso, at any hour between 12 and 7 or 8 p. m., 
for 2-5 fr. ; the waiters expect a gratuity of 2-5 soldi. The diner 
who wishes to confine his expenses within reasonable limits, should 
refrain from ordering dishes not mentioned in the bill of fare. 
Besides the old-fashioned trattorie, a numher of 'restaurants' of a 
better class have recently been opened in Rome. The cookery is 
generally French, and the charges and arrangements are similar to 
those in the other European capitals. The waiter is called came- 
riere, but the approved way of attracting his attention is by knock- 
ing on the table. 

A late hour for the chief repast of the day should be chosen in 
winter, in order that the daylight may be profitably employed, but 
an early dinner is preferable in summer when the midday heat pre- 
cludes exertion. 

List of the ordinary dishes at the Italian restaurants : — 


Minestra or Zuppa, soup. Fungi, i, mushroom* (often too rich). 

Consume, broth or bouillon. j Presciutto, ham. 

Zuppa alia Sante , soup with green ' Salami, sausage. 

I Polio, or pollastro, fowl. 
! Gallotta, turkey. 

Vmido, meat with sauce. 

Piselli, peas. 
Lenticchi, lentils. 
Caroli fiori, cauliflower. 
Favt. beans. 

vegetables and bread. 
Gnocchi, small puddings 
Riso con piselli, rice-soup with peas. 
Risotto (alia Milanese), a kind of rice '. Stufatino, ragout. 

pudding (rich). i Erbe, vegetables. 

Maccaroni al burro, with butter; al \ Carciofi, artichokes. 

pomidoro, with tomatas ~ 

Manzo, boiled beef. 
Fritto, fried meat. 
Frittura mista , a mixture of fried 

liver, brains, and artichokes. ; Fagivoliui, French beans. 

Frittata, omelette. j Mostarda, simple mustard. 

Arrosto, roasted meat. j Senape, hot mustard. 

Arrosto di v Hello , or di mongana, Ostriche, oysters(goodinwinteronly). 

roast-veal. j Giardinetto or frutta, fruit-desert. 

Bistecca, beefsteak. Crostata di frutti, fruit-tart. 

Coscetta, loin. I Crostata di pasta sfoglia, a kind of 

Testa di vitello, calfs head. , pastry. 

Fegalo di vitello, calfs liver. : Fragole, strawberries. 

Braccioletta di vitello, veal-cutlet. Pera, pear. 

Costoletta alia minutn , veal -cutlet Mele, apples. 

with calves' ears and truffles. Persiche, peaches. 

Patate, potatoes. Uca, bunch of grapes. 

Quaglia, quail. Limone, lemon. 

Tordo, field-fare. Arancio or portogallo, orange. 

Lodola, lark. ; Finocchio, root of fennel. 

Sfoglia, a kind of sole. Pane francese, bread made with yeast 

Principi alia tarola , or piattiyii, hot i (the Italian is made without). 

relishes. , Formaggio, cacio, cheese. 

Wixe (nero or rosso, red; bianco, white; dolce , sweet; asciulto, dry; 
del paese , wine of the country) is usually placed on the table in large 
bottles at the Tuscan restaurants and charged for according to the quantity 
drunk. At Rome and some other places the visitor is asked if he wishes 
tin mezzo litro or un quinto (Vsth litre). 

Cafes are frequented'for breakfast and lunch, and in the evening 
by numerous consumers of ices. 

Cafe nero, or coffee without milk, is usually drunk (10-15 c. per 
cup). Caffe latte is coffee mixed with milk before being served (20-30 c.) ; 
or caffe e latte, i.e. with the milk served separately, may be preferred 
(39-40 c). Mischio is a mixture of coffee and chocolate (20-30 c), considered 
wholesome and nutritious. 

The usual viands for lunch are ham, sausages, cutlets, beefsteaks, and 
eggs (uora da bere, soft; toste, hard; uora al piatto, fried). 

Ices (sorbetto or gelato) of every possible variety are supplied at the 
cafes at 30-90 c. per portion ; or a half portion (mezzo) may be ordered. 
Granita, or half-frozen ice (limonata, of lemons; aranciata of oranges), is 
much in vogue in the forenoon. The waiter, who expects a sou or more, 
according to the amount of the payment, is sometimes inaccurate in chang- 
ing money if not narrowly watched. 

The principal Parisian newspapers are to be found at all the larger 
cafes, English rarely. 

"Wine Shops (osterle). especially at Rome, are a favourite haunt 
of the lower classes . who bring their own eatables from the pizii- 
carolo, or dealer in comestibles. The rooms are generally dirty and 
uninviting, but the wine is often good. 

Cigars in Italy (Sicily excepted) are a monopoly of Government, 


and bad; those under 3-4 soldi scarcely sniokable. Good imported 
cigars may be bought at the best shops in Kome for '25-60 c. 

X. Sights, Shops, etc. 

Churches are open in the morning till 12 or 12.30, and generally 
again from 4 to 7 p.m. , while some of the most important remain 
open the whole day. Visitors may inspect the works of art even 
daring divine service , provided they move about noiselessly, and 
keep aloof from the altar where the clergy are officiating. On the 
occasion of festivals the works of art are often entirely concealed 
by the temporary decorations. The verger (sagrestano , or nonzolo) 
receives a fee of '/a fr. or upwards, if his services are required. 

Museums, picture-galleries, and other collections are usually- 
open from 10 to 3 o'clock. By a law passed in 1875 all the col- 
lections which belong to government are open on week-days at a 
charge of 1 fr. , and on Sundays (and sometimes on Thursdays also) 
gratis. They are closed on the following public holidays : New 
Year's Day, Epiphany (6th Jan. J, the Monday and Tuesday during 
the Carnival, Palm Sunday, Easter Sunday, Whitsunday andWhit- 
monday. Fete de Dieu (Corpus Christi), the Festa dello Statuto 
(first Sunday in June), Assumption of the Virgin (15th Aug.), and 
on Christmas Day. A good many other days are also sometimes ob- 
served as holidays, such as the Thursday before the Carnival and 
the day sacred to the local patron saint. 

Valets de Place (servitori di piazza) may be hired at 5-6 fr. per 
day. They are generally respectable and trustworthy, but , as they 
are seldom good judges of what is really worth seeing , the traveller 
should specify to them the places he desires to visit. Their services 
may generally well be dispensed with by those who are not pressed 
for time. Purchases should never be made, nor contracts with vet- 
turini or other persons drawn up , in presence or with the aid of a 
comrnissionnaire, as any such intervention tends considerably to in- 
crease the prices. 

Theatres. Performances in the large theatres begin at 8, 8.30, 
or 9 , and terminate at midnight or later , operas and ballets being 
exclusively performed. The first act of an opera is usually suc- 
ceeded by a ballet of three acts or more. Verdi is the most popular 
composer. The pit (platea) is the usual resort of the men, while the 
boxes and sometimes the stalls fpoltrone or posti distinti) are fre- 
quented by ladies. A box (palcoj must always be secured in ad- 
Tance. — A visit to the smaller theatres, where dramas and com- 
edies are acted , is recommended for the sake of habituating the 
ear to the language. Performances in summer take place in the 
open air , in which case smoking is allowed. — The theatre is the 
usual evening-resort of the Italians, who never observe strict silence 
during the performance of the music. 


Shops rarely have fixed prices. As a rule, even where prezzi 
fi.t.<i are professed, two-thirds or three-quarters of the price de- 
manded is a fair offer. The itinerant dealers often* ask douhle and 
mor the value of their wares. With artizans and drivers there is the 
same necessity for bargaining. On these occasions the expression 
Xon volete?' (then you will not?) will generally have the effect of 
bringing the matter to a speedy adjustment. Purchases should never 
be made in presence of valets-de-place, as these individuals, by tacit 
agreement, receive at least 10 per cent of the purchase-money, 
which of course comes out of the pocket of the purchaser. 

XI. Post Office. Telegraph. 

letters (whether 'poste restante', Italian l ferma in posta', or to 
the traveller's hotel) should be addressed very distinctly, and the 
name of the place should be in Italian. When asking for letters the 
traveller should present his visiting card instead of pronouncing his 
name. Postage-stamps (francobollo) are sold at the post-offices and 
at many of the tobacco-shops. — Letters of 15 grammes (Y2 oz -i 
about the weight of three sous) to any of the states included in the 
postal union (now comprising the whole of Europe) 30 c; post-card 
(cartolina postale) 15 c; book-packets per 50 grammes 7c; re- 
gistration-fee (raccomandazione) 30 c. 

Letters by town-post 5 c; throughout the kingdom of Italy 20 c. 
prepaid, or 30 c. unpaid. Post-card 10 c. 

In the larger towns the post-office is open daily from 8 or 9 a.m. 
to 10 p. m. (also on Sundays and holidays); in smaller places it is 
generally closed in the middle of the day for two or three hours. 

Telegram of 20 words to London 9 fr., to other parts of Great 
Britain 10 fr., France 4, Germany 5, Switzerland 3 , Austria 3 or 
4, Belgium 5, Denmark 7'/2 > Russia 11, Sweden 8, Norway 8'/2 fr- 
— To America 10 words 50 fr. 

Within the kingdom of Italy, 15 words 1 fr. , each additional 
word 10 c. ; telegrams with special haste (telegrammi urgenti, which 
take precedence of all others), whether for inland or foreign places, 
may be sent at five times the above rates. 

XII. Calculation of Time. 

The old Italian reckoning from 1 to 24 o'clock is now disused in 
all the larger towns, but is still used by the priests and by the lower 
classes , especially in Central and Southern Italy. The ordinary 
reckoning of other nations is called the ora francese. The moment 
of the sun's disappearance below the horizon is 'half past 23 o'clock ;■ 
the twilight lasts about half-an-hour, after which it is '24 o'clock', 
or the close of the day, when 'Ave Maria' is rung. The following 
hours are usually termed : on ora di notte', 'due ore di notte', etc! 

CLIMATE. xxvii 

This troublesome mode of calculation would necessitate a daily 
alteration of every time-piece in the kingdom, but it is thought 
sufficiently accurate to alter the hour of Ave Maria by a quarter of 
an hour about once a fortnight. The following table shows the Italian 
compared with the ordinary hours at Rome. 


rt . 

By Ita 

. time 

§5 = 

By Ital 

. time 

'i - § 





4,^5 _» 







< = 



< ° 

Jan. 1-13. 



5i| 4 

Julv 1-14. 





18>| 2 


5i| 2 







6i( 4 

53| 4 

Aug. 1-10. 




Febr. 1- 7. 





16i 2 

4i) 2 













6i| 4 

Sept. 1- 7. 




March 1-6. 









lTi/ 2 


6'j 2 


ni( 8 




17i| 4 


63 4 





April 1. 




Oct. 1- 3. 















71 1 


18i| 4 

6i( 4 



16i| 2 





61 2 


May 1-10. 




Nov. 1- 3. 

18i/ 2 


5i| 2 







63( 4 





8 U 





June 1-10. 




Dec. 1-27. 






33| 4 




63| 4 


XIII. Climate. Health. 

Climate. Most travellers must in some degree alter their mode 
of living whilst in Italy, without however implicitly adopting the 
Italian style. Inhabitants of more northern countries generally become 
unusually susceptible to cold in Italy, and therefore should not omit 
to be well supplied with warm clothing for the winter. Carpets and 
stoves, to the comforts of which the Italians generally appear indif- 
ferent, are indispensable in winter. A southern aspect is an absolute 
essential for delicate persons, and highly desirable for the robust. 
Colds are most easily caught after sunset , and in rainy weather. 
Even in summer it is a wise precaution not to wear too light clothing. 
Flannel is strongly recommended. 

Exposure to the summer-sun should be avoided as much as pos- 
sible. According to a Roman proverb, dogs and foreigners (Inglesi) 
only walk in the sun, Christians in the shade. Umbrellas or 
spectacles of coloured glass (grey, concave glasses to protect the whole 
eye are best) may be used with advantage when a walk in the sun is 
unavoidable. Blue veils are recommended to ladies. Repose during 
the hottest hours is advisable, and a moderate siesta is often refresh- 
ing. Windows should be closed at night. 


Health. English and German medical men are to be met with 
in the larger cities. The Italian therapeutic art does not enjoy a 
very high reputation in the rest of Europe. English and German 
chemists , where available , are recommended in preference to the 
Italian. It may , however, be wise, in the case of maladies arising 
from local causes, to employ native skill. Foreigners frequently suffer 
from diarrhoea in Italy, which is generally occasioned by the un- 
wonted heat. Ice and rice are two of the commonest remedies. The 
homoeopathic tincture of camphor may also be mentioned. In such 
cases, however, thorough repose is the chief desideratum. 

XIV. Chronological Table of Recent Events. 
1846. June 16. Election of Pius IX. 

1848. March 18. Insurrection at Milan. 

22. Charles Albert enters Milan. 

22. Republic proclaimed at Venice. 

May 15. Insurrection at Naples quelled by Ferdinand II. 
('Re Bomba'). 

29. Radetsky's victory at Curtatone. 

30. Radetsky defeated at Goito ; capitulation of 

July 25. Radetsky's victory at Custozza. 
Aug. 6. Radetsky's victory at Milan. 

9. Armistice. 
Nov. 15. Murder of Count Rossi at Rome. 
25. Flight of the Pope to Gaeta. 

1849. Febr. 5. Republic proclaimed at Rome. 

17. Republic proclaimed in Tuscany, under Guerazzi. 
March 16. Charles Albert terminates the armistice (ten 
days' campaign). 

23. Radetsky's victory at Novara. 

24. Charles Albert abdicates (d. at Oporto, July 
26th); accession of Victor Emmanuel II. 

March 26. Armistice; Alessandria occupied by the Aus- 
31. Haynau captures Brescia. 
April 5. Republic at Genoa overthrown by La Marmora. 
11. Reaction at Florence. 

30. Garibaldi defeats the French under Oudinot. 
May 11. Leghorn stormed by the Austrians. 

15. Subjugation of Sicily. 

16. Bologna stormed by the Austrians. 
July 4. Rome capitulates. 

Aug. 6. Peace concluded between Austria and Sardinia. 
22. Venice capitulates. 
1850. April 4. Pius IX. returns to Rome. 
1855. Sardinia takes part in the Crimean War. 















March 18. 


























March 17. 


















Congress at Paris. Cavour raises the Italian 


Battle of Montebello. 

Battle of Magenta. 

Battle of Solferino. 

Meeting of the emperors at Villafranca. 

Peace of Zurich. 

Annexation of the Emilia (Parma, Modena, 


Annexation of Tuscany. 

Cession of Savoy and Nice. 

Garibaldi lands at Marsala. 

Taking of Palermo. 

Battle of Melazzo. 

Garibaldi enters Naples. 

Battle of Castelfldardo. 

Ancona capitulates. 

Battle of the Volturno. 

Plebiscite at Naples. 

Annexation of the principalities , Umbria , and 

the two Sicilies. 

Gaeta capitulates after a four months' siege. 

"Victor Emmanuel assumes the title of King of 


Convention between France and Italy. 

Battle of Custozza. 

Cession of Venetia. 

Naval battle of Lissa. 

Battle of Mentana. 

Occupation of the States of the Church by Italian 


Occupation of Rome. 

Ancient Art. 

An Historical Sketch, 

from the German of 
Prof. Reinhard Kekule. 

"As the streams lose themselves in 
the mightier Ocean , so the history of 
the peoples once distributed along the 
Mediterranean shores is absorbed in thai 
of the mighty Mistress of the World". 

The traveller who would not wander through the galleries of 
Rome in mere vacant wonderment may bear in mind these words of 
Niebuhr. As a preface to the following pages, they will not only 
help the intelligent observer to a worthy appreciation of the master- 
pieces presented to him, but enable him to invest them with appro- 
priate historical associations. 

Amongst the crowd of statues which fill the galleries and cham- 
bers of the Vatican and Capitol of Rome are to be seen the noblest 
examples of Antique Sculpture. These do not, however, stand in 
the same relation to Imperial Rome as, for example, the frescoes of 
Fiesole in the Cloisters of St. Mark, or those of Andrea del Sarto in 
the Church of the Annunziata to Florence , or as the master-pieces 
of Raphael and Michael Angelo to mediaeval and pontifical Rome. 
These latter originated, so to speak , with her, were her peculiar 
attributes, the fitting emblems of her ecclesiastical supremacy. The 
genius which created them, she inspired, fostered , and rewarded. 
On the other hand, Rome, the mistress of the World, the Rome 
of ancient history, though attracting to herself the accumulated 
treasures of entire epochs of Greek art, though through her inter- 
position names , which otherwise must have remained mere phan- 
tom sounds , survive to receive individually the homage due to 
their transcendent genius , had nevertheless as little influence 
on the marvellous development of Greek art , as London had upon 
the Italian Renaissance, on Giotto and Masaccio , on Raphael and 
Michael Angelo. In fact, those particular works, which, while they 
fill the mind with a wonder akin to awe, minister to our noblest 
gratification, and in the presence of whose marvellous perfection all 
subsequent efforts are dwarfed into insignificance, occupied in Rome 
ages ago, and still occupy, a place corresponding to that which 


the master-pieces of the Italian and other schools of painting fill in 
the galleries of London, Paris, and Dresden. Winckelniann was the 
first to trace in hold and comprehensive outline the history of Art 
amongst the Ancients , from its infancy and earlier growth to its 
maturity and gradual decline. Following in the wake of Winckel- 
mann, unceasing research, patiently and persistently pursued, ha* 
served to confirm and extend his survey, and to supply, in addition, 
a host of particulars pregnant with interest. Those indeed, who have 
conducted this laborious quest , stimulated and directed by the for- 
tunate recovery of monuments and various relics of antiquity, have 
been the means of determining the history of Antique Art, so far at 
least as Sculpture and Architecture are concerned ; and this not only 
in its more salient features , but with an elaboration of detail , so 
careful and so well authenticated, that the authorship of numerous 
works is clearly established , and the interest and value of their 
discoveries in so far unspeakably enhanced. Much indeed remains 
to be done, and the path of the explorer is beset with doubt and 
difficulty; but the future promises farther encouragement, if not 
complete solution. 

In Art, the Greeks were content to learn from nations whose 
civilisation preceded theirs. Long before the first image was graven 
by Grecian hands, the Egyptians, as far as history acquaints us, had 
been the first to overcome those difficulties in the choice of a suitable 
form of expression inseparable from every fresh manifestation of Art. 
They had established a well defined system, a traditional style, 
which was exemplified as well in their Sculpture as in their Archi- 
tecture. On the other hand the richly elaborated Art of the Baby- 
lonians and Assyrians, with its sumptuous wealth of decoration, must 
also of necessity have had its influence on the Greeks of Asia Minor. 
Grecian Art had, to begin with, not only adopted the method, 
implements, and workmanship of their predecessors* it had possess- 
ed itself of their forms and not unfrequently of the motives of 
their imagery. Greece did not, however, accept this heritage of 
art in the spirit of slavish imitation. Architectural models were not 
adopted in their entirety. Each part separately, each ornament in 
itself, became the centre of a new conception, and this conception 
once embodied became a distinct type , the expression of a taste 
purely Greek. In like manner they treated the conventional render- 
ing of the human form transmitted to them. This, by constant 
reference to the living model , they continued to manipulate and 
modify until they attained to that profound and comprehensive 
grasp of nature, which to this day remains the subject of wonder 
and delight to our greatest artists. The way thus traversed was 
long and wearisome. It carries us back through an incalculable suc- 
cession of ages into the impenetrable past. The oldest Ionic and 
Doric temples, although well-nigh of prehistoric antiquity, exhibit 
in all essential particulars a clearly defined architectural system : 


and, let it be borne in mind, the architecture of the Greeks did not 
start into being as Athena from the head of Jupiter, fully armed 
and equipped. Careful observation will detect in the Orders associ- 
ated in name with the two principal Hellenic races evidences of a 
very gradual development. Subsequently, to these two orders was 
added a third, known as the Corinthian. It was inevitable that in 
the practice of Sculpture as well as Architecture divergences arose 
which may be characterised as provincialisms ; and it is equally 
intelligible that as Art in Greece assumed more and more majes- 
tic proportions , these provincialisms should have become less and 
less observable. 

They were finally obliterated by the glories of what may be distin- 
guished , in reference to art , as the Age of Pericles ; glories 
associated with the talismanic names of Phidias and Polycletus in 
Sculpture , and of Ictinus and Mnesicles in Architecture. The 
golden age of the Italian Renaissance , when Raphael filled the 
world with rapturous wonder, can alone be compared to a time 
which witnessed the surpassing achievements of art in Greece. Of 
the painters of this period, of Polygnotus for example, who flourished 
somewhat earlier, little can be ascertained. Their works have 
perished ; and all that we can learn of them is at best too hypothe- 
tical to be worthy of record. 

The name of Polycletus belongs to the Peloponnesus. The con- 
noisseur of his day claimed for him the merit of having presented 
the human form complete in its minutest details, correct in pro- 
portion, perfect in symmetry. One of his works in particular, the 
figure of a powerful youth armed with a spear (Doryphorus), 
was upheld as an example of the master's peculiar excellence, 
and hence was surnamed the Kanon. As a counterpart to the Dory- 
phorus, and in like manner regarded as a type or model, is the figure 
of a youth of distinguished beauty, who with both hands folds a 
band round his head (Diadumenus). Of one of his Amazons it was 
said, that it surpassed even the Amazon of Phidias in beauty. 
Finally, especial glory was claimed for his statue of Hera placed 
in a temple dedicated to this goddess at Delphi. — Myron's chief 
delight was to pourtray the human form in action, but his success 
was. to say the least of it, partial. Thus he represents his Disco- 
bolus actually doubled up in the act of throwing the discus. In 
a group on the Acropolis at Athens the same artist has chosen for 
his subject the incident of Marsyas in the act of seizing the pipes 
which the Goddess Athena has rejected, and on which he plays 
while dancing with delight. He recoils in terror and bewilderment 
as the Goddess, suddenly appearing, dashes the pipes from his hand. 
Finally the Cow of Myron was especially popular. It was boasted 
of her that so life-like was she that she deceived both man and beast : 
nay imposed even on a living calf. But mightiest amidst this 
sculptor band was Phidias. His colossal Statue of Zeus excited 

ANCIENT ART. xxxiii 

wonder even in Olympia. It was accounted a reproach not to have 
seen it. His principal works were, however, devoted to the adorn- 
ment of his native city Athens. The colossal figure of Athens' tute- 
lary deity, the virgin goddess Athena in the Parthenon, was from 
the hand of Phidias. With him, we may assume , originated those 
plastic decorations of her temple the remains of which are preserved 
in Athens and in London ; and in all that his friend Pericles under- 
took with a view to enhance the beauty and glory of their native 
city, the creative genius, if not always the hand of Phidias was 
active. So completely indeed had he subjected to his irresistible 
will the resources of his art, so far had he distanced all competi- 
tors, whether in the present or past, that the force of his genius, 
overstepping the narrow confines of Attica, imposed its sway upon 
successive generations of artists. Alcamenes and his favourite Ago- 
racritus were his most distinguished and successful pupils. The 
Statue of a Victor in the pentathlon by Alcamenes was, in a simi- 
lar way to the Doryphorus of Polycletus, distinguished by the title 
of 'Enkrinomenus', or 'the classical'. 

In the history of Art, as in the history of Poetry, there usually 
succeeds to what Winckelmann terms the 'lofty style', which 
delights rather in depicting the sublime and majestic, a reaction in 
favour of a vein of sentiment more tender, more expressive of beauty 
in her gentler and more graceful aspects ; while at the same 
time freer and more forcible utterance is given to joy and anguish, 
and generally to the emotions and passions. Tenderness and grace 
were the divine attributes of Praxiteles and the family of whom he 
was chief. At this time when Athens, weary of conflict with the 
Hellenic confederacy, longed for peace , one of the family, Cephiso- 
dotus (the Elder) , produced his Irene and Plutus , the Goddess of 
Peace bearing in her arms the infantine god of riches, of which there 
is a copy in the Glyptothek in Munich. Praxiteles himself belongs 
to a succeeding generation. Above all his Eros in Thespia, his Satyr 
and the Aphrodite in Cnidus , were the wonder and delight of anti- 
quity. His sons Cephisodotus (the Younger) and Timarchides had 
also considerable repute. Scopas is usually regarded as the re- 
presentative of the more pathetic and impassioned expression in 
Art ; and amongst his numerous works a Oroup of Sea Deities and 
fantastical Sea Monsters are accounted particularly impressive. — 
The Aiobe and her Children, afterwards carried to Rome, was at- 
tributed variously to Praxiteles and Scopas. Leochares, another 
contemporary of Scopas, is believed to be the author of a group re- 
presenting Oanymede borne to Olympus on the wings of an eagle. 

It is said that Alexander the Great would entrust the execu- 
tion of his portrait to none other than Lysippus of Sycium in the Pe- 
loponnesus : and with the name of Lysippus is associated a revolution 
in taste which culminated in this period. The painter and sculptor 
Euphranor, a contemporary of Lysippus. but older than he. who-e 

Baedeker. Italv II. 5th Edit. o 


especial delight it was to celebrate heroic exploit , had already 
with purpose and deliberation modified the recognised rules of pro- 
portion. Lysippus moulded the head smaller, and the figure rela- 
tively taller than had hitherto been the practice. In posing the 
figures too, either standing or in movement, as well as in the entire 
conception and rendering of Nature, he appears to have developed 
anew and with dazzling effect what hitherto had not been more 
than suggested. His forms, though of unmistakably Greek charac- 
ter, are more in conformity with modern taste than those of earlier 
artists. Among the best known works of Lysippus is the Apoxyomenw. 
the figure of a youth fresh from a struggle in the Palaestra, in the 
act of using the scraping iron. Gods and heroes, scenes of war and 
the chase, furnished him with subjects for a host of other works. 
Among his sons and pupils Laippics, Bo'idas, and Euthycrates, the 
last is most highly esteemed. Not only those of their generation but 
posterity agreed that Lysippus and the painter Apelles had reached 
the highest attainable point in the truthful rendering of nature, 
as well as in the more technical mastery of their art. The influence 
of Lysippus endured throughout and beyond the end of the follow- 
ing century. His method sufficed for the schools which succeeded 
him because the new spirit in which they worked had already 
triumphed in Lysippus. 

The conquests of Alexander and all that followed in their train 
— the glories and treasures of the East unfolded, mighty monarchies 
founded , stately cities built, and growing into centres of wealth and 
luxury, new forms of worship consequent upon a more intelligent 
study of nature — afforded conditions both material and other, 
which stimulated afresh the arts of Architecture and Sculpture. 
Henceforward Greek art vied , in the splendour of its colossal pro- 
portions, with that of the East. The deeds of victorious monarchs 
were her favourite theme : she was indefatigable in the contrivance 
of new forms of luxury and fresh splendour for city, mansion, and 
palace. Meanwhile, however, the Past was losing its hold upon her. 
The traditions of the Periclean age, which told how art was content 
to serve the household Gods with simple piety and to adorn domestic 
life, were but feebly remembered. Places once instinct with art 
life were lost in the new and overwhelming growth of cities, now 
the emporiums of the world's commerce : Alexandria in Egypt, 
Antioch on the Orontes in Syria, Pergamum, and Rhodes. — As an 
example of what Greek art was doing about this time in Egypt, we 
may mention the reclining figure of the River-god of the Nile. Around 
this colossal personage , so benignant in aspect , play, with true in- 
fantine grace, sixteen cherub-like children. These are symbols of 
the 16 cubits , the measure of that periodical rise in the Nile's 
waters which annually submerges the land and endows Egypt with 
perennial fruitfulness. — A pupil of Lysippus, one Eutychides, re- 
presented the city of Antioch in a group of considerable grace. The 


tutelary deity (Tyche) of the city is seated on a rock. In her right 
hand she holds ears of corn , and on her head she wears a mural 
crown ; while at her feet appears, in the shape of a youth rising out 
of the earth , the river-god Orontes (the river actually flows under- 
ground for some distance). 

The sculptors of Pbrqamum celebrated the victories of their kings 
over the Celts. The statue of the Dying Gaul (the so called 'dying 
gladiator') in the museum of the Capitol, and the Group of Gauls 
in the Villa Ludovisi are most impressive examples of the manner 
in which they were inspired by the theme. The northern barbarian, 
differing widely as he did in configuration, costume, and habit from 
the Greek, was a study of engrossing interest to the sculptor, and 
was reproduced with physiological accuracy. At the same time, 
that the fame of the victor might be magnified to the utmost, the 
sculptor sought to embody all that was admirable in the character 
of the vanquished : his ill-trained but chivalrous valour , his 
inflexible determination to die rather than suffer disgrace. So late 
as the 4th century A.D. there was still to be seen on the Acropolis 
a votive offering of King Attalus in the shape of a group with 
numerous figures representing the struggles of the gods with the 
giants, of the Athenians with the Amazons, of the Athenians with 
the Persians, and Attalus himself with the Celts. Quite recently, 
figures have been recognised as belonging to these groups in the 
collections of Venice, Rome, and Naples. — Of the Rhodian School 
we have examples in the so-called Farnese Bull in the museum of 
Naples, and in the Laocoon. The date of the Laocoon has not been 
established. Since the days of Winckelmann, who assigned it to 
the time of Alexander, and of Lessing, who maintained that it 
belonged rather to that of Titus, there has been a constantly 
recurring controversy on the subject. It is, however, highly im- 
probable that the Rhodian School retained, as late as the reign of 
Titus, the vitality necessary for the production of so considerable 
a work. 

From the preceding pages it will be gathered how many crises 
and how varied a development had been experienced by Greek art 
down to the time when Borne herself came to be included within 
the charmed circle of Greek culture. Transplanted to strange lands, 
and subjected to new influences and associations, Greek art ex- 
changed its distinctive Greek character for one universal and cos- 
mopolitan. Rome had not been, it may be remarked, without an art 
she could call her own. The old City- Walls raised in the time of 
the Kings, the Career Mamertinus, and the Cloaca Maxima prove 
that the Romans could in times comparatively remote carry out 
architectural works on a grand scale, although principally for utili- 
tarian purposes. The rudiments of Sculpture they probably acquired 
from Etruscan artists , whose earliest attempts would be the exe- 
cution of images of the gods in wood and clay. In Etruria, 


■where Greek influence had long been active, considerable proficiency 
as well as activity prevailed in the pursuit of art, although hut 
scanty traces of the purity and elevation of Greek taste are dis- 
cernible. In Rome, however, the Greeks of Southern Italy grafted 
their art on that of the Etruscans. A bronze toilet casket (the so 
called Ficoronian Cistii) found in Palestrina, which was executed in 
the workshop of Novius Plautius in the 3rd century B.C. , exhibits 
in its tracery a purity of design unmistakably Greek , although 
differing little in shape and plastic accessories from the very ordin- 
ary and often rude vessels of the period. The Romans highly esteem- 
ed faithful Portraits. Likenesses of ancestors were preserved in wax 
masks, and displayed on occasions of ceremony. The plastic art of 
the Etruscans gives evidence of a certain grasp of portraiture, which, 
though not profound, was still effective. As Roman rule extended 
itself over Southern Italy and Sicily, and later to Greece and the 
Asiatic continent, a constantly increasing number of works by Greek 
artists found their way to Rome, for the most part, probably, as spoil 
of war. Presently, too, the wealthy patrician, following the bent of 
his individual taste or the prevailing fashion, gave commissions for 
works to be executed in Greece, or in Rome itself, to which ne- 
cessity had brought many artists. Rome thus became the recognised 
centre of a taste and fashion which she could call her own. Both 
stood in close relation, not only in point of time, but in a community 
of idea and aspiration , to the art of a period immediately following 
the reiffn of Alexander. There is no doubt, however, that a vast 
number of works is accepted as specifically Roman only because all 
traces of the Greek models have been lost. From these, it may he 
taken for granted, the artists of Imperial Rome derived the designs 
or at least the suggestion of works of utility, as well as of buildings 
devoted to mere display , such as temples . palaces , triumphal 
arches, and tombs. 

The student familiarwith the threeorders of Architecture, viz. 
the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian, as they are to be seen in Athens, 
and comparing these examples with their reproductions in Rome, 
will have little difficulty in detecting a divergence which cannot 
be explained by differences either in forms of worship or in the 
general scope of the design (a conspicuous basement with flights of 
<teps in front). The delicate modelling of the best period of Greek 
art was in Roman hands either simplified, and so denuded of its true 
artistic significance — looking in short like the work of the handi- 
craftsman — or so overloaded as to become hopelessly confused. 
Even in their most admirable buildings a mere profusion of super- 
ficial decoration is substituted for that perfect harmony pervading 
and animating the Greek structure, whether as a whole or in its 
minutest detail, which we find in the Parthenon for example. The 
Doric and Ionic orders found comparatively little favour with the 
Romans, and where they appear, it is rather in the form of mural 

ANCIENT ART. xxxvii 

■columns than entire shafts. The exquisite taper of the shaft was 
thus sacrificed , the capitals were not happily disposed , and the 
Doric column instead of springing, as with the Greeks, direct from 
the flooring received a separate base. The favourite style was the 
more ornate Corinthian ; and the Romans thought yet to add to the 
wealth of ornament by superimposing upon the capital already 
veiled with the graceful form of the acanthus leaf, the volute and 
abacus of the Ionic capital. The entablature of the earlier orders 
is easily distinguished. In the Doric the architrave rests on the 
column and is unarticulated, while the frieze above the architrave 
receives the triglyphs at short, regular intervals. The Ionic archi- 
trave on the other hand is divided into three horizontal courses, 
the frieze being without triglyphs. The Corinthian entablature re- 
sembles the Ionic , but the cornice is more richly articulated , cor- 
bels are substituted for the indentations , and the whole is richly 
wreathed with acanthus leaves and other ornamentation. 

The noblest, happily also the best preserved building of old Rome 
is unquestionably the Pantheon of Agrippa, built in the time of Au- 
gustus. In spite of much disfigurement received in later times, this 
vast edifice, comprised in its interior within the precincts of one 
majestic circle, and obtaining the light of heaven from the centre 
of its wondrous dome , continues to impress the beholder with un- 
failing, overwhelming effect. Therefore it is that the Pantheon, hav- 
ing survived the period of art's extinction and revival, better re- 
presents the solidity, the daring, and the splendour of Roman archi- 
tecture than the stupendous remains of palace, bath, and circus. 

An important innovation which Plastic Art experiences in the 
latter days of the Roman republic remains to be mentioned. The 
introduction of Eclecticism may be attributed to Pasiteles. a native 
of Southern Italy. It would appear that he had striven, by way of 
protest against the unrest and violence apparent in the works of 
his predecessors of the Rhodian School, to restore to art something 
■of her primitive simplicity, and to combine the excellences of the 
older schools while he avoided their errors. His aim was to revert 
to the stern simplicity and thoroughness of the earliest sculptors. 
At the same time he studied nature independently and carefully ; 
while he was not neglectful of the minor graces of his art. Ste- 
phanies was his pupil , whose pupil again was Menelaus, from 
whose chisel we have a group now in the Villa Ludovisi, com- 
monly known as Electra and Orestes. Though the real intention 
of the author will probably never be known , this work serves to 
teach us how earnest was the endeavour, and how happy the result of 
art study in the school of Pasiteles. It is not, however, given to eclectic 
schools to exercise a powerful or enduring influence. Accordingly 
we find a comparatively small number of works belonging to the 
school of Pasiteles. 

That school of art, too, which was especially encouraged by the 

xxxviii ANCIENT ART. 

Emperor Hadrian, adopting as it did not only Greek but also Egyp- 
tian models, was eclectic in the most extended sense of the word. 
Amongst its better known works is the figure of Hadrian's favourite 
Antinous, in which with undoubted beauty of form is combined a 
somewhat lugubrious solemnity together with a smooth glossy and 
superficial elegance little to the taste of the modern connoisseur. 
Far more attractive are the basreliefs on various public monuments 
— such as the Arch of Titus and Trajan's Column — celebrating 
the triumphs of Roman arms. With Greek artists a characteristic 
mode of representing in relief the triumphs, actual or mythical, 
of their heroes was to express battle by means of isolated groups 
of single combatants. And not only are the more stirring incidents 
of the battle thus signalised. Appeal is made to the gentler emo- 
tions : a dying warrior is carried off the field ; or the victor spares 
the life of a prostrate adversary. For plastic purposes this was 
found to be the most effective mode of representation, serving as 
it does to awaken the interest and rivet the attention of beholders. 
The Assyrians had , however , already executed reliefs in whieb 
the effect of pitched battle was rendered with moTe literal accuracy; 
and that the Greeks, too, could on occasion meet the requirements 
of this more arbitrary taste, we learn from the friezes of the so- 
called Nereid monument discovered in Lycia , where the con- 
tending hosts close with each other in elaborate order of battle. 
The painter, favoured by conditions more submissive to his will, had 
already grouped the combatants in larger and denser masses. How 
admirably they contrived along with the crowd and confusion of 
battle, to give effect to traits of individual heroism and to give to 
single and central figures their appropriate expression , is exem- 
plified in the celebrated mosaic to be seen in Naples of the Battle 
of Alexander, which, there is no doubt, was copied from a painting of 
the period. It may be premised therefore that this condensed and 
elaborated treatment in relief — obviously akin to painting — in 
which the marches, battles, and triumphs, the operations of Roman 
armies and their imperial chiefs, were set forth with the utmost 
attainable accuracy, with all detail of equipment and armament of 
camp and battle-field, was not the newly gathered fruit of Roman in- 
ventiveness , but must rather be ascribed to the age of Alexander 
and his successors. And the same may be assumed of the archi- 
tectural form of these monuments. In Portraits, too, whether of full 
length or only busts, of emperors and empresses, warriors and states- 
men, as of persons of less exalted position, there were not wanting 
impressive examples in Greek art; and here again Roman taste 
coincides with that of the Diadochan age. It may be conceded, 
however, that owing to the interest long taken in portraiture by the 
Romans and to the attention which this branch of art had so long 
received in Rome and Etruria, it had acquired a more distinctly 
Roman and Italian character , and so had a perceptible influence 


on Greek artists resident in Rome. Thus is it that portraits of the 
Emperors exhibit a degree of power in execution and expression 
scarcely to be looked for at so late a period. Not unfrequently the 
Emperors were represented in the costume proper to religious cere- 
monies ; or in fashion like to the gods themselves, and invested with 
their attributes. Most commonly, however, they appear in the 
costume and character of a general in the act of haranguing his 
cohorts. We have striking examples of these imperial portraits in 
the equestrian statue in bronze of Marcus Aurelius on the Capitol, 
and in the marble statue of Augustus in the Vatican. This latter 
gives unmistakable evidence of having been painted. From the 
reliefs on the richly ornamented armour which set forth with due 
regard to historical accuracy the more conspicuous and familiar in- 
cidents of a reign especially favoured by the gods, we are justified 
in the conclusion that this figure was executed about the year 17 
B.C. In his treatment of the female figure, too, whether seated or 
standing , the sculptor knew how to impart a distinguished and 
imposing view by a sumptuous arrangement of the drapery. There is 
a peculiar gratification in finding, after a careful study of these 
portraits — many of them of personages famous in history — an exterior 
so closely corresponding to the picture of the historian. Many of the 
heads, indeed, which thus impress the beholder have not been identi- 
fied. In portraiture, the Greek sculptor adopted the Hermean form, 
while the work of the Roman is recognised almost infallibly in the bust 
form. Thelatter largely preponderate, although amongst the collective 
works of sculpture preserved, the Greek element is considerably in 
excess of the Roman. An attentive observer will not fail to mark 
this distinction , and learn also to detect the handiwork of the 
modern restorer which too often disfigures these antique marbles. 

The same tendency which led the wealthy citizens of Rome to 
adopt the literature and culture of Greece was observable in the taste 
displayed in the works of art they chose for the decoration of their 
palaces and villas, whether executed in Rome itself or in Greece. 
In other respects they appear to have been attracted by the same 
objects of interest as English collectors of the present day. Antique 
art taken as a whole would probably fail to interest the average 
man of rank, unless it were associated with some historical inci- 
dent , some names of renown, or some startling anecdote. But of 
such works as the figures of the Three Graces in bas-relief (though 
rigid in execution) which the ciceroni of the Acropolis shew as the 
work of Socrates , and the group of Harmodius and Aristogiton, the 
Tyrant slayers, in the market place of Athens, of archaic antiquity, 
which had been carried off by Xerxes and restored to its wonted place 
by Alexander: —of works such as these copies at least would be in 
request. The powerful development displayed in the figures of Po- 
lycletus, and the action expressed in those of Myron, appear to have 
possessed greater attractions for the Romans than the works of Phi- 


di;is. Numbers of statues belonging to the Periclean age have come 
to light in Rome, replicas for the most part of Victors in the Games 
and of Amazons. Figures of the Gods, with few exceptions, belong 
to a later period. The most numerous, and also very charming, were 
the graceful forms of more recent Attic art, represented by Praxiteles 
and his compeers ; also the elegant and animated creations of the 
Lysippian and post-Lysippian schools. It is hardly conceivable that 
in the museums of Rome, rilled as they are with works of sculpture 
collected on the spot, no original works are to be found. Assuredly 
there has been a time when they have not been wanting in Rome: 
and it seems improbable that one and all should have been lost 
in the devastation which has more than once made wre-k of the 
Eternal City. Certain it is, however, that the greater part of what 
we now see are either replicas or copies. This fact is determined 
by the material. The great statues of Phidias and Praxiteles set 
apart for the temples were of gold and ivory, while Polycletus and 
Lysippus worked in bronze. In Attica, too, this costly material was 
preferred by the earlier sculptors. It was only by degrees that 
marble came into use for groups as well as single figures. The 
'Discus thrower' of Myron, as well as the groups of Marsyas 
and Athena were originally in bronze. In the Palazzo Massimi 
alle Colonne there is to be seen a striking figure readily recogni- 
sed as that of Myron's 'Discus thrower', but it is in marble. In 
like manner the Marsyas in the Lateran is of marble, and so also is 
the Apoxyomenus in the Vatican museum. Just as we moderns 
delight in the copy or engraving of some celebrated picture, the 
amateur of old gave his commission for the copy of some favourite 
statue, to be executed in bronze , or, more frequently, in marble. 
At any rate comparatively few works in bronze , of importance in 
point of size, are preserved. It was not enough to have simply 
repeated the celebrities of sculpture. The artists of the so-called 
New Attic School, which flourished in the last century B. C, wefind 
reproducing the works of their predecessors very effective with 
such departures from the original as are to be seen in a more arti- 
ficial and highly wrought arrangement of drapery, a more decorative 
rendering of the detail generally, and an attempt to impart increased 
animation to the figure as a whole. Such piracies, when tolerably 
successful , became in their turn models for numerous imitations. 
The results of this process are exactly what the connoisseur will 
be prepared to find , and such as present themselves in the collec- 
tions of antique art in Rome. He must not expect to find himself in 
the presence of the simplicity and directness as well as grandeur of 
aim characteristic of Greek art in her loftiest moods : but rather of 
her attenuation in the shape of imitations and adaptations, the 
growth of the Imperial age. Antique art, however, exhibits through- 
out its career an astonishing vitality and continuity. The spirit of 
the Greek is mighty even in expiring: and nowhere can the course 


of her marvellous development be studied with the same complete- 
ness as in Rome. 

Monumental works, inconspicuous and unfamiliar as they often 
are , appeal less powerfully to the imagination than statuary, 
where dazzling beauty enthrals the senses. These monuments, 
however , will have a charm of their own for the discriminating 
observer. In the Egyptian department of the Vatican he can con- 
template the relics of a primaeval antiquity, while in the Gregorian 
Museum he is reminded of the mysterious Etruscans. It will be 
interesting to compare the attitude and proportions of Egyptian 
with Graeco-Roman figures , and to discover in the Sphinxes of the 
Villa Albani, in the Lions by the approach to the Capitol, as well 
as in the numerous obelisks, to be seen in the piazzas of Rome, 
evidence of the mastery acquired by the Egyptian in Art. And their 
works were in the Roman's eye fitting objects wherewith to celebrate 
his triumphs, and adorn the capital of an empire including within 
its far reaching bounds people of almost every race and climate. 

In the Gregorian Museum the portrait busts in terracotta by the 
Etruscans exhibit a mode of expressing individuality peculiar to 
themselves ; the bronze vessels display that skill in the working of 
metals for which they had long been famous; while the large copies 
of mural paintings which adorned the tombs bring to light the method 
of painting as practised by the Etruscan as well as , in the choice 
of subject, their preference for scenes of sensualism and bloodshed. 

Here, too, is to be seen a collection of Painted Greek Vases ex- 
ceedingly rich and beautiful, discovered, it is true, in Etruria, but, 
as is evident from the subjects represented, from the drawing, but 
chiefly from the inscriptions, imported from Greece — the greater 
part indeed from Athens. It is not difficult to distinguish those speci- 
mens, which, though borrowed from the Greeks, were of Etruscan 
manufacture. They are inferior in taste and execution, as well as 
in design and modelling, and are not to be mistaken for the work 
of artists. But the Greek vases themselves vary in character; those 
for instance having the black figures on a red ground being of earlier 
date than those showing the reverse arrangement of these colours. 
Nevertheless the painters of these vases, mere handicraftsmen as we 
must suppose them to have been , could render mythological subjects , 
and scenes of everyday life, with a vivacity and poetry of conception ; 
they knew so well how to draw , and , with means and resources 
necessarily very limited, were so far masters of expression, that — 
despised though they may be by the superficial and ignorant — they 
bear not only remarkable testimony to the quality of workmanship 
then prevailing in Attica, but afford a glimpse at the art of their day 
in Athens as seen through the eyes of these unpretending artificers. 

Finally there remain to be noticed the Sarcophagi, which, vari- 
ously ornamented with reliefs, are to be seen in museum, in villa, 
and in palace court. The only specimen preserved to us from the old 


Roman time is the Sarcophagus of L. Cornelius Soipio Rarbatus in 
the Museum of the Vatican. It resembles an altar both in shape and 
style of ornamentation, and is almost the counterpart of one still 
standing in Pompeii. It is only consistent with the then prevailing 
religious rites that sepulchral monuments should have been thus 
architectural in character. In Greece itseif this was conspicuously 
the case: all sarcophagi which have been discovered within the con- 
fines of Greece proper showing a distinctly architectural treatment. 
The Roman sarcophagi combine much that is essentially Greek with 
adaptations from the funeral urns of Etruria. They give signs, how- 
ever, of an independent development, and although including a di- 
versity of shapes and decoration , have for the most part their bas- 
reliefs arranged on the front and sidesfand, where extraordinary rich- 
ness of effect was desiderated, on the back also) as a frieze or band. 
One naturally endeavours to trace in the decoration bestowed on 
these repositories of the dead, some indication of their purpose. In 
many instances, however, it is evident, that appropriateness of design, 
if originally acknowledged as indispensable, was presently lost in a 
promiscuously lavish decoration. Certainly there is no obscurity in 
such allusions to the goal of life as we discover in Cupids rowing to 
the lighthouse tower, or when we see them careering round the goal in 
the circus. In such symbolical figures as those of the seasons we are 
taught to reflect on the inevitable course of creation, existence, and 
decay succeeding to maturity. AsHylas is borne away by the Nymphs, 
and Ganymede by the eagle, so we may fancy the soul begrudged 
from its earthly existence. Hippolytus may serve to recal the virtues 
of such as came to an untimely end, Niobe, the grief of the survivors; 
sleeping Cupids may symbolise sleep favoured by the Gods, while 
Ariadne discovered by Dionysus, Endymion visited by Selene 
present death itself as but sleep in unfamiliar guise. On the 
other hand scenes of Bacchanalian revelry can hardly be accepted as 
allusions to the future state ; and even in a less degree are Nereids 
and Medeahs, and more of the like, in bas-relief, capable of such 
interpretation: and rarely, too, does any reference of a distinctlyper- 
sonal character go beyond a mere vague allusion to life and death. 
It is tolerably certain that these sarcophagi were made in large 
numbers, in advance of immediate requirements. A somewhat extra- 
ordinary expedient for introducing a reference to particular indi- 
viduals, was that of bestowing the lineaments of the departed upon 
such heroes of mythology as were made to figure in these reliefs. 
Thus it is we find portraits of the deceased in such mythical per- 
sonages as Admetus andAlcestis. in Hippolytus. and. what is more 
remarkable, in Pluwlra herself. In a considerable number of cases 
these reliefs are almost identical, and are evidently made after one 
model, with such modifications as might be effected by the intro- 
duction or omission of single figures or groups, showing nevertheless 
more or less of artistic intelligence and resource. They form a 


group displaying the established forms and traditional models, 
which in respect of means of expression and motive are the 
worthy inheritance of Greek art at its best. Yet these sarcophagi, 
regarded even as Roman works, are by no means of early origin. It 
must not, however, be forgotten in estimating the quality of work 
bestowed upon the sarcophagus, that it was not intended to be 
closely inspected by the light of day, but would be consigned to the 
twilight of the tomb, where a stray gleam of light might but for 
a moment reveal its detail. Hence, in the execution of these reliefs 
the object was to give prominence to leading features, without an 
overscrupulous nicety of finish, and this end has been attained 
with a success worthy of all admiration. It has been ascertained 
beyond doubt, that the introduction of the sarcophagus as described 
above was coeval with a mode of burial which became the fashion 
in Imperial times ; otherwise the artistic merits of these monuments 
might well have misled us in computing their age. The great 
majority of Roman sarcophagi belong to the 2nd and 3rd centuries 
after Christ, and to an even later period. 

The Early Christian Sarcophagi simply repeat and perpetuate 
preceding pagan models. It is a peculiar coincidence that these in- 
conspicuous memorials should have contributed to the revival of art 
in the middle ages. Niccolo Pisano found a fertile source of inspi- 
ration in the Roman sarcophagi of the Campo Santo in Pisa ; nor 
did Peruzzi and Raphael disdain to use them as models. 

With this passing glance at the homage thus done by Raphael and 
his compeers to the art of antiquity, these pages may fitly conclude. 
The endeavour has not been to fetter the judgment of the reader, 
but rather so to direct his observation and stimulate his interest as 
to give him that self-reliance which alone will aiouse in him an 
intelligent interest, and afford him a genuine pleasure in what 
he sees. To praise the creations of great artists in empty or mere 
conventional phrase would simply offend. They alone will exper- 
ience the full measure of delight to be derived from the contem- 
plation of these treasures , who rely upon their own judgment and 
cultivate to the utmost the delicacy of their perceptions. 

Roman Art, 



Prof. A. Springer of Leipsic. 

Uume as Mistress of the world became the centre of contempora- 
neous culture. Art had found with her a new term : and Greece as 
fitting tribute to the conqueror laid at her feet the accumulated 
wealth of ages — the treasures of her art. which long had embodied 
the loftiest conception of the beautiful. 

Her supremacy secured, Home became the chief resort of artists, 
and their liberal patron. She dictated the tone, alike in taste and 
fashion, and determined the destinies of art. Down to medieval 
times Rome continued to receive the proud title of 'Caput mundi'. 
Presently, however, she laid claim to supremacy in another realm 
than that of art ; and this latter , as the ancient traditions 
were gradually outlived, finally fell into neglect. In more recent, 
as in former times Rome has failed to create for herself, as the out- 
come of her individuality, an art peculiar to and a part of herself. 
Her destiny seems to have been to gather from external sources 
the wealth in which she revelled , with the difference that while 
ancient Rome furnished nothing beyond a magnificent arena for 
the art of her day, in later times the artist found in Rome herself 
his sources of inspiration , compelled as he was to contemplate 
perfection reflected in the dazzling mirror of antique art. Ten 
centuries, however, elapsed ere Rome resumed this proud pre- 
eminence. A glance may now be directed to the interval between 
the fall of old Rome and the period when , animated with a new 
life, Rome drew to herself the foremost representatives of the 
Renaissance , to whom she afforded inspiration for their grandest 
efforts. It is not, however^ -the Ifith century, not the glories of 
the Renaissance, that give to the Rome of our day her distinctive 
character, but rather the new and imposing exterior which she re- 
ceived at the hand of her architects in the 17th century. The mind 
must be disenchanted before the veil can be penetrated and the 
Rome of antiquity adequately comprehended. 

The protracted suspension of all activity in art makes it appa- 
rent that Roman art has a history distinct from Italian art. For 


several centuries the towns of Tuscany were the principal abodes of 
a natural art life. But just as in Rome Italian art achieved its 
most signal triumphs in the persons of Raphael and Michael Angelo 
and the masters of that period : so in Roman ground we find that Chris- 
tian art first took root and attained to its most important dimen- 
sions. In Rome then we find the strongest inducements as well as 
the richest opportunity for the study of Early Christian Art. 

In the 4th century heathendom, long tottering to its fall, was, in 
appearance at least, absorbed in the younger Christian world. A new 
era in art is inaugurated. Not that we are to assume the simulta- 
neous extinction of the pagan art of ancient Rome . nor was 
at once superseded by an altogether new style provided as it were 
for the emergency. The eye and hand are to a greater extent crea- 
tures of habit than the mind. New views and altered conceptions 
of the .Supreme Being as well as of the destiny of man found 
acceptance. But to embody them the artist had to resort to the old 
established forms. Then heathen rules were by no means uni- 
formly hostile to Christianity (the period of bitterest persecution 
began with the 3rd century A. D.): and that the new doctrine 
should have expanded and taken root, should have been permitted 
to organise itself in the very midst of heathen society , is evidence 
that it was received even with favour. 

As a consequence of these conditions it will be observed that 
the art of the early Christians presents no remarkable con- 
trast to that which precedes it, and that they were content to adopt 
and perpetuate the traditions of the antique. The Roman Cata- 
combs afford abundant proof of this. Encircling the city as with 
a subterranean trench , they were originally far from being what 
they subsequently became — secret, carefully concealed places of 
refuge for the early Christians ; but rather their regularly ordained 
and publicly accessible places of burial (e. g. the Catacomb of Nico- 
medus and that of Flavia Domitilld), and were first designedly con- 
signed to darkness and concealment during the 3rd century, a period 
of constantly recurring persecution. The Christian community, 
reared as it was in the midst of Roman paganism, probably did 
not dream of subverting the principles of antique art. In the adorn- 
ment of the Catacombs they retain the types transmitted to them ; 
so also in the particulars of drawing and colour the precedent of 
the Antique is closely followed. Christ represented as the Good 
Shepherd, Orpheus as the symbol of Christ, and evidences of the long 
standing repugnance to any rendering of the Passion-history, afford 
proofs of the readiness to accept the art heritage of their precursors. 
The older these catacomb paintings are the more closely they ap- 
proximate to the types of antiquity. Even the Sarcophagus 
Sculpture of the 4th and 5th centuries differs in purpose only, not in 
technical rendering of form, from the typical reliefs found on pagan 
tombs. It was only in the latter half of the 6th century that a 

xlvi ROMAN ART. 

new style declared itself in painting which like other branches of 
plastic art had more or less fallen into a state of decay meanwhile. 
Architecture adapted itself to the exigencies of Christian worship, 
and in allying itself to the new architectural forms, painting 
acquires a new character. 

The term Basilica is understood to apply to Christiantemples 
up to the 10th century. The subsequent belief that a more inti- 
mate relation than that suggested by a common name subsisted 
between these early Christian edifices and the forensic Basilica 
of ancient Rome, was altogether an erroneous one. The latter 
werejn fact the Roman courts of law and places of public meet- 
ing. They had a place in most of the towns of the Roman em- 
pire and were erected in the forum , but have nothing, whether of 
origin or form , essentially in common with the early Christian 
temple or church. These forensic basilicas were not adapted to 
purposes of Christian worship , nor did the old Roman basilica 
serve as a model for the building of Christian places of worship. 
In proof of the one assertion may be adduced the fact that the 
forensic basilicas at the end of the 4th century retained intact 
their original destination , and in individual cases have been 
restored ; while the other will be justified by an unprejudiced exam- 
ination of the various parts of the Christian basilicas , which 
give evidence of having sprung from another source than that of 
the old Roman basilica. Neither did the Temple of antiquity fur- 
nish the model for churches built by the early Christians. The 
church of SS. Cosma e Damiano, of the 6th century, is the earliest 
example of a pagan temple applied to Christian use. The Chris- 
tian basilica may be said rather to have grown out of the Roman 
dwelling-house, where at first the community was in the habit 
of assembling. The plan for future ecclesiastical edifices was 
acquired by simply extending the proportions of the dwelling-house. 
The church of S. Clemente in Rome is relatively ttie most perfect 
example existing of the architectural properties and internal arran- 
gement of the early Christian basilica. A small portico supported 
by pillars leads to the outer court (atrium), enclosed by a colonnade 
and having in its midst a fountain (caniharus). The eastern colon- 
nade leads into the interior of the church which was usually divi- 
ded into three aisles. Two rows of columns divide the side aisles 
from the loftier one in the centre known as the nave ; the nave 
and aisles abut upon a half circle or apse. At right angles to 
these aisles, between them and the apse , was sometimes inter- 
posed a third space — the transept; the altar stood within the apse 
and apart beneath a canopy supported by pillars , and in its front, 
enclosed by rails or cancelli, was the choir for the officiating priests 
and two pulpits (ambones), one used for reading the Gospel the other 
the Epistles. In marked contrast to the temple of antiquity little 
care was bestowed upon the external architecture of these early 

ROMAN ART. xivii 

Christian basilicas , the most impressive effect being reserved for 
the interior. And to this end, especially in earlier mediaeval time?, 
a ready expedient for supplying decorative material was adopted in 
the plunder of the monuments of antiquity. Columns were carried 
off and set up in Christian churches without regard te congruity 
of material or consistency of style. Thus in the churches of 
S. Maria in Trastevere and S. Lorenzo Fuori It Mura are to be seen 
pillars of different material and workmanship. The churches of 
»?. Sabina, S. Maria Maggiore and others give evidence of similar 
depredations. Crosses and lustres in metal, tapestries bestowed by 
papal piety contributed to the ornate effect of these interiors. But 
the principal decorative feature were the pictures in mosaic which 
covered the recess of the apse in particular as well as the arch which 
connected the apse with the nave (the Triumphal Arcli). These 
Mosaic Pictures, as far , at least, as the material was concerned, 
demanded a novel artistic treatment , massive and monumental in 
character. In them we find the traditions of antiquity abandoned, 
giving place to a style which from its harshness as well as austere 
solemnity of conception has been confounded with the Byzantine 
style. In reality the art was of indigenous growth ; and its salient 
characteristic may be defined as the substitution of the real for the 
symbolical in general treatment. Now for the first time the pop- 
ular mind became thoroughly imbued with ecclesiastical senti- 
ment, of which the crucified Saviour was the chief embodiment. 
The oldest mosaics . composed of glass cubes , are to be seen in 
the church of S. Pudenziana. They date from the 4th century 
like those in S. Costanza and the Baptistery of Naples : while those 
in S. Maria Maggiore and S. Sabina belong to the 5th century. 
The mosaics in <S.§. Cosrna e Damiano in the Forum (526-30) may 
be pronounced as the most beautiful. 

The rudiments of Christian art are to be found in Rome; but 
its further development was promoted in an equal degree by other 
Italian states. Building was still active in the 9th century, while 
the Popes, especially Leo III. , of the 7th and Sth centuries 
did good service in church decoration. But during this period 
there is no evidence either of progress or continuous develop- 
ment in the Mosaic art and as little in architecture itself. The 
experiment (as seen in S. Prassede, 9th century) of combining piers 
with the pillars of the nave as a support to the walls and of con- 
necting these with transverse arches was not repeated. Finally it 
may be said of the Mosaics (S. Prassede, SS. Nereo ed AchiUeo, 
S. Marco), that, while they bear a superficial resemblance to the 
works of the 5th and 6th centuries, they show unmistakable signs of 
corruption and decline. This may be accounted for to some extent 
by the evil times which had fallen upon Rome since the 9th century, 
culminating in a conflagration — the work of an incendiary Guis- 
cardo — which laid waste the entire southern quarter of the cit\, 

xlviii KOMAN ART. 

extending from the Forum to the Lateran and to the slopes of the 
Esquiline. The chief employment of the architect was the con- 
struction of fortified towers and places of strength rendered neces- 
ary by the ceaseless warring of factions within the city. In 1257 
Brancaleoni demolished 140 of these strongholds, the majority of 
which had been erected on the ruins of some monument or other of 
antiquity. The most striking example of the rudeness of early 
mediaeval architecture is to be seen in the Casa di Pilato or di 
Bienzo. Built by one Nicolao , son of Crescentius (probably in the 
12th century), its chief ornamentation consists of marble fragments 
apparently picked up at random and put together in the wildest 

At the close of the 12th century brighter days dawned for 
Roman art. 'Magister Romanus' now became a title which the 
artist was proud to append to his surname. A speciality in decora- 
tive art appeared in Rome about this time which did not connect 
itself, it is true, with the traditions of antique art, though ready 
to utilise its material, without, however, resort to the depredations 
of a bygone age. And material was still at hand in richest abun- 
dance, in an endless array of shattered marbles. These were divided 
and subdivided, cut or sawn into minute slabs, arranged in patterns, 
enlivened by the introduction of stained glass and gold leaf, pre- 
senting as a whole a richly coloured decorative effect. These marble 
mosaics adorn the flooring of churches, altar sides, episcopal chairs, 
pulpits, and doorways ; they enliven monumental sculpture, they 
fill the flutings of the elegantly twisted columns which bore the 
easter candles or adorn the entablature of cloistered courts. This 
art became the monopoly of particular families and was regularly 
transmitted from generation to generation. The monumental 
marbles of this time are generally known as Cosmato Work, a name 
derived from two members of a family thus privileged. Such work 
is frequently to be met with in Rome. Conspicuous among the 
mosaic floorings are those of S. Maria Maggiore, S. Maria in Tras- 
tevere, and S. Lorenzo Fuori le Mura (12th century). 8. Clemente 
and S. Giorgio possess altar tabernacles of Cosmato work and S. 
Lorenzo the finest example in its pulpit. Of similar work in cloisters 
(S. Sabina, Lateran) the best specimen is in the convent of S. Paolo 
(13th century). Cosmato work is not infrequently found elsewhere 
than in Rome. It is uncertain how far this Roman work is connected 
with kindred examples to be met with in Southern Italy. In tech- 
nical detail some differences are to be detected, such as the more 
copious use of the glass pastes by the artists of the South. On the 
other hand we fancy that the identity of pattern in the mosaics of 
theCappella Palatina in Palermo with those of S. Lorenzo cannot be 

Along with this decorative mosaic work, the Mosaic Painting 
of apse and choir -arch had since the 12th century successfully 

ROMAN ART. xlix 

asserted itself. That impress of the antique borne by the early 
Christian mosaics is gone ; the drawing has lost its incisiveness as 
well as its traditional typical character, and in lieu of this, receives 
a new and more lively impulse from colour and wealth of ornament. 
The mosaics in front of the church of S. Maria in Trastevere, in 
the apse of $. Clemente (12th century), those in the altar-tribune of 
the Lateran (13th century) and finally those in the apse of S. Maria 
Maggiore , the work of Jacobus Torriti in 1295 , are examples of 
this mosaic painting.. — Wall-Painting also came once more into 
use as we see from paintings discovered in 1858 in the lower 
church of S. Clemente — that basilica which in 1108 was lost by a new 
structure being builtupon it. — And, if church-architecture was con- 
fined to the rehabilitating of older edifices or the mere reproduction 
of earlier types , the numerous Belfries (the best is that of S. 
Maria in Cosmediri) show an abundant fertility of resource in the 
architects of that period. They tower aloft, story upon story follow- 
ing in light and airy succession, relieved by flights of slender pillars, 
and stand, eloquent tributes to the genius of mediaeval Rome. 

The condition of art in Rome, however (particularly in the 
14th century) , was far behind that of Tuscany. While in Tuscany 
popular forces directed by the municipalities provided an ample field 
for the cultivation of artistic tastes , Rome is distracted by the 
incessant war of factions and families , or the quarrels of the 
popes. Strangers were invited to execute works which where beyond 
the ordinary resources of art as it then existed in Rome. Dominican 
Friars introduce Gothic architecture into Rome — Fra Ristoro, 
Fra Sisto are probably the builders of the church of S. Maria sopra 
Minerva — and Giotto (chief of the Florentine school) was summoned 
to Rome during the pontificate of Boniface VIII. , and at the in- 
stance of his patron Cardinal Gaetano Stefaneschi, to execute a 
mosaic (Navicella) for the Porch of St. Peter's, and to paint a 
Ciborium (in part preserved in the Sacristy of St. Peter's); probably 
also to execute a commission from the Pope, to represent the pro- 
clamation of the Jubilee of the year 1300. Of Giotto's Roman con- 
temporary Pietro Cavallini we have unfortunately no certain 

It was not until the return of the Popes from their exile at 
Avignon, when Italians held exclusive possession of St. Peter's 
chair, and aimed at supremacy amongst the secular power* of the 
peninsula ; when the Humanists acquired their shortlived ascen- 
dency at the Papal court — that Roman art first approaches its 
maturity. Rome indeed had no direct share in the creation of the 
Renaissance. To Florence belongs the exclusive and imperishable 
renown of this achievement. On the other hand it must not be for- 
gotten how powerful an impression the spectacle of the mighty relics 
of antiquity must have made upon the receptive minds of the first 
Humanists, exciting their emulation and inciting to a more reverent 

Bakukkek. Italy II. 5th Edit. cl 


study of the Antique; neither must it be forgotten that by study of 
old Roman artBrunellesco and Donatello became familiar with those 
forms in which they were wont to express their artistical thought, 
and so were led to new and unexplored paths in the realm of art. 

Once more Rome occupies a foremost place in the history of art 
when Pope Nicholas V. (1447-1455), a Humanist, vies with the 
Medici in his passion for books and building. He is bent upon a re- 
novation of the Vatican Quarter ; his ambition is to erect a papal 
residence of surpassing splendour ; nay, he entertains designs on 
the St. Peter's pile itself and contemplates its reconstruction. The 
most imposing work of this period was the Venetian Palace begun by 
Pietro Barbo (1455), afterwards Pope Paul II., which, like the Albergo 
dell' Orso recently as it were again discovered, is to a great extent 
mediceval in character. Leon Battista Alberti, who resided in Rome 
about this time and died there in 1472, is supposed to have furnish- 
ed the plans for this palace. 

So far indeed had the fostering of art become obligatory on the 
occupants of the papal chair, that they could not neglect this 
function without forfeiting their individual influence, and impairing 
the dignity of their office. The right powers were not, however, 
immediately at hand, which should give effect to the building pro- 
jects of these Sovereign Pontiffs, enamoured as they were of splen- 
dour in every shape. The architect who during the pontificate of 
Sixtus IV. (1471-1484) was most employed, Baccio Pintelli, was 
a practitioner of moderate skill, and far behind the great Florentines 
of his day. The building of S. Agostino and S. Pietro in Montorio, 
as well as the facades of SS. Apostoli and S. Pietro in Vincoli were 
from his plans. His most celebrated work is the Popes' private 
Chapel in the Vatican , called after the Pope Sixtus the Sistine 
Chapel, which owes its chief attractions far less to its architectural 
merits, than to the artistic decoration of wall and ceiling. 

Abundant employment together with the favour which artists 
found with dignitaries of the Church had already allured numerous 
Tuscan and Umbrian Painters to Rome. Amongst those thus engag- 
ed in beautifying the churches of Rome and the Vatican Palace we 
meet such Florentine celebrities as Maestri Sandro Botticelli, Filip- 
pino Lippi, Domenico Ohirlandajo, Cosimo Rosselli; and from the 
Umbrian School the immediate forerunner of Michael Angelo, bold 
Luca Signorelli, along with Perugino and Pinturicchio. An attempt 
is made to found an Academy, or Guild of St. Luke at Rome. Amongst 
its members we find (14U4) Melozzo da Forli, the painter of a fresco 
(transferred to canvas) in the Vatican Gallery, representing the 
foundation of the Vatican library. — The execution of the Wall 
paintings in the Sistine Chapel, by order of Sixtus IV., was a moment- 
ous event in a time prolific in art enterprise. In accordance with the 
then prevailing point of view the acts of Moses are represented &s 
symbolically parallel to those of Christ. On the left wall are incidents 


in the life of Moses by Botticelli, Rosselli, Signorelli, on the right 
wall events in the life of Christ by Botticelli, Rosselli, Ghirlandajo 
and Perugino. Those lovers of art who are unable to visit Florence 
before going to Rome are recommended to make these wall paintings 
their especial study. They will learn from them to appreciate the 
descriptive power of the Florentines and will be familiarised with 
the field subsequently occupied by the heroes of Italian Art. 

Tuscan Sculptors , too , find their way frequently to Rome 
and are constantly employed either as workers in bronze or marble. 
Little attention seems , however, to have been paid to the former. 
The great bronze doors of St. Peter, the joint work of Filarete 
and Simone, are interesting rather from the wealth of mythological 
imagery with which they are embellished , than from their artistic 
pretensions which will not compare with those of Ghiberti's famous 
gates. So much the more powerfully does the sculptor appeal to us 
in marble. A taste for profusion and splendour of monumental de- 
coration in adorning the tombs, which fact declares itself in the 15th 
century — a result probably of that thirst for fame which is identi- 
fied with the Renaissance — gave the sculptor unceasing opportunity 
for the exercise of his art, particularly in its purely decorative phases. 
There is scarcely a single church of a certain date which does not 
contain sepulchral monuments from the close of the 15th century. 
The church of 8. Maria del Popolo possesses the largest number. 
These monuments — perfected in Florence and probably naturalised 
in Rome by Mino da Fiesole — are nearly uniform, viz. a sarcopha- 
gus surmounted by a statue of the deceased, and supported by a 
pedestal ornamented with a garland of fruit and flowers, and 
genii. A niche or panelled screen finished with a medallion of the 
Madonna form the usual background. The majority of these sculp- 
tures cannot be traced to any particular artist. It would appear 
indeed that the sarcophagi, as with the ancient Romans, were rather 
articles of manufacture than works of art, made wholesale fashion 
after some favourite pattern and bought 'ready made', a com- 
mission being given to the sculptor for a portrait of the deceased 
to which would be added the armorial bearings with inscription. 

Whoever might have visited Rome in the earlier years of the 
16th century would have found himself in the presence of an in- 
tense movement in the art world ; he would have found Archi- 
tect, Sculptor and Painter alike occupied with projects of more or 
less grandeur. So far, however, Rome did not in this respect sur- 
pass the other chief towns of Italy ; so far art had not assumed that 
particular foTm of life and direction which only the atmosphere of 
Rome could sustain, or which the genius of the Vatican alone could 
quicker — during the Pontificate of Julius II. (1503 — 1513), where 
the golden era of Roman art began, this consummation was actu- 
ally achieved. 

To Julius belongs the glory of having associated with Rome three 


names, Bramante, Michael Angelo, Raphael, everlasting beacons in 
the path of art — three men who in the course of the 16th century 
(cinquecento) raised modern art to its loftiest pitch of splendour. 
His successor Leo X. (1513 — 1522) of the house of Medici owes 
it to his lineage only that he should have transmitted to posterity so 
splendid a reputation,- — that his name should be associated insepa- 
rably with the greatest triumphs of art in modern times. Leo X. 
inherited the well earned fame of his predecessor, but knew not how 
either to value or to use his inheritance aright. It was not given him 
to sway the imperious temper of Michael Angelo, nor fully to com- 
prehend the mighty schemes of Bramante. The latter's chief work, 
the rebuilding of St. Peter's, can be adequately studied only in the 
collection of original drawings in Florence which set forth the gran- 
deur of Bramante's designs in all their completeness ; for so many 
different hands were employed in giving effect to these, that little 
remains of the original plan. Happily this little, viz. the dome with 
the overwhelming impression of vastness it conveys, is of the very 
best. Bramante contemplated a central structure in the form of a 
Greek cross, rounded at its extremities, which, crowned by a gigantic 
dome, should present an ensemble at once simple and majestic. 
Succeeding generations have failed to embody Bramante's ideal. 
His career, extending probably from 1444 to 1514, is involved in ob- 
scurity. Of his works, Rome possesses numerous examples. The cir- 
cular chapel in the monastery of S. Pietro in Montorio , the court 
of S. Maria delta Pace, the arcades in the first court of the Vatican 
(Cortile di S. Damaso), the Palazzo Giraud and above all the Cancel- 
leria are perfect examples of Renaissance. 

We are wont to wonder at the profusion and splendour, too, of 
works to which the cinquecento gave birth. How much richer, how 
much more splendid would have been this profusion , had only 
these works been carried out as originally designed by the artist's 
creative genius ! 

The same fatality which pursued Bramante's mightiest projects 
served to mar Michael Angelo's (1475-1564) supreme effort in the 
realm of Plastic Art. The Tomb of Julius II., begun while that 
pope was still living, was to consist of a large detached edifice with 
statues of Moses, St. Paul, and other colossal figures at its projecting 
angles, and ranged along its wall the naked forms of men in chains. 
The work, however, soon came to a standstill, and at last, 30 years 
after its commencement (1545), it was placed in the church of 
S. Pietro inVincoli where it now stands, deplorably, a mere fragment 
of the original design. Its most striking feature is the tremendous 
figure of Moses, rising in wrathful indignation at the worship of the 
golden calf, to denounce the idolatry of the Israelites. In addition 
to the Moses, Rome contains two conspicuous works from the hand 
of Michael Angelo : thePieta, badly placed in one of the chapels in 
St. Peter's, and the Statue of Christ in S. Maria sopra Minerva. The 

ROMAN ART. liii 

former surpasses all other efforts of the great sculptor in the deli- 
cacy of its modelling as well as in the force with which it appeals 
to human sympathies. 

As Fresco Painter Michael Angelo figures exclusively in 
Rome. Tradition tells us how loathe he was to exchange the 
chisel for the brush, when at the behest of the imperious Julius II. 
he undertook the decoration in fresco of the ceiling of the Sixtine 
Chapel. These frescoes are nevertheless the most important of Mi- 
chael Angelo's contributions to art. They afford a wider field for 
the exercise of his creative power than sculpture, where plastic 
forms, unequal as they are to the demands of his prolific genius, be- 
tray him into exaggeration. These frescoes of Michael Angelo are 
closely akin to the wall paintings of Florentine and Umbrian artists 
at the close of the 15th century in which the deliverer of the Israelites 
is made to prefigure the Saviour of mankind. How salvation came 
to the world, and how proclaimed , is the theme which Michael 
Angelo undertakes to illustrate. In the centre piece is depicted the 
Creation, the history of Adam and of Noah ; how sin came into the 
world , but with sin the promise of redemption. Forecasting all 
this we next see the figures of Prophets and Sibyls. In the mar- 
ginal pictures we see continued reference to the Redemption , in 
the various deliverances of the Jewish people (the brazen serpent, 
David and Goliath, the fate of Haman, and Judith), in conformity 
with medieval conceptions together with symbols of the Redemption. 
Connecting themselves with the above are the groups occupying 
the lunettes, pourtraying expectation, the anguish of suspense con- 
trition, which include at once matters of fact and a twofold allusion 
to the vicissitudes of the Israelites and the events of our Saviour's 
life (progenitors of Christ and Jews captive in Babylon). The sub- 
limity of the work is to be attributed very much to the skill with 
which mere matters of fact are everywhere subordinated to 
the claims of individual action as well as artistic purpose. Moreover 
Michael Angelo has contrived so to dispose the various portions of 
his vast work, ascending by figures , single and in groups, from the 
simply decorative margin to the crowning effort in the centre, so to 
adapt them to the place they occupy, that the entire work becomes 
architecturally , so to speak, self-supporting ; while the compo- 
sition as a whole is wielded with a wealth of resources together 
with a power of organisation such as no other artist has attained to. 
The thoughtful beholder will not acquiesce in the exclusive study 
of the central pictures. The figures in monochrome and minor 
decorations are replete with a beauty peculiar to themselves. 

Of the 'Last Judgment', painted by Michael Angelo at a much 
later period (1541), it is difficult, owing to its dilapidated condition, 
to form an accurate estimate. The unerring audacity , however, 
with which figure and group alike are thrown into every conceivable 
attitude and movement, must command a mute and amazed attention. 


With the names of Bramante and Michael Angelo is associated 
that of Raphael (1483-1520), whose youthful genius had very 
early declared itself, first in Perugia and later in Florence. In Rome 
are to be seen interesting mementoes of both these periods. In the 
Coronation of the Virgin in the Vatican Gallery we see him still in 
the trammels of the Umbrian School; the effects of his Florentine 
training are visible in his Entombment of Christ in the Borghese 
Gallery (belonging to later periods are the so called Fornarina in 
the Barberini Gallery, the Violin player in the Palazzo Sciarra, 
Navagero and Beazzano in the Doria Gallery, and his last work, the 
Madonna di Foligno and the Transfiguration, the master's last work, 
both in the Vatican Gallery). The majority of Raphael's easel 
pictures are to be found elsewhere than in Rome. 

But in Rome only could Raphael have found a field suited to 
the exercise of his highest powers in Fresco Painting. The 
mural paintings in the state apartments of the Popes in the Vatican 
palace must first be noticed. In order rightly to appreciate these, 
it must not on the one hand be forgotten that fresco painting 
never completely losed its decorative character ; nor on the other 
must the peculiar position of the Pontificate in the beginning of 
the 16th century be lost sight of. In the palace of the Vatican the 
same courtly tone, the same pursuit of sensuous pleasures, of the 
mere joys of existence , prevailed as in the courts of the younger 
Italian dynasties ; expressions of national sentiment met with a 
favorable reception , while an active agitation on the part of the 
Humanists did not appear to have compromised the dignity of 
the Papal Court. These conditions are more or less distinctly 
reflected in the frescoes of Raphael. The courtier repeatedly asserts 
himself; even a delicate compliment to the patron is not disdained, 
nor the ceremonial spectacle excluded. Political as well as personal 
allusions are not wanting, while ample space is devoted to the glo- 
rification of the Humanistic ideal. Finally, when it is borne in 
mind that Raphael was constantly compelled to defer to the exigen- 
cies of the allotted space, to study the separate requirements of wall 
and ceiling, we gain an insight into the nature and extent of the 
restraints imposed upon the Artist. They beset him indeed on 
every hand, and constantly compel him to alter or modify his design- 
Curiously enough these restrictions are to this day interpreted as 
an act of the Artist's free and daring will. One wonders at the 
amount of theological learning, of philosophical erudition displayed 
in theDisputa and the School of Athens, as well as at the inventive- 
ness which could connect subjects so remote from one another as 
the Heliodorus driven from the Temple, and the expulsion of the 
French from Italy. Through the entire range of subjects there 
runs a vein of profound and continuous thought. But especially 
admirable are alike the discernment which enabled Raphael to 
select, from apparently the most heterogeneous sources, matter 


suitable for pictorial embodiment; the resolution with which he 
guarded the realm of fancy; and his sense of the beautiful 
whereby he was enabled to bring the most intractable material into 
subjection to his purpose. These qualities are most conspicuous 
in the picture known as the Burning of the Leonine Quarter 
(the so-called Borgo) of Rome , or rather , as the artist's patron 
would have it, the conflagration, extinguished by intercession 
of the Pope. The spectator forgets the preposterous demand that 
a miracle should be thus palpably depicted: Raphael relegates 
the action to the heroic age , fills his picture with figures and 
groups of surpassing grandeur and animation (such as succeeding 
generations have striven in vain to imitate) and depicts the 
confusion, the preparation for rescue and flight with surpassingly 
graphic effect. The picture was not what he had been commissioned 
to paint; but in lieu of this we have a creation teaming witli ima- 
ginative power and masterful execution. In like manner Raphael 
disposed of the celebrated frescoes in the first Stanza, the Disputa 
and the School of Athens. Had he not been required to illustrate a 
chapter from the history of dogma (the proclamation of the doctrine 
of transubstantiation) or to present a pictorial extract from the 
history of ancient philosophy, the task of depicting a procession of 
historical celebrities known to fame as fathers of the church or 
mundane philosophers could not be particularly inviting. And 
further , while Raphael mingled with historical personages figures 
purely typical, and in the Disputa represents the assembled com- 
pany of believers as beholding a vision, where each individual 
present is naturally more or less overpowered by emotion — while 
in the School of Athens he especially emphasises the blessedness 
of knowledge, the good fortune which leads to the higher paths of 
learning (whether his representation literally coincides with the 
Diogenes Laertius or Sidonius Apollinaris or not) — he has asserted 
with brilliant success the Artist's right to supremacy in the realm 
of creative fancy. 

After the foregoing remarks the unprejudiced reader will need 
a hint only as to the mental attitude he shall assume as a student 
of Raphael's works. If the mere subject of the picture exclusively 
occupies his attention, if he must know the name and history of 
every figure, and feels it incumbent upon him to admire the in- 
tellectual grasp of an artist who gathered his materials from the 
remotest provinces of learning and who abounds in literary allusions, 
he is no longer in a condition fairly to test the artistic value of 
Raphael's works. From this point of view he will fail to detect in 
them any essential difference from the allegorical pictures of the 
period, nay he may even give precedence to many of these : to 
the wall paintings in the Capella degli Spagnuoli (S. M. Novella 
in Florence) for example, which indisputably exhibit greater versati- 
lity, a superior daring in the embodiment of the preternatural and 

lvi HUMAN' .-YltT. 

a loftier conception of the didactic capabilities of art. It is still 
a matter of uncertainty how far the erudition displayed by Raphael 
was an acquirement of his own or how far he may have relied on 
the contributions of contemporary scholars, such for example as Cas- 
tiglione, Bembo, and Ariosto, who would in so far share with him 
the merit due to fertility of thought. Assuming, however, that Raphael 
himself supplied the wealth of literary research which the frescoes of 
the Stanze are said to reveal, he would not as Artist become more in- 
telligible to us. His intellect might thus have been exercised, but 
not his imagination. Raphael's pictures will not only be more tho- 
roughly enjoyed, but his individuality and purpose will be more per- 
fectly apprehended when the effort is made to understand, how the 
painter by force of his imagination could out of material for thought, 
dead in itself, create new and living forms ; how he imparted to 
single figures so distinct a pyschological impress that the mere bear- 
ers of historical names are made to appear as representative hu- 
man characters ; how subtly he balanced action and repose in his 
groups, not dwelling too long on mere beauty of outline and con- 
tour, but intent on giving harmonious expression to a more profound 
intellectual antithesis. From this point of view, interest in the 
works of Raphael will be enlightened and enduring. Numerous pro- 
blems will present themselves to the amateur for solution: what 
motive Raphael might have had in treating the Disputa and the 
School of Athens so differently in respect of colour ; how far in the 
latter picture the architectural character of the background is 
essential to the collective impression to be conveyed ; for what 
reason the domain of portraiture is here narrowed to the utmost, 
while there (Jurisprudence) it is extended; what were the grounds 
for the manifold changes in composition which are accurately 
traced in his numerous sketches, etc. 

The condition of the Stanze frescoes is such, alas, as to afford any- 
thing but unqualified gratification, just as in the Loggie we regret- 
fully trace the departed glory of unique examples of decorative art, 
and with difficulty recognise the summit of Raphael's attainments in 
the grievously injured Tapestries. These latter, it is true, in the 
detail of their composition may be studied in the cartoons now 
in the Kensington Museum; but the subordinate decorations, mar- 
ginal arabesques and the like are still in part preserved in the ori- 
ginal tapestries, and are essential to the festive character of orna- 
mentation originally designed for the Sistine Chapel. To the ten 
tapestries so long known, an eleventh discovered in the depot of the 
Vatican has been added. These tapestries were to have adorned 
the lower compartment of the chapel walls and to this end they 
must correspond with the companion pictures : that, while these re- 
late the history of Redemption, they, the former, should pourtray the 
power and grace of God abiding with the Church. 

In apparently irreconcileable contrast to Raphael's works in the 

ROMAN ART. lvii 

Vatican we have his frescoes in the gay Villa Farnesina. On the 
one hand we are awed by devotional fervour, sublime aspiration, 
thought earnest and profound; on the other we find Art revelling in 
the joys of life, each form radiant with an ecstasy of innocent mirth. 
Nevertheless it will cost no great effort to discern in the Farnesina 
frescoes the impress of Raphael's genius. He was indebted for his 
version of the myth of Cupid and Psyche to a work of Apulejus fa- 
miliar to readers of the 16th century as it had been to the Romans 
of old. No author either in ancient or modern times probably can 
boast a more captivating illustration than Apulejus, though of none 
other has a freer use been made by successive generations of Artists. 
In Raphael's hands the myth is moulded anew. Not forgetting that 
it was the adornment of a festive chamber he had in hand, Raphael 
sedulously avoided everything repugnant to the festive mood. Pysche's 
woes were consigned to the background ; the painter is intent upon 
recording her triumphs only. The confined space afforded by the 
chamber serves only to stimulate the Artist's mastery of form. Ra- 
phael's representation of the myth is condensed : many scenes are 
but glanced at for a moment, though essentials never escape him; 
thus the claims of narration and decoration are adjusted without 
restraint. Harmony alike in idea and form ; nobility of proportion 
never overstepping the bounds of refinement ; the power of so losing 
himself in his subject as to present it devoid of individual caprice : 
attributes characteristic of Raphael as these are declare themselves 
iu the frescoes of the Farnesina as unmistakably as in the wall 
paintings of the Vatican. The spectator's own unassisted eye will 
not fail to see that the pictures on the ceiling of the principal saloon 
are far inferior in execution to the so-called Galatea in the neigh- 
bouring apartment. He will find nevertheless that both are such as 
will reward careful study with the highest gratification — a delight 
it must be a lasting desire to renew. 

The inaccessibility of the upper rooms of the Farnesina, adorned 
by Bazzi of Siena (1477-1549), commonly known as Sodoma, with 
his painting of the Nuptials of Alexander with Roxane, cannot be 
too much regretted. In the embodiment of sensuous grace and 
beauty, Raphael found in Sodoma a worthy rival. 

In the Sibyls of Raphael in S. Maria della Pace (1514) we find 
him competing — if the expression may be allowed — in another 
direction. Here he trenches upon the domain of Miahael Angelo ; 
not however that he is for a moment betrayed into disingenuousness 
by contact with a presence so overpowering, nor is he beguiled into 
ass uming a style foreign to his genius . True to himself, he accepts the 
limits prescribed by his subject, and combines an air of pleasing sere- 
nity and infinite grace with the expression of prophetic inspiration. 

Around these three Art heroes, Bramante, Raphael, and Michael 
Angelo, is grouped a brilliant circle of pupils and dependents. The 
best works of the School of Raphael are undoubtedly those executed 

lviii ROMAN ART. 

in his lifetime and under Ms direction. Oiulio Romano (1493-1546] 
and Francesco Penni (1488-1528) had a considerable share in the 
painting of the Hall of Constantine ; the completion of the Loggia 
paintings was entrusted to these, Perino del Vaga (1499-1547), 
Raffaello dal Colle and others. For the decorative ornamentation of 
the Loggie and the Farnesina the master engaged the services of 
Giovanni da TJdine (1487-1564). In the Villa Madama Giulio 
Romano exhibits most worthily as the pupil of Raphael, but less 
so in his Madonnas (Pal. Colonna and Borghese). 

The crowd of Architects, who appeared in Bramante's time, 
showed greater independence : Baldassare Peruzzi (1481-1563), who 
built the Farnesina and Pal. Massimi, Raphael himself and Oiulio 
Romano (Villa Madama), Antonio da San Oallo the younger, with 
whom originated the Pal. Farnese and a new plan for St. Peter's, 
and lastly Michael Angelo , whose influence, gradually deposing 
Bramante, irresistibly impelled the architecture of Rome into new 
courses. And just as in Plastic art he scornfully rejects the recognised 
forms and forces upon them a new construction , in like manner as 
Architect he concerns himself little about the accurate adjustment of 
subordinate parts, intent rather upon the effect to be produced by the 
structure as a whole — usually one of ponderous immensity. The 
colonnades in the Palazzo Farnese, the conversion of the Baths of 
Diocletian into the church of S. Maria degliAngeli — a work subse- 
quently spoiled — and the Porta Pia are among his chief works. His 
chief merit consists in his having reverted to the plans of Bramante 
for the completion of St. Peter's, which since 1546 had been under 
his superintendence. The Cupola at least was carried out according 
to his designs , but the ground-plan, to the injury of the building, 
was much altered, and the Latin substituted for the Greek Cross. 

As long as the 'divine' Michael Angelo lived, Rome was so dazzled 
by the splendour of his renown that no one suspected the Decline 
of Art was at hand. In fact, however, it had already declared itself 
at the death of Raphael. Rome once more captured and pillaged ; 
orthodoxy reinstated ; the church recoiling from the taint of Hu- 
manism : these were incisive events in the history of art, which now 
received a more distinctively ecclesiastical direction. The Foreign 
occupation of Rome expelled a vast number of her artists and laid a 
chasm in the traditions of her art. As she once more recovered herself 
and under the pontificate of Sixtus V. (Felice Peretti, 1585-90) was 
to all appearance again invested with her pristine grandeur, the en- 
couragement of art was revived, but in a spirit which presently pervaded 
and brought into subjection every phase of art. To Sixtus V. the 
Eternal City, which 'forthwith doubled itself, owesher present aspect. 
The Acqua Felice, the Spanish Staircase, the Via Sistina, the Piazza 
di S. Giovanni in Laterano , the Obelisk in the Piazza of St. Peter, 
the restauration of the Columns of Trajan and Marcus Aurclius are his 
work. Domenico Fontuna of Ticino was foremost in giving effect to 


this Pope's projects. The authors of the degenerated Renaissance 
known as Baroque were really Vignola (1507-73) and Fontana's 
nephew Carlo Maderna (1556- 1639). The former furnished the type 
in the Jesuit church of (?esii(1568), after which, in the course of the 
following century, more especially the numberless Jesuit churches 
were built. Maderna with Borromini and Carlo Fontana were the 
leaders of that Artists' band who conspired to rob architecture of its 
fitting repose, and by the introduction of figures posted in startling 
attitudes, aroused or convulsed by agency unseen, of curves instead 
of straight lines, of pillar piled upon pillar , substituted a turbulent 
unrest. Not that the style was without striking and artistic effect. 
An undoubted vigour in the disposition of detail, a feeling for 
vastness and pomp , together with an internal decoration which 
spared neither colour nor costly material to secure an effect of dazz- 
ling splendour: such are the distinguishing attributes of the Ba- 
roque style as in Rome it is to be seen on every hand, not only in an 
endless succession of churches ($. Ignazio, S. Andrea della Valle, 
S. Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, etc.), but in numerous palaces, 
the Barberini being a conspicuous example. The reader will, how- 
ever, scarcely dwell on these works longer than will suffice to give 
him a clear general impression of their character. 

A greater tenacity of life is, however, inherent in the art of 
Painting. An altogether deplorable interval now ensued, during 
which artistic talent was beguiled by Michael Angelo's overwhel- 
ming ascendency into a slavish imitativeness, content with the least 
possible effort to crowd into a given space the greatest possible 
numberof unmeaning figures, not devoid, however, of a certain super- 
ficial charm sufficient to captivate the eye. After an interval thus 
occupied and identified with this supremacy of the Mannerist 
School (Arpino, Zuccaro), painting once more at the close of the 
16th century was galvanised into a new life destined to be of 
brief duration — Rome becomes a scene of conflict in which painters 
and their partisans are the combatants. — Caravaggio (1569-1609) 
was the chief of the Naturalist School. He was triumphant in the 
possession of popular favour. On the other hand it was objected that 
his drawing was bad, that he failed in the essential of grouping 
the figures in his larger compositions. Nevertheless the mass is pre- 
sented with such startling reality, and animated with gesture so im- 
passioned, that every figure fitly asserts itself, while a corresponding 
force in colour conveys an impression powerfully suggestive of the 
turbulent license then prevailing. — The Eclectics took an opposite 
direction. Trained in a regularly constituted school of art, such as 
had been established at Bologna, initiated moreover in the art of 
Correggio and the Venetians, full of reverence for more remote tra- 
ditions, thoroughly versed in the rules of drawing and composition 
as well as familiar with the fresco painter's art ■ — thus formidably 
equipped, Annibale Caracci, Domenichino, Guido Reni, Guercino 


appeared amongst the rival aspirants to fame in Rome. They sup- 
planted the Naturalists, appropriating as much of the latters' method 
as appeared aveilable, and finally monopolised the favour of the 
court and aristocracy. Nor was the struggle by any means confined 
to the pallette and the brush. Personalities arose, and amongst them- 
selves the partisans of Caracci were seldom at peace. Their contri- 
butions are in part, at any rate, of the highest excellence. Anni- 
bale CaraccPs frescoes in the Palazzo Farnese ; Guido Reni's Aurora 
in the Casino Rospigliosi; the frescoes of Domenichino in S. Luigi 
dei Francesi, S. Andrea della Valle , in Grotta Ferrata near Rome 
are not mere master pieces of technical skill, but are replete with 
artistic beauty and vitality. 

The Neapolitan sculptor Lorenzo Bernini (1598-1680) flourishes 
up to the close of the 17th century. His works occupy the concluding 
chapter in the history of Roman Art. It is superfluous to bid the he- 
holder beware of being led captive by art essentially flimsy and mere- 
tricious ; rather perhaps it is necessary, as a set off against the now 
prevailing depreciation of Bernini's works , to plead the important 
historical significance they possess amidst all their too conspicuous 
defects ; to bear in mind that throughout the course of nearly a 
century they were regarded as the most brilliant production of 
that period and were very generally imitated. 

Since the 17th century, Rome has not given birth to nor nur- 
tured any distinctive art life , though the past has held Artists of 
all nations spellbound, compelling the conviction that Rome is still 
the true High School of Art, where teaching is indispensable to 
every true Artist. So late as the close of the 18th and the beginning 
of the present century, Rome continued to give proofs of the potency 
of her influence. Without the suggestions which Rome alone could 
furnish , David would never have received that classical impulse 
which he turned to such admirable account in France. In the absence 
of such inspiration as the spectacle of Rome's master pieces alone can 
afford, Cornelius and his associates would never have had the courage 
to attempt the revival of fresco painting. Thus is it that Rome reacts 
on the destinies of modern art, though without an art life she can 
call her own. The statue of the Immaculata shows that the Romans 
are ignorant of the mere mechanism of casting in bronze, while the 
frescoes of Podesti in the Stanza dell' Incendio prove that not only 
painting is a lost art, but Raphael himself is forgotten. Otherwise 
opinion had not been thus pointedly challenged. But if Rome has 
ceased to be the home as well as the birthplace of Art, it is above all 
others the spot where Art at once affords the highest gratification 
and commands the profoundest reverence. 



Acqua Felice, pag. lxviii. 
Agoracritus, xxxii. 
S. Agostino, 1. 
Albergo deir Orso, 1. 
Alberti, Leon Battista, 1. 
Alcamenes, xxxiii. 
Alexander the Great, xxxiii. 
Alexandria, xxxiv. 
S. Andrea della Valle, lix. 
Antioch, xxxiv. 
Antinons, xxxviii. 
Apelles, xxxiv. 
Aphrodite of Cnidus, xxxiii. 
SS. Apostoli, 1. 
Apoxyomenus, xxxiv. 
Arpino, Cav. d', lix. 
Augustus, statue of, xxxix. 

Baroque, lix. 

Basilicas, xlvi. 

Battle of Alexander, xxxviii. 

Bazzi of Siena, lvii (23). 

Belfries, xlix. 

Bernini, lx. 

Boedas, xxxiv. 

Borromini, lix. 

Botticelli, Sandro, 1. 

Bramante, lvii. 

Busts, xiv. 

Cancelleria, Hi. 

Caracci, Annibale, lx. 

Caravaggio, lix. 

S. Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, lix. 

Casa di Pilato (di Rienzo), xlviii. 

Catacombs, xlv. 

Cavallini, xlix. 

Cephisodotus, xxxiii. 

Christian Art, xlv. 

S. Clemente, xlvi. xlviii. xlix. 

Colle, Raphael del, lviii. 

Corinthian Order, xxxii. xxxvii. 
Cortile di S. Damaso, lii. 
SS. Cosma e Damiano, xlvi. 
Cosmato Work, xlviii. 
S. Costanza, xlvii. 

Diadumenus, xxxii. 
Discobolus, xxxii. 
Domenichino, lx. 
Doric Order, xxxi. xxxvii. 
Doryphorus, xxxii. 
Dying Gaul, xxxv. 

Eclectic School, lix. 
Egyptian Art, xxxi. xli. 
Electra and Orestes, xxxvii. 
Etruscan Art, xxxvi. xli. 
Euphranor, xxxiii. 
Euthycrates, xxxiv. 
Eutychides, xxxiv. 

Farnese Bull, xxxv. 
Farnesina, lvii. lviii. 
Filarete, li. 
Fontana, Carlo, lix. 

— , Domenico, lix. 
Fra Ristoro, xlix. 
Fra Sisto, xlix. 

Ganymede, xxxiii. 

Gauls, group of, xxxv. 

Gesii, lix. 

Ghirlandajo, Domenico, 1. 

S. Giorgio, xlviii. 

Giotto, xlix. 

Guercino da Cento, xl. 

Harmodius and Aristogiton, xxix. 

Ictinus xxxii. 
S. Ignazio, lix. 



Ionic order, xxxi. xxxvii. 
Irene and Plutus, xxxiii. 

Julius II., li. 

Laippus, xxxiv. 

Laoeoon, xxxv. 

Lateran, xlviii. xlix. 

Leo X., lii. 

Leochares, xxxiii. 

Lippi, Filippino, 1. 

S. Lorenzo fuori leMura, xlvii. xlviii. 

Lysippus, xxxiii. 

Maderna, Carlo, lix. 

Mannerist §chool, lix. 

S. Marco, xlvii. 

Marcus Aurelius, statue of, xxxix. 

S. Maria degli Angeli, lviii. 

— in Cosmedin, xlix. 

— Maggiore, xlvii. xlviii. xlix. 

— sopra Minerva, xlix. 

— della Pace, lii. 

— del Popolo, li. 

— in Trastevere, xlvii. xlviii. xlix. 
Marsyas, group of, xxxii. 
Melozzo da Forli, 1. 

Menelaus, xxxvii. 
Michael Angelo, lii. 
Mnesicles, xxxii. 
Mosaics, xlvii. xlviii. 
Myron, xxxii. 

Naturalist School, lix. 

Navicella, xlix. 

Nereid monument, xxxviii. 

SS. Nereo ed Achilleo, xlvii 

Nicholas V., 1. 

Nile, statue of the, xxxiv. 

Niobe and her Children, xxxiii. 

Palazzo Barberini, lix. 

— Farnese, lviii. 

— Giraud, lii. 

— Massimi, lviii. 

— di Venezia, 1. 
Pantheon, xxxvii. 

S. Paolo Fuori le Mura, xlviii. 

Pasiteles, xxxvii. 

Penni, Francesco, lviii. 

Pergamum, xxxv. 

Perugino, 1. (47) 

Peruzzi, Baldazzar, lviii. (23) 

Phidias, xxxii. 

S. Pietro in Montorio, 1. lii. 

— in Vaticano, lii. liii. 

— in Vincoli, 1. 
Pintelli, Baccio, 1. 
Pinturicchio, 1. (23) 
Polycletus, xxxii. 
Polygnotus, xxxii. 
Porta Pia, lviii. 
Portraits, Roman, xxxvi. 
Portrait-Statues, xxxix. 
S. Prassede, xlvii. 
Praxiteles, xxxiii. 

S. Pudenziana, xlvii. 

Raphael, liv. 
Renaissance, xlix. 
Reni, Guido, lxi. 
Rhodian School, xxxv. 
Rococo, lix. 
Romano, Giulio, lviii. 
Rosselli, Cosimo, 1. 

S. Sabina, xlvii. xlviii. 
Sacchi, lx. 

San Gallo, Ant. da, lviii. 
Sarcophagi, xli. 
Sassoferrato, lx. (101) 
Scopas, xxxiii. 
Signorelli, Luca, 1. (43) 
Simone, li. 

Sistine Chapel, 1. liii. 
Sixtus IV., 1. 
Sixtus V., lviii. 
Sodoma, see Bazzi. 
Spanish Staircase, lviii. 
Stephanus, xxxvii. 

Three Graces, the, xxxix. 
Timarchides, xxxiii. 
Titus, Arch of, xxxviii. 
Trajan's Column, xxxviii. 

Udine, Giovanni da, lviii. 

Vaga, Perino del, lviii. 

Vase6, Greek and Etruscan, xli. 

Vignola, lix. 

Villa Madama, lviii. 

Wall-Painting, xlix. 

Zuccaro, lix. 



1. From Leghorn or Pisa to Rome 

by the Maremme. 

2U71/2 31. (from Pisa 207 31.). Kailwat. Express in 9 hrs., fares 42 fr. 95, 
29 fr. 50 c. (from Pisa 42 fr. 80, 29 fr. 45 c.) : ordinary trains in lO'/s hrs., 
fares 36 fr. 75, 25 fr. 40, 17 fr. 85 c. (or 36 fr. 65, 25 fr. 35, 17 fr. 80 c). 

The 3Iakemme Railway coincides with the ancient Via Aurelia , con- 
structed by .lEmilius Scaurus, B.C. 109. During the present century the 
Tuscan government caused a road to be constructed here for the benefit of 
the coast-district. Although this is one of the less important routes to 
Rome, the country it traverses is by no means destitute of picturesque sce- 
nery, and the traveller who desires to explore it may devote several days to 
the journey ; but , owing to the malaria , this is not practicable between 
the end of 3Iay and the end of October (comp. p. 9), a period which most 
of the inhabitants spend in to the hill-district of Siena. Even in October 
whole villages are still deserted. The railway is occasionally exposed to 
inundations which interrupt the traffic. It runs inland as far as Cecina, 
where it approaches the coast, commanding fine views of the sea with its 
promontories and islands. — Views always on the right. 

Steamboat. A very pleasant route from Leghorn to Rome is by sea 
as far as Civita Veechia, and thence by railway. Steamers ply almost 
daily, three Italian per week (Sociela Florio , Soc. Peirano Danovaro <£- Co., 
and Soc. Rubatlino), and generally four French (Fraissinet d- Co. and Valery 
Freres rf- Fils). This route is somewhat more expensive than the railway 
journey. Embarcation at Leghorn in the inner harbour 1 fr., in the outer 
harbour IV2 fr. The steamers generally weigh anchor towards evening. 
The island of Capraja soon becomes visible , and the vessel threads its 
way between the coast and the islands of Elba, Palmajola , and Cerboli; 
somewhat later the islands of Pianosa and Giglio, and the Monte Argen- 
tario, rising immediately from the sea, are passed. The coast now be- 
comes flat, and is uninteresting till Civita Veechia appears in the distance. 
Arrival, and journey thence to Rome, see p. 7. 

Leghorn and Pisa, see vol. I. of this Handbook.- — The lines unite 
at the first station Colle Salvetti, which is 10 M. distant from Leg- 
horn and 9*/ 2 M. from Pisa. To the right we obtain a view of 
Monte Nero, a celebrated place of pious resort, possessing an ancient 
picture of the Virgin brought from the East and especially revered 
by seafaring men. 

13 M. (from Leghorn) Fauglia; 18 M. Oreiano; 24 M. Acqua- 
buona, the station for Rosignano , situated on an eminence to the 

Baedeker. Italy II. 5th Edition. \ 

2 Route 1 . PIOMBINO. From Leghorn 

right. All these villages are of recent origin and contain nothing of 
interest; they testify, however, to the rapid improvement which has 
taken place during the present century in this once so dreary district. 
The train crosses the Cecina , the ancient Caecina. The family of 
that name was once settled in this district, as is proved by numerous 
inscriptions at Volterra. 

32 M. Cecina (halt of 8 min. ; poor cafe), a modern place, where 
a branch line to Volterra diverges (see p. 9). 

The line now approaches the coast. The loftily-situated, ancient 
Etruscan Populonia becomes visible to the right, on a chain of hills 
projecting into the sea; beyond it the island of Elba (p. 13). 

43 M. Castagneto ; then (47 M.) 8. Vincenzo, with a small har- 

54 M. La Cornia; to the left on the height lies the small town 
of Campiglia, with a ruined castle and Etruscan tombs of no great 

From La Cornia to Piombino and Populonia. On the arrival of the 
last train from Leghorn a diligence runs in about 2 hrs. from La Cornia to 
Piombino (7^2 M.), returning thence at noon. A forenoon suffices for a visit 
to Populonia. 

Piombino (poor inn) is a small town with 4000 inhab. situated at the 
S. extremity of a wooded promontory, which on the land side is bounded 
by a flat district. A weather-beaten tower on the harbour commands a 
magnificent "prospect of the sea and the neighbouring island of Elba (in 
front of which rise the cliffs of Cerboli and Palmajola), of S. Giglio and 
the coast, and Corsica in the distance. 

Piombino originally belonged to Pisa, in 1399 became a principality of 
the Appiani, in 1603 was acquired by Spain, and then by the family of 
Buoncompagni-Ludovisi, from whom it was wrested by Napoleon in 1805 in 
favour of his brother-in-law, the Corsican Felix Bacciocchi. In 1816 it was 
restored, and till 1859 remained under the Tuscan supremacy. — Steamboat 
to Elba daily, returning the following morning (p. 13). 

About 6 M. from Piombino, at the N. extremity of the peninsula, is 
situated the ancient Populonia, the Etruscan Pupluna. The shorter route 
through the woods should not be attempted without a guide. The town 
with its mediseval castle, situated on a lofty and precipitous eminence, is 
a conspicuous object from all sides. Once a prosperous seaport, it suffered 
greatly from a siege by Sulla; in the time of Strabo it had fallen to decay, 
and is now a poor village. In ancient times the iron of Elba was smelted 
here. The old town-walls may still be distinctly traced, and are partic- 
ularly well preserved on the side towards the sea ; they consist of huge 
blocks, approaching the polygonal style. The views towards the land and 
the sea are striking and extensive. Several vaults , erroneously said to be- 
long to an amphitheatre, and a reservoir may also be mentioned as relics 
of the Roman period. The Etruscan tombs in the vicinity are hardly 
worthy of a visit. 

The district now begins to exhibit the distinguishing charac- 
teristics of the Maremme : a world of its own, consisting of forest 
and swamp , uncultivated , and in summer poisoned by malaria. 
During the Etruscan period the Maremme were richly cultivated 
and possessed several considerable towns : Populonia , Vetulonia, 
Busellae, Cosa. On the decline of agriculture in Italy and the 
conversion of the farms into pasture-land, the desolation of the 
coast - district made rapid progress ; for in this flat district where 

to Rome. GROSSETO. 1. Route. 6 

the water easily becomes stagnant , high cultivation is alone ca- 
pable of keeping the poisonous exhalations in check. Even Pliny 
describes this district as unhealthy , and in the middle ages its de- 
solation was still more complete. During the present century, 
under the wise administration of the grand-dukes of Tuscany, much 
was done to counteract the malaria by the drainage and filling up 
of swamps and the establishment of new farms; but the evil is still 
very great. Charcoal-burning and in winter cattle-grazing are the 
chief resources of the inhabitants , all of whom withdraw to the 
Tuscan hill-country in May, when the malaria begins. A few only 
of the more densely peopled localities enjoy a tolerably healthy at- 
mosphere. Those of the natives who are compelled to remain suffer 
severely from fever, and their gaunt and emaciated countenances 
afford a sad indication of the curse of the district. 

65 M. Follonica, near the sea, a small but industrial place which 
is deserted in summer, possesses considerable smelting-foundries 
for the iron from Elba. Beautiful view towards the sea ; to the right 
the promontory of Piombino and Elba, to the left the promontory 
of Castiglione with a lighthouse, and the small, grotesquely shaped 
island of Formica. On an eminence to the left rises Massa Marit- 
tima, one of the largest villages of the Maremme, with about 13,000 
inhabitants. In the vicinity are extensive copper-mines. — The 
train again quits the coast in order to avoid the Promontory of 

74 M. Potassa, station for Gavorrano, situated higher up, to the 
right. Farther on, likewise to the right, on an eminence, lies Co- 
lonna; and in the distance, at the mouth of the river Bruna, the 
small fortified harbour of Castiglione della Pescaia is visible. Here, 
as in the other seaports of the Maremme, wood and charcoal form 
the principal exports. 

80'/2 M. Monte Pescali , junction of a branch line from Siena 
(see below), which runs parallel to our line as far as Grosseto. 

91 M. Grosseto f*Aquila), the capital of the Maremme, a cheer- 
ful little town with 6300 inhab. The cure Chelli possesses a col- 
lection of Etruscan antiquities. Branch-line from Grosseto to As- 
eiano, a station on the Florence, Siena, and Orvieto line (seep. 17). 

About 3 ! /2 M. to the X. E. of Grosseto (carriage road) are situated the 
sulphureous Bagni di Jloselle , whence the ruins of Rusellae are reached 
in V2 hr. (guide necessary). Rusellae, anciently one of the twelve capitals 
of the Etruscan confederation , has been deserted since the middle of the 
12th cent, and is thickly overgrown with underwood. The walls , which 
are nearly 2 M. in circumference , and in most places accessible , consist 
partly of horizontal courses, partly of polygonal blocks (6-8 ft. high, 7-12 ft. 

Around Grosseto and to the W. in the direction of Castiglione extends 
a plain of considerable magnitude, in ancient times a lake (the Lacus Prelius 
of Cicero), which gradually became shallower (Palude di Castiglione and di 
Grosseto), and by its exhalations formed one of the chief sources of the 
malaria. By means of skilful drainage , and by conducting hither the de- 
posits of the neighbouring rivers , the government has succeeded in almost 

4 Route 1, ORBETELLO. From Leghorn 

entirely filling up the morass and converting it into a valuable pasture, 
12-15 M. in length. 

A little beyond Grosseto the Ombrone is crossed. The line 
skirts the wooded Promontory of Talamone ; towards the S. the 
imposing Monte Argentario (see below) becomes visible. 

At (105 M.) Talamone a beautiful view of the sea is disclosed. 
The village lies at the extremity of the promontory and possesses 
an anchorage sheltered by the island of Giglio and the Monte Ar- 
gentario. The extent of the creek has been much diminished by al- 
luvial deposits. Here, in B.C. 225, the Roman legions landed and 
signally defeated the Gauls who were marching against Rome. 

The train crosses the small river Osa, then the more important 
Albegna (ancient Albinia), at the mouth of which are salt-works. 
Stat. Albegna. 

114 M. Orbetello (halt of i/ 4 hr.). On the arrival of the train 
an omnibus (1 fr.) starts for Orbetello (poor inns ; the best is the 
Trattoria del Buon Gusto , or Saccoccione) , 1 1/2 M. distant , with 
6400 inhab., situated at the extremity of a promontory, not far 
from the foot of Monte Argentario, which rises immediately from the 
sea, and is connected with the mainland by two narrow tongues of 
land, whereby a large salt-water lagoon is formed. Beyond its re- 
markable situation the place contains nothing of interest, except 
the polygonal walls on the side next the sea, which testify to the 
great antiquity of the town, although its ancient name is unknown. 

From Orbetello an embankment has been constructed across the shallow 
hike, which abounds in fish, to M. Argentario. A carriage-road leads to the 
N. harbour Porto S. Stefano (steamboat to Elba, every Thursday at 3 p.m., 
see p. 13), and to Port Ercole on the S. side. The Monte Argentario 
(2087 ft.) culminates in two peaks, on one of which is situated a monastery 
of the Passionists. The ascent is very interesting, and is accomplished 
from Orbetello in 2-3 hrs. (with guide). The "view embraces the coast 
of Tuscany and the surrounding district as far as M. Amiata, and the sea 
with its numerous rocky islands as far as Sardinia. If time is limited, the 
first and lower eminence, 3 4 hr. from Orbetello, commanding a picturesque 
view of the coast, should be visited. 

Orbetello is also the most convenient starting-point for an excursion 
to the interesting ruins of the ancient Cosa, the present Ansedonia, 4i/j M. 
distant; and also for a visit to the ancient, towns of Saturnia and Sovana, 
30-35 M. inland. Cosa is an ancient Etruscan town, deserted as early as 
the 5th cent. The polygonal walls (1600 yds. in circtimference) with 
their towers are admirably preserved. A beautiful prospect of the sea and 
coast is enjoyed hence. 

Beyond Orbetello, on an eminence to the right, are the ruins of 
Cosa (see above). — The train soon enters the former Papal terri- 
tory, and traverses the Roman Maremma; scenery unattractive. 
127 M. Chiarone. It then crosses the Flora and reaches (135 M.) 
Montalto, a poor village. 

From Montalto the traveller may ascend by the bank of the Fiora to 
the ancient Ponte delta Badia and the site of Vulci , where verv successful 
excavations have been made since 1828, and thousands of Etruscan vases 
and other antiquities have been discovered. The ancient Etruscan city 
itself, the circumference of which is ascertained to have been 5 M. has 
eitirely disappeared with the exception of its tombs. ' 

to Rome. COR.NETO. 1. Route. 5 

Beyond Montalto the country is more undulating. The line 
crosses the small rivers Arrone and Marta, the outlet of the Lake 
of Bolsena. 

I441/2 M- Corneto, situated on a hill (348 ft.) l'/. 2 M. to the 
left of the station (seat in a carriage 1 fr.) , is an antiquated town 
with numerous towers (indifferent inn in the handsome Gothic *pa- 
lace of the Vitelleschi dating from 1437 , called II Palazzaccio ; 
bargaining necessary). A visit to this place, which is very inter- 
esting on account of the Etruscan tombs excavated in its vicinity, 
requires 4-5 hrs. The town commands fine views of the sea with 
M. Argentario and the neighbouring islands. The Romanesque 
churches have been sadly modernised in the interior. The town 
sprang up at the beginning of the middle ages after the decline of 
Tarquinii. A genealogical tree 'al fresco' in the Palazzo Comunale, 
professing to trace the origin of the place to a remote mythical era, 
shows an amusing disregard for history. At the extremity of the 
principal street (Corso), near a spot on the town- wall called the Bel- 
vedere, an interesting survey is obtained of the bleak environs. 

On the Turchina, a stony hill opposite, separated from Montarozzi, the 
hill of the tombs, by a ravine, lay Tarquinii, a town with walls about 
5 M. in circumference, anciently one of the twelve Etruscan capitals, and 
remarkable for the influence which it exercised on the development of the 
national religion of Etruria. It participated in the war of the Etruscan 
confederation against Rome , but was compelled to surrender after the 
Samnite war and to receive a Roman colony. The town continued to 
flourish during the empire, but subsequently declined and was devastated 
by the Saracens; it was, however, inhabited down to 1307, when its last 
remains were totally destroyed by the inhabitants of Corneto. No ruins 
are now visible save the scanty vestiges of walls and foundations. Of its 
seaport Graviscae a few relics on the right bank of the Marta, l'/s M. from 
its mouth, still remain. The palazzo of the Countess Braschi-Falgari con- 
tains a small collection of antiquities of Corneto , including beautiful 
Etruscan gold ornaments ; but admission is only granted to persons 
specially introduced. The Giardino Braschi , outside the town, also con- 
tains a few Etruscan and Roman antiquities. There are also several 
private collections of vases, etc. for sale. The archaeologist Monsignor 
Sensi is very obliging in giving information to visitors. 

Tombs. The principal interest attaching to Corneto is derived from its 
tombs , the "Necropolis of the Ancient Tarquinii, which spreads over a 
great part of the hill upon which the town itself stands. Francesco, the 
custodian of the tombs, should be asked for at the inn; fee for one pers. 
IV2 fr., for two pers. 2 fr., for a party more in proportion. The Necro- 
polis was accidentally discovered in 1823 by Carlo Avvolta, a native of Cor- 
neto, who while digging penetrated into a tomb, and through the aperture 
beheld a warrior extended, accoutred in full armour. The influence of the 
air caused the body to collapse after a few minutes' exposure. Even in an- 
cient times the tombs were frequently plundered for the sake of the pre- 
cious trinkets they contained, and modern excavations have despoiled them 
of every movable object which remained. A visit to them is nevertheless 
extremely interesting to those who desire to form an idea of the civili- 
sation , art, and religion of the Etruscans ; and for this purpose the tombs 
of Corneto are well adapted owing to the good preservation of their 
paintings. The decoration of the chambers is in a style that was chiefly 
prevalent in the towns of southern Etruria, and indicates a close relationship 
to Hellenic art. The Tumuli which externally distinguished the tombs have 
in the lapse of ages been entirely destroyed; the subterranean chambers 
now alone remain, of which the following are the most interesting; — 

6 Route 1. TOSCANELLA. From Leghorn 

1. Grotta delta Caccia del Cignale (boar-hunt), or Grotla Querciola. The 
paintings, copied in the Museo Gregoriano (p. 310), are much faded ; they 
represent a banquet with music and dancing, and a boar-hunt. — Opposite to 
this tomb — 

"2. Grotla del C'onvito Funebre, or del Triclinio, also containing the re- 
presentation of a banquet. The men here, as in all the others, are sketched 
in outline on the walls in dark red, the women in whitish colours. 

3. Grotta del Morto, small; scene of mourning for the deceased, and 
of dancing. 

;: 4. Grotta del Tifone, more extensive, supported in the centre by a 
pillar, on which are Typhons, or winged genii of death terminating in ser- 
pents. The sarcophagi bear Latin as well as Etruscan inscriptions, a proof 
that they belong to a comparatively recent epoch. To the right on the wall 
are souls escorted by genii; under them is Charon with the hammer. 

o. Grotta del Cardinale, the most spacious tomb ofTarquinii, supported 
by four pillars, opened in the last century; colours almost entirely faded. 

About l>/i! M. from Corneto is the Grotta delle Bighe, discovered in 1827 
by Baron Stackenberg. A copy of the paintings is preserved in the Vati- 
can. — In the vicinity : Grotta del Mare, small, with sea-horses. — 'Grotta 
del Barone, so called from the Hanoverian ambassador by whom it was 
opened, contains warlike games, riders, etc., partly in the archaic style ; co- 
lours well preserved. — Grotta Francesca, or Giusliniani, with dancers and 
races, much faded ; copies in the Museo Gregoriano. — Grotta delle Iscri- 
zioni, so called from the numerous Etruscan inscriptions, with warlike trials 
of skill. — Several other tombs have been recently discovered. Thus the 
Grotla deir Oreo: in the anterior chamber a banquet; in the one beyond 
it a scene from the infernal regions , with Pluto , Proserpine , Geryones, 
Tiresias, Agamemnon, Memnon, and Theseus; in a niche in this chamber 
is Ulysses blinding Polyphemus. — In the Grotta degli Scudi, banquet 
scenes. — In the Grotta del Citareda, men and women dancing. 

Toscanelta is now best visited from Corneto , from which it is 16 31. 
distant , by means of the diligence to Viterbo , which runs three times 

Toscanella (669 ft. above the sea ; Inn at the "Viterbo gate), the an- 
cient Tuscania , a small town with 3900 inhab. whose walls and towers 
impart a mediaeval aspect to the place , contains two fine old Romanesque 
structures : *S. Pietro, on the height, with crypt and antique columns, and 
on the exterior fine sculptures ; and "S. Maria, smaller but even more inter- 
esting. Both churches are now disused. On the hill of S. Pietro stood the 
ancient citadel. Etruscan tombs in the vicinity. 

'Campanarfs Garden, situated in the lower part of the town , em- 
bellished with sarcophagi and other relics, and containing an imitation of an 
Etruscan tomb, is an extremely interesting spot. The sarcophagi, with the 
life-size portraits of the deceased framed in living green, are very im- 
pressive, and the traveller will nowhere acquire a more accurate idea of the 
contents of an Etruscan tomb. Sign. Carlo Campanari, who is obliging 
and well-informed , has with his father conducted many of those extensive 
excavations which have filled the museums of Europe with Etruscan vases, 
goblets, mirrors, and other interesting relics. 

The distance between Toscanella and Viterbo is about 12'/2 M. (see 
p. 67). 

The train skirts the foot of the hill of Corneto , which remains 
visible for a longtime. To the right, farther on, we perceive the 
insignificant Porto Clernentino, which is entirely abandoned in sum- 
mer on account of the malaria. The horizon is bounded inland by 
the mountains of Tolfa (p. 7), which yield an abundant supply of 
alum and sulphur. The line then crosses the small river Mignone, 
at the mouth of which is situated the Torre Bertaldo, where ac- 

to Rome. CIVITA VECCHIA. 1. Route. 7 

cording to a legend, an angel refuted the doubts which St. Augustine 
entertained respecting the Trinity. 

157 M. Civita VeCChia. — Halt of 10 min. ; 'Railway-Restaurant. 

Omnibus to tbe town (within a few minutes' walk) 25 c. ; one-horse 
carriage 1/2 fi\, two-horse 1 fr. ; porter for a box 40 c. 

Arrival by Sea. The tariff for landing is 1/2 fr- f° 1- each person ; for a 
box from the steamboat to the station 1 fr. ; travelling-bag or hat-box 
1 '2 fr. Custom-house examination at the railway -station , situated outside 
the town. All these charges are the same for embarcation. Carriages to 
the station, see above. 

Hotels: "Orlandi, to Ihe right at the entrance of the town, a large 
hotel, expensive; Eukopa, moderate. 

Civita Vecchia, the seaport of Rome, with 11,600 inhab., the 
ancient Centum Cellae founded by Trajan, and sometimes called 
Portus Trajani, was destroyed by the Saracens in 828, but in 854 
the inhabitants returned into the 'ancient city'. The fortifications, 
built in the 16th and 17th cent., have recently been restored by 
the French. The entrance to the harbour , in front of which rises 
a small fortified island with a lighthouse, is defended by two strong 
towers. Visitors are permitted to inspect the Bagno , where the 
galley-convicts are at work. The town contains little that is inter- 
esting. The traveller may best spend a leisure hour in walking on 
the quay. 

A good road leads from Civita Vecchia to the volcanic mountains of 
La Tolfa (2041 ft.) and the loftily situated village of that name, in the 
vicinity of which are extensive mines of alum. The scenery is picturesque, 
and the locality interesting to geologists. Some mineral springs , with the 
ruins of ancient baths (Aquae Tauri) are situated about 3 SI. from Civita 

From Civita Vecchia to Rome (SO'/^M. ; express in 2, ordinary 
trains in 3 hrs. ; fares 12 fr. 30, 8 fr. 2o c. 5 fr. 95 c. ; or 9 fr. 20, 
6 fr. 45, 4 fr. 60 c). The best views are on the right till Rome is 
approached, when a seat on the left should if possible be secured. 
The line traverses a dreary tract , running parallel with the ancient 
Via Aurelia near the sea-coast as far as Palo. On clear days the 
Alban and Volscian mountains are visible in the distance, and still 
farther off the promontory of Circeii. 

162 1 / 2 M. Santa Marinella possesses a mediaeval castle rising 
above a small bay, in the garden of which a date-palm flourishes. 

168 M. Santa Severa, a picturesque baronial castle, formerly the 
property of the Galera , afterwards that of the Orsini family, and 
now belonging to the Santo Spirito Hospital at Rome. Here in an- 
cient times was situated Pyrgos or Pyrgi , the harbour of the once 
powerful Etruscan city Caere , now Cervetri (p. 373), situated on 
a height to the left, 6 M. farther on. 

171 "2 ^1- Furbara. The solitary towers on the shore were erected 
during the middle ages for protection against the dreaded Turkish 

177 M. Palo (poor Railway-Restaurant), with a chateau and 
villa of the Odescalchi, occupies the site of the ancient Alsium, 

8 Route 1. MAG LIANA. 

where Pompey and Antoninus Pius possessed country-residences. 
Relics of antiquity now scarce. 

181 M. Palidoro lies on the river of that name, which has its 
source on the heights near the Lago di Bracciano. The line now 
approaches the plantations of (186 M.) Maccarese to the right, sup- 
posed to be the ancient Fregenae, which lay near the mouth of the 
Arrone, a river descending from the Lago di Bracciano. The Lago 
di Ponente or Stagno di Maccarese is now skirted. 

193 M. Ponte Oalera, whence a branch-line to Fiumicino (p. 376) 
is in course of construction. Near (201 M.J Magliana the Tiber he- 
comes visible, and the line follows its course. A more unbroken view 
is now obtained of the extensive Campagna di Roma ; to the right, 
in the background, the Alban Mts. (at the base of which gleam the 
white houses of Frascati , p. 347; comp. panorama p. 318) and to 
the left the Sabine Mts. ; in the foreground is the grand basilica of 
5. Paolo fuori le Mura (p. 251). To the left is disclosed a view of 
Rome, the Aventine (p. 247), the Capitol (p. 207), and Trastevere 
(p. 317). The train crosses the Tiber by a new iron bridge and 
slowly approaches the walls of Rome, of which the S. E. side is 
skirted. Above the wall rises Monte Testaccio (p. 248) ; adjacent 
is the Pyramid of Cestius (p. 248) with the cypresses of the Pro- 
testant cemetery ; in the vicinity, the Porta S. Paolo ; farther distant, 
the Aventine with $. Sabina (p. 249). The line then traverses gar- 
dens and unites with the railway from Naples. The Porta S. Se- 
bastiano , approached by the Via Appia (p. 336), is visible. After 
crossing the latter, we observe the basilica of 5. Giovanni in Late- 
rano (p. 265) with the numerous statues of its facade ; then the 
church of S. Croce in Gerusalemme (p. 182), with its lofty Ro- 
manesque tower. The train now passes beneath the aqueduct of 
the Acqua Felice and through the Porta Maggiore (p. 181), which 
is crossed by two ancient water-conduits. The line then intersects 
the city-wall. To the left lies a decagonal ruin , generally called a 
Temple of Minerva Medica (p. 180), two stories in height. A view 
is next obtained of 8. Maria Maggiore (p. 175), a handsome edifice 
with two domes and a Romanesque tower. The train enters the 
station at the N.E. extremity of the town, opposite the Thermae 
of Diocletian, and we are now in Rome. — Arrival, see p. 104. 

2. Volterra. 

From Leghorn to Volterra. From Volterra to Siena. 

Fkom Leghorn to Volterra. A visit to Volterra, the antiquities of 
which are interesting, is most conveniently accomplished from Leghorn. 
Railway via Cecina to Saline, 50>/ 2 M. , in" 2 3 /4-3 hrs. ; express to Cecina 
5 fr. 90, 4 fr. 15, 2 fr. Go c. ; ordinary trains 5 fr. 60, 3 fr. 85 2 fr. 65 c. ; 
from Cecina to I.e Saline 3 fr. 25, 2 fr. 25, 1 fr. 55 c. — Diligence from 
Saline to Volterra in 2 hrs. (fare 1 fr.). Those who intend to continue 
their journey southwards by the Maremme line should leave the bulk of 
their luggage at Cecina. 

VOLTEREA. 2. Route, 9 

From Voltekra to Siena (about 31 SI.) there is no direct conveyance. 
A diligence runs twice a week only to Colle (generally on Mon. and Thurs.), 
where it corresponds with another running thence to the railway-station 
Poggibonsi, in time for the afternoon train to Siena and Orvieto. Comp. 
p. 15. The traveller who hires a carriage for the excursion from Siena 
to Volterra"should not fail to return by S. Gimignano (p. 15). Comp. p. 12. 

Volterra may also be reached from Pontedera , a station on the Flo- 
rence and Pisa line, by driving up the valley of the Era (5-6 hrs.). 

From Leghorn to (32 M.) Cecina (Maremme Railway), see p. 2. 
The branch-line to Saline diverges here and ascends on the right 
bank of the Cecina, traversing a district remarkable for its mineral 
wealth. — 5'/2 M- San Martino ; 10i/ 2 M. Casino di Terra; 15 M. 
Ponte Qinori. 

I8Y2 M. Saline, the terminus, in a bleak situation, where mal- 
aria prevails in summer. The extensive salt-works in the vicinity 
supply the whole of Tuscany with salt and yield a considerable re- 

The following excursion, for which a carriage may be hired at Saline, 
is interesting to geologists. We first drive to Pomarance, a pleasant town, 
famed in the Renaissance period for its earthenware , with a large cha- 
teau of Count larderello , and in about 3 hrs. reach Larderello on the 
Monte Cerboli , the central point of the boracie acid works belonging to 
the Larderello family, which are politely shown to visitors. The ex- 
cursion may be extended towards the S., by Bagno del Morbo, Castelmtovo, 
JSasso , and Monterotovdo , to 3Iassa Marittiina (p. 3), a drive of 3 hrs. 
more. Near Si.sso and Monterotondo in particular the country is covered 
with clouds of smoke, and the hot surface of the earth with incrustations 
of sulphur, sulphate of iron, etc. Near Monterotondo is the hot Lago Zol- 
foreo, a Email lake strongly impregnated with boracie acid, which is ob- 
tained from it by evaporation by M. Duval, a Frenchman. Count Lar- 
derello's works yield about 850 tons, and 31. Duval's 250 tons annually, 
and the whole quantity is sent by contract to England, where it is chiefly 
used in the manufacture of glass and pottery. The lagoni, or pools 
through which the soffloni or jets of boracie acid in the form of steam 
bubble up, are all, with the exception of those of Travale, in the region of 
the Cecina and Cornia, and most probably have a common volcanic origin. 

The road from Saline to (5 M.) Volterra ascends. The country 
presents a peculiarly bleak appearance. 

Volterra. — "Albergo Nazionale, R. 172-2 fr. ; Ukiose. — Cofi 
Etrusco, opposite the Nazionale. 

The Alabaster Works of Volterra ::re celebrated and afford occupation 
to nearly two-thirds of the population, but the patterns chiefly in vogue 
are unfortunately in very bad taste. The ordinary kinds of alabaster are 
found in the vicinity, the more valuable in the mines of La Castellina, 
to the S. of Leghorn. A visit to the work-shops is interesting, and suit- 
able objects for presents . etc. may be purchased here far more advanta- 
geously than at Florence or Leghorn. 

Volterra, the ancient Volaterrae, Etruscan Velathri, one of the 
most ancient Etruscan cities, is now an episcopal residence with 
13,000 inhab., loftily situated (1602 ft. J, and commanding in clear 
weather charming prospects as far as the heights of Pisa, the Apen- 
nines, and the sea with the islands of Gorgona, Elba, Capraja, 
and Corsica. The environs are dreary and desolate ; the effect of 
the rain on he soft and spongy soil is most prejudicial to agri- 

10 Route 2. VOLTERRA. From Leghorn 

Volterra was one of the twelve ancient confederate cities of 
Etruria, and was so strongly fortified that during the civil wars it 
withstood a siege by Sulla's troops for two years. It afterwards 
became a Roman municipium, but gradually fell to decay and was 
totally destroyed in the 10th cent. It was re-erected under the 
Othos, but does not now cover one-third of its ancient area. In 
the middle ages it was a free town , until it became subject to 
Florence in the 14th century. 

Among the Anticiuities the ancient *Town Walls, once up- 
wards of 4^2 M. in circumference, and nearly three times as ex- 
tensive as those of Fiesole and Cortona, are especially worthy of 
notice. Their dimensions (40 ft. in height, 13 ft. in thickness) 
and construction of horizontal courses of sandstone blocks (pan- 
china) are best inspected outside the Porta S. Francesco and in 
the garden of the monastery of Santa Chiara. One of the ancient 
gateways , the *Porta all' Arco, 20 ft. in height, is also still in 
existence. The corbels are adorned with almost obliterated heads of 
lions, or guardian deities of the city. An urn in the museum, 
representing the battle of Thebes, has a similar gate upon it. 
The Porta di Diana, another gateway, outside the Porta Fiorentina, 
has been much altered. Outside the same gate, below the 
burying-ground , is situated the ancient Necropolis, about midway 
on the slope of the hill, at the place which is now called 8. 
Marmi. A number of the curiosities in the museum were found 
here, but the tombs have all been reclosed. 

The Piscina, outside the castle, a reservoir resting on six co- 
lumns, is only shown by permission of the bishop, and is reached 
by means of a long ladder. 

The Thermae, near the fountain of S. Felice, are of Roman 
origin. Traces of an Amphitheatre near the Porta Fiorentina. 

The *Museo Ciyico in the Palazzo Pubblico in the Piazza is 
the most interesting object in the town. The handsome edifice, 
begun in 1208, completed in 1257, is unfortunately somewhat 
modernised ; the exterior is adorned with mediaeval coats of arms. 

The museum, established in 1731, and greatly enriched by the collection* 
of the erudite Mario Guarnacci in 1761 , contains in ten rooms a valuable 
collection of inscriptions, coins, bronzes, statues , vases, etc., and upwards 
of 400 cinerary urns. These are generally about 3 ft. in length, and date 
from the latest period of Etruscan art, i.e. the 3rd or 2nd cent. B.C. 
The subjects are more interesting than the execution, which is for the 
most part very mediocre. A few of them, about 3 ft. in length, are com- 
posed of terracotta and sandstone, but most of them are of the alabaster of 
the environs. On the lid is the greatly reduced recumbent effigy of the 
deceased ; the sides are adorned with reliefs , and some of them bear 
traces of painting and gilding. The representations on the urns are partly 
derived from the peculiar sphere of Etruscan life, partly from Greek my- 
thology. From the former, parting scenes are the most frequent; the de- 
ceased, equipped as a rider, is escorted by a messenger who bears a long 
sack containing provisions for the journey or is accompanied by Charon 
with the hammer. The flowers which are often observed , when half in 
bloom, denote the youth, when completely opened, the riper age of the 

to Volterra. VOLTERRA. i>. Route. 1 1 

departed. Sacrifices and funeral-processions occur frequently, as well as 
banquets, races, contests of skill, etc. Greek mythology lias supplied an 
abundant selection of subjects, e. g. Ulysses with the Sirens and with 
Circe, the abduction of Helen, death of Clytemnestra, Orestes and the Furies, 
the Seven before Thebes, Polynices and Eteocles, CEdipus with the Sphynx, 
(Edipus slaying his father. There is a singular blending of luxuriance 
and melancholy in the subjects as well as in the treatment of these works, 
and the same peculiarity is often observed in the subsequent development 
of Etruscan art. 

On the Upper Floor of the building is the Sala della Magisiratura, 
which contains & Library of 13,000 vols. , ivory carving, diptychs, etc. 
On the wall the Annunciation, a large fresco by Orcagna, greatly damaged. 
A number of antiquities recently excavated, for which there was no room 
in the small Museo, have been temporarily placed here. Among them are 
several fine glass vases. 

The "Cathedral was consecrated in 1120 by Pope Calixtus II., 
enlarged in 1254 by Niccolo Pisano, and restored in the 16th cent. 
The facade dates from the 13th cent. 

The Interior is remarkable for its rich marble decorations and sculp- 
tures. The old Pulpit is adorned with sculptures of the 13th cent., and 
those on the high altar are by Mino da Fiesole. The -'Oratorio di S. Carlo 
in the right transept contains several unimportant pictures and an ad- 
mirable "Annunciation by Luca Signorelli, 1491. 

Adjacent is the baptistery of S. Giovanni, an octagonal church, 
supposed to date from the 7th cent. , which occupies the site of 
an ancient temple of the sun. The entrance-archway and the capi- 
tals of the columns, decorated with animals and birds, are works 
of the 13th cent. ; the fine arch of the high-altar is by Balsimelli 
da Settignano (16th cent.), the octagonal font by Andrea di San- 
sovino (1502), and the ciborium by Mino da Fiesole (1471). 

S. Lino, a church and monastery, founded in 1480 by Raffaele 
Maffei, contains the tomb of that scholar with a recumbent statue 
by Silvio da Fiesole. 

S. Francesco, with the Gothic chapel of the Confraternita della 
Croce di Oiorno of 1315 , contains frescoes from the life of the 
Saviour and the legend of the Cross by Cienni di Francesco di Ser 
Cienni of Florence, 1410. 

In the neighbouring church of S. Dalmazia are temporarily 
placed several pictures which are to be eventually exhibited in the 
Museo: * Luca Signorelli, Madonna and saints, 1491; Dom. Ghir- 
landajo, Christ in glory (ruined by restoration in 1874) ; a Ma- 
donna, by the same, and others. 

The Citadel consists of two parts , the Cassero or Rocca 
Vecchia, erected on the ancient town-walls in 1343 by Walter 
de Brienne, Duke of Athens, and the Rocca Nuova, built by the 
Florentines after the capture of the town. At the same time they 
constructed the prison 11 Mastio for the incarceration of political 
offenders , into which the mathematician Lorenzo Lorenzini was 
thrown as a suspected individual in 1682 by the Grand -Duke 
Cosmo III., and where he was confined for 11 years. The citadel 
has been converted into a house of correction and may be visited 
with permission of the Sotto Prefetto. 

12 Route:'. VOLTERRA. 

The Palazzo Maffei-Guarnacci, opposite the church of S. Michele, 
with its three towers, the oldest dating from the 13th cent., contains 
pictures and a valuable collection of letters of Salv. Rosa. 

The Gothic Palazzo Inghirami contains a small collection of 
pictures, comprising a *Portrait of the learned Fedra Inghirami, 
pronounced by Miindler to be an original work by Raphael (a replica 
in the Pitti Gallery at Florence). 

The Casa Ducci bears the Roman epitaph of a boy, five years of 
age, probably a member of the family of the poet Persius, who 
was born at Volaterrae in A.D. 34. 

In the Casa Ricciarelli , Daniele da Volterra , the celebrated 
pupil of Michael Angelo, was born in 1509 (he died at Paris in 
1567). The house still belongs to the family of Ricciarelli, who 
possess the artist's *Elias. 

In the neighbourhood of Volterra, in the valley towards the E., is 
situated the Villa Inghirami, whence the rocky labyrinth named Le 
Buche de' Saracini may be visited. — About 3 / 4 31. to the N.W. of the 
town, between the churches of S. Giusta and La Badia, lies a deep ravine 
called Le Baize, which has been comparatively recently formed by the 
action of water and continues to increase in extent. Several buildings 
have already been undermined and destroyed, and the celebrated abbey 
of San Salvatore of the order of Camaldoli, founded in the 11th cent., is 
now threatened with the fame fate. It possesses Doric cloisters and 
several treasures of art. 

A pleasant Excunsiox may be made to the copper -mines of La Cava 
di Caporciano, near Monte Catini , 10 31. from Volterra. The road leads 
across the hill of La Bachetona to Monte Catini on the summit of the Se- 
lagile, a mountain of volcanic origin. The square tower of the old castle 
commands an extensive prospect. The mines have been worked since the 
15th cent. , and the operations were most successful till within the last 
few years, but since 1870 the yield has fallen off. The present possessor 
is Count Butturlin. The mineral was found in pockets or clusters, be- 
tween serpentine, known here as gabbro verde , and a peculiar species 
of red rock, gabbro rosso. The whole vicinity is extremely interesting for 
geologists. A number of peaks, such as Monte delV Abete, Poggio alia Croce, 
and Monte Massi , consist of gabbro rosso , which has been upheaved at 
a comparatively recent period through the surrounding sand and limestone. 
The view from "Monte Massi (1910 ft.) or from Poggio alia Croce ('/s a r - 
from Blonte Catini) extends from the heights near Massa and Carrara to- 
wards the N. to Blonte Amiata on the S., and embraces the sea with the 
islands of Elba, Capraja, and Corsica. 

From Volterra to Siena. The high road leads towards the 
E. through an undulating and attractive district. To the left is 
seen S. Gimignano (p. 15), to which a road diverges to the left after 
7'/-2 M. (reaching it after 11 M. more; pedestrians may take a short 
cut, diverging 1 M. farther on, via Ranza and S. Dcnato). To the 
right of the high road we observe Pomarance (p. 9). 

157-2 M. from Volterra lies Colle, where the roads to Siena and 
Poggibonsi diverge. This town, which is frequently mentioned in 
the history of Renaissance, now consists of two parts, Colle Alto and 
Colle Basso. The first of these contains the palaces of the old, but 
now greatly impoverished aristocracy; the Cathedral. datin°- from the 
13th cent., with a facade modernised in bad taste, a marble pulpit, 

ELBA. 3. Route. 13 

of which the lower part belongs to the 13th cent. , and the upper 
part, with reliefs of saints, to the 16th, and handsome carved choir- 
stalls and episcopal throne of the 17th cent.; and the house of the 
celebrated architect Arnolfo di Cambio. — At Colle Basso there are 
now important iron and glass works. 

From Colle to Poggibonsi 5 AI. , see p. 15. To Siena about 
15 M., a drive of 2 hrs. 

Siem, see p. 21. 

3. Elba and the Tuscan Islands. 

A visit to Elba, which is strongly recommended to the scientific and 
to the admirer of the picturesque, is most conveniently accomplished either 
from Leghorn or from Piombino. Between both these points and Porto 
Ferrajo, the capital of the island, communication is kept up by the Societa 
Rubattino •£ Co. From Leghorn every Sunday at 10 a. m. , arriving at 
Porto Ferrajo at 4 p. m., returning every Monday at 8 a. m., and arriving 
at Leghorn at 2 p.m. — From Piombino daily at 4.30 p.m., returning 
at 9.30 a.m., in 2 hrs. — A steamboat of the same company also makes a 
trip once weekly to the small neighbouring islands (Litiea deW Arcipelttgo 
Toscono). Departure from Leghorn every Wednesday at 8 a. m. ; from Gor- 
gona at 10.40 a.m., Capraja 1 p.m., Porto Ferrajo 4.30 p.m.; thence on 
Thursday at 5 a.m., Pianosa at 8.40a.m., Porto S. Stefano (harbour of 
JI. Argentario) at 2.20 p. m. ; returning at 3 p. m., Porto Ferrajo 9.10 p. m., 
thence on Friday at 8 a.m., Capraja 11 a.m., Gorgona 1.30 p.m., and 
Leghorn 4.40 p. m. 

Half-an-hour after the harbour of Leghorn has been quitted, 
the cliff Meloria comes in sight, where on 6th August, 1283, the 
Pisans were so signally defeated by the Genoese, that they never 
regained their former supremacy. Farther "W. is Gorgona, inhabited 
by fishermen, a sterile island, affording pasture to wild goats only. 
Between the latter and Elba lies Capraja ('island of goats', so called 
by the ancients also), with 2000 inhab., where wine is produced. 

Elba, Lat. Ilva , Greek AZihalia , consisting of an imposing 
mountain-group, is reached from Piombino in l'/ 2 nr - The Torre 
di Oiove, situated on the highest point, serves as a landmark to 
sailors. The vessel rounds the Capo della Vita and enters the 
beautiful bay of Porto Ferrajo, enclosed amphitheatrically by moun- 
tains. The island was celebrated in ancient times for its iron ore ; 
in the middle ages it was subject to the Pisans, then to Genoa, to 
Lucca, and to the Appiani of Piombino, and was finally presented 
by the Emp. Charles V. to the Grand-Duke Cosmo I. of Florence, 
who fortified the harbour of Porto Ferrajo in 1548. As the name 
of the town indicates , the export and manufacture of iron form 
the principal occupation of the inhabitants (22,000), others of 
whom are supported by the tunny and sardine fisheries. Elba has 
acquired a modern celebrity as the retreat of the dethroned Na- 
poleon, from 5th May, 1814, to 26th Feb., 1815. The small palace 
occupied by the emperor is still shown at Porto Ferrajo , on the 
height above the harbour, between the forts Stella and Falcone, 

14 Route 3. ELBA. 

which were erected by Cosmo I., and command a view of the bay 
in front, and of the sea in the direction of Piombino at the back. 
It is now the residence of the governatore , and contains remini- 
scences of its former imperial occupant. The cathedral, theatre, 
arsenal, etc. of which the island boasts contain nothing which re- 
quires comment. After the fall of Napoleon in 1815 Elba was re- 
stored to Tuscany , in the fortunes of which it has since then par- 
ticipated. Length of the island about 18 M., breadth 61/2 M., area 
147 sq. M. ; it contains several fertile valleys, but lofty and pre- 
cipitous mountains predominate. Monte Capanne, the highest point, 
near the village of Marciana, is 3304 ft. in height. The coast on 
the side next the mainland is less abrupt, and produces wine and 
fruit of remarkably fine quality, especially in the environs of Ca- 
poliveri, where excellent Aleatico is grown. Most of the villages, 
such as the picturesque stronghold of Porto Longone, founded by 
the Spaniards, are situated on the coast. Rio, where the iron-mines 
are worked, lies more inland. The yield of ore is still abundant, 
and in ancient times formed a source of wealth to the Etruscans. 
The ferriferous strata lie on the surface , and are recognised at 
a distance by the reddish-black appearance of the hills. 

Between Elba and the mainland are the two small islands of 
Palmajola and Cerboli. 

To the S. lies the island oiPianosa, the ancient Planasia, which, 
as its name indicates, is perfectly flat. To this island Agrippa Post- 
humus , grandson of Augustus, was once banished , and to him are 
referred the considerable Roman remains which still exist here. Far- 
ther S. rises Monte Cristo, consisting of granite-rock , 6 M. in cir- 
cumference. It contains numerous springs, and the ruins of a mon- 
astery destroyed by pirates in the 16th cent. Nearer the coast is 
Oiglio , Lat. Igilium, a considerable island containing a village and 
vestiges of Roman palaces. The highest point is 1630 ft. above the 

4. From Florence to Siena and Chiusi by Empoli. 

116 M. Railway. From Florence to Siena, 58V2M., in3-3i/2hrs.; fares 
10 fr. 45, 7 fr. 20, 5 fr. — From Siena to Chicsi , 57>/s M., in 3V4-5 hrs. ; 
fares 9 fr. 70, 6 fr. 65, 4 fr. 63 c. - No quick trains. 

Florence, see vol. I. of this Handbook. The line skirts the 
N. bank of the Arno, passing the Cascine and numerous villas. 
Beyond stat. 8. Domino the valley of the Arno expands. 7 M. 
Signa , with its grey pinnacles and towers , is famed for its straw- 
plaiting establishments. The line intersects undulating vineyards, 
crosses the Ombrone , which falls into the Arno, and enters the 
defile of the Oonfolina, which separates the middle from the lower 
valley of the Arno. 15y 2 M. Montelupo, approached by an iron 
bridge across the Arno. Beyond it, on the right, is seen the Villa 
Ambrogiana, founded by Ferdinand I. on the site of an old castle 

S. GIMIGNANO. 4. Route. 1 5 

of the Ardinghelli. Then, crossing the small river Pesa, the train 
reaches — 

19 M. Empoli, a small town with 6400 inhab., with antiquated 
buildings and narrow streets, situated in a fertile district. Halt of 
10-20 min. ; passengers to Siena change carriages. The main line 
pursues a W. direction towards Pisa and Leghorn; see vol. I. of 
this Handbook. 

The line to Siena traverses the fertile valley of the Elsa, on 
the right bank of the stream. To the right, on the height, S. Mi- 
niato dei Tedeschi, picturesquely situated , and possessing a lofty 
mediaeval tower. Beyond stat. Osteria Bianea, a fruitful valley is 
traversed. 31 M. Castel Florentine* ; the town, on the height to the 
left , is the principal place in the Vol d'Elsa. 

36 M. Certaldo; the town, on the hill to the left, was the na- 
tive place of the poet Giovanni Boccaccio., who died here, 21st Dec. 
1375, at the age of 62. Down to 1783 his tomb was in the church 
of S. Michele e Oiacomo (La Canonica) ; it was erected in 1503 
and adorned with a statue of the poet , who held the 'Decamerone' 
in his hand. The monument was afterwards removed and the bones 
scattered. The house of Boccaccio was restored in 1823 by the 
Countess Carlotta Lenzoni-Medici, and fitted up in the mediaeval 
style. The remains of his monument were also brought hither. 

44 M. Poggibonsi ; the town (4000 inhab. J lies to the right. 
On the hill above it rises the old castle and the monastery of S. Luc- 
chese. In the church of the castle is an altar-piece and in the former 
Refectory are frescoes by Gerino da Pistoja. 

Diligence from Poggibonsi to Colle, corresponding with the diligence 
to Volteeea (at present Mond. and Thurs.), see p. 13. Carriage from 
Poggibonsi to Volterra about 15 fr., a drive of 3-4 hrs. 

On a hill (1181 ft.J about 6 M. to the W. of Poggibonsi , and 
reached by a hilly road in 2y 2 hrs., lies the ancient town of — 

S. Gimignano (Albergo Giusti, in the Piazza della Collegiata, 
moderate , bargain necessary), with 8000 inhab. In the 13th and 
beginning of the 14th cent, it was a prosperous and independent 
place , but in 1353 , after having suffered terribly in consequence 
of the dissensions of the leading families of the Salvucci (Ghibel- 
lines) and Ardinghelli (Guelphs), it became subject to Florence. 
Its walls, its gate, the numerous toweTs (whence the name 'S. 
Gimignano delle belle torri') and the streets, all carry us back to the 
middle ages. There is no town in Tuscany which presents so faith- 
ful a picture of Dante's time, as S. Gimignano, and nowhere can we 
obtain a clearer insight into the rich development of Italian art in 
the 13th-15th cent. Architecture of the Gothic type prevails, and 
most of the houses are of uniform and symmetrical construction. 

In the centre of the town is the Piazza della Collegiata, or 
del Duomo. The principal buildings in this square are : — 

16 Route 4. S. G1MIGNAN0. From Florence 

The *Palazzo Pubblico or Comunale, erected in 1288-1323. 

The Sala del Consiglio contains a '-Madonna with saints and the 
kneeling donor Podesta Nello dei Tolomei , a fresco by Lippo Memmi of 
Siena, 1317, remarkable only for elaborate execution, restored by Benozzo 
Gozzoli in 14117 ; also pictures from suppressed monasteries in the neigh- 
bourhood : 12, 13. Filippino Lippi, Annunciation ; 18. Pinturicchio, Madonna 
with two saints. — The Cappella del Pretore , or delta Carcere (now 
divided by a wall into two parts), contains a * Scene from the legend of 
St. Yvo, and allegorical figures of Truth, Prudence, and Falsehood, fres- 
coes in grisaille by Sodoma. There are also many traces of frescoes in 
other parts of the palace. 

Adjoining the palace is the Torre del Comune (160 ft.), the 
highest of the 13 towers which still exist out of the original number 
of 50. The largest of its three bells dates from 1328. 

The Palazzo del Podesta, on the left side of the piazza, with 
an imposing loggia, is surmounted by a tower on which is indicated 
the height beyond which private individuals were prohibited from 
building. — On the opposite side of the piazza rises the principal 
church — 

*La Collegiata, or La Pieve, of the 11th cent., altered in the 
15th by Oiuliano da Majano, and now entirely modernised. It con- 
tains numerous frescoes of the 14th and 15th cent. 

On the entrance-wall, "Martyrdom of St. Sebastian, a fresco of colos- 
sal proportions by Benozzo Gozzoli, 1465 ; in the N. aisle, scenes from the 
Old Testament (badly preserved) by Bartolo di Fredi of Siena , 1356; in 
the S. aisle, Life of Christ by Barna dn Siena, 1380. In the nave, above 
the arch, Paradise and the Inferno, by Taddeo Bartoli. — The visitor 
should particularly notice the decorations in the last side chapel to the 
right, the "Cappella S. Fina, designed by Giuliano da Majano; altar-piece 
by Benedetto da Majano. The two "Frescoes on the side walls, represent- 
ing the vision of the youthful saint and her burial, by Bom. Ghirlandajo, 
are among the finest works of that master, and combine a fresh and life- 
like style with majestic gravity. — In the choir: Coronation of the Vir- 
gin , an altar-piece by Piero del Pollajuolo of Florence , 1483. — The 
Oratorio S. Giovanni contains an Annunciation by Bom. Ghirlandajo, 
14S2, a work of no great importance. 

The following churches are also interesting : — 

*S. Agostino, commenced in 1280 (principal entrance generally 

This church owes its fame to the "Frescoes in the Choir by Benozzo 
Gozzoli (1465), where the master has pourtrayed the life of St. Augustine 
in 17 scenes from his school-days to his death. Though not all of uni- 
form excellence , nor in equally good preservation , these pictures alone 
repay a visit to S. Gimignano (the finest are: St. Augustine as teacher 
of rhetoric in Rome; Death of St. Monica; St. Augustine on the bier). — 
The Cappella S. Guglielmo, to the right of the. choir, contains a Nativity 
of the Virgin, by Bartolo di Fredi, exhibiting several features from real 
life. — To the left, in the Cappella del S. Sacramento, are frescoes by 
Vincenzo da S. Gimignano. — On the If. side of the church, St. Ge- 
minianus and three worshippers , a fresco by Seb. Mainardi, a pupil of 
Dom. Ghirlandajo; farther on, St. Sebastian, the deliverer from the 
plague , the effects of which are symbolised by flashes of lightning , by 
Benozzo Gozzoli, 1464, of less importance than the frescoes in the choir. 
To the , , r nf ht of the P" nci P ;l1 entrance : Altar-piece by Benedetto da Ma- 
jano, 1494; under the organ are frescoes by Seb. Mainardi, representing 
Saints in groups. 

S. Jacopo, of the 12th cent., the church of the Knights Templar, 
contains frescoes by a Sienese master of the 14th century. 

to Siena. MONTALCINO. 4. Route. 17 

S. Girolamo : at the back of the high altar a Madonna with 
saints by Vincenzo da S. Gimignano, with a glory above by a later 

We may now drive in 3 /t hr. to the venerable church of S. Maria 
Assunta di Callori , or Cellole, situated outside the Porta Matteo, and 
dating from the 11th, or perhaps from the 10th cent., containing remark- 
able capitals and curious ornamentation in the apse. Fine view. 

Beyond Poggibonsi the Railway begins to ascend considerably. 
To the right, Staggia with a mediseval chateau ; farther on, to the 
right, the ancient and picturesque chateau of Monte Riggioni. The 
train then passes through a long tunnel (3 min.j. 

58 y 2 M. Siena, see p. 21. 

Siena is a terminal station, loftily situated, from which the train 
backs out. On the journey to Orvieto, the train returns part of the 
waytoEmpoli, and then diverges at an acute angle towards the 
S.E. AVe traverse the hills which form the watershed between the 
Ombrone and the valley of the CMana. Six tunnels ; Asciano 
(201/2 M.), the first station from Siena, is reached in l'/ 4 hr. This 
district is one of the bleakest in Italy , the chief features being 
grotesquely shaped hills of sand, and barren fissured mountains, 
interesting to the palaeontologist only. 

81 M. Asciano ; the pleasant little town lies II/2 M. to the right 
of the railway and possesses fortifications constructed by the Sienese 
in 1351, and several handsome churches containing pictures of the 
early Sienese School. — A carriage may be obtained at the inn 
(*Alb. del Sole) for the excursion to Monte Oliveto (p. 36; 6 M. T 
a drive of 13/ 4 hr. there, and H/ 2 back; fare 12-15 fr. ; the road, 
leading by Chiusure. is rough and more suitable for walking). 

From Asciano to Grosseto QO 1 ^ M., branch-line in 3-4 hrs.; fares 
10 fr. 45, 7 fr. 15, 4 fr. 95 c. — Two trains daily in each direction , but 
not always corresponding with the trains on the main line. A local train 
also runs to Monte Amiata. 

8 31. S. Giovanni d^Asso (tolerable inn), whence Monte Oliveto may be 
reached in li/ 2 hr. (see p. 36; a cart with one horse may be obtained for 
the excursion). 

14 M. Torrenieri, on the old road from Siena to Rome. 

— [About 5'/2 M. to the S.W. of Torrenieri (omnibus 2 fr.) lies Mont- 
alcino (Albergo del Giglio, tolerable, bargaining necessary). Early in the 
middle ages the town belonged to the abbots of S. Antimo, then for a 
short time to Florence, and after 1260 to Siena. In 1555-57 it afforded a 
last place of refuge to the Sienese republicans under Piero Strozzi. In 
the Palazzo Municipals is the Cappella delle Carceri, which contains a 
small collection of pictures from suppressed monasteries, including a 
Descent from the Cross (1382) and a Coronation of the Virgin (1388) by 
Bartolo di Fredi of Siena. The Cathedral was commenced in 1818. The 
dissolved Franciscan Monastery is now a hospital. Over the chief en- 
trance of the church belonging to it is a group of the Madonna, John the 
Baptist, SS. Peter and Sebastian, of the school of Delia Eobbia (1507). A 
room adjoining the sacristy is adorned with frescoes of the latter part 
of the 15th cent., and the monastery court contains others dating from 1438. 
Fine view from the piazza adjacent to the modern church of the Madonna, 
on the E. side of the town. — From Montalcino we may (with a guide) 

Baedeker. Italy II. 5th Edition. 2 

18 Route 4. S. QUIRICO. From Florence 

walk in 2 hrs. (or drive in I72 hr. , one-horse carriage 7 fr.) to S. An- 
timo, which was an independent abbey down to the 13th century. The 
sumptuous church was built of white alabaster and travertine in the 11th 
cent., and its rich principal portal dates from 1292. 

About 4 M. to the S.E. of Torrenieri (omnibus l'/2 fr.) lies S. duirico 
(Albergo del Lepre, tolerable), which was the residence of an imperial 
governor during the Hohenstaufen regime and was fortified by Siena in 
1472. The handsome "Collegiate Church in the Lombard style was founded 
in the 8th cent.; highly ornate porch of 1298; interior disfigured in the 
17th cent.; choir-stalls of the 16th cent. The adjacent Mise ricordia church 
contains a high altar-piece by Sodoma. The Palazzo CMgi, erected in 
16S5-87, deserves a visit (keys at the Fattoria Chigi). The Orti Leo- 
nini (keys at the same place), a neglected park of the 16th cent., adjoin- 
ing the town-wall, afford an admirable view. — The hot Baths of Vig- 
7ioni, 3 31. to the S. of Quirico, were much frequented in ancient times 
and again during the Renaissance period , but are now neglected. The 
ante-chamber of the bath-house contains an ancient votive stone. Among 
the famous mediaeval visitors were St. Catharine of Siena and Lorenzo il 
Magnifico. — From S. Quirico to Pienza (p. 20) 41/2 31.] — 

22 31. Monte Amiata, the best starting-point for a visit to the moun- 
tain of that name, the highest in Tuscany. — [By carriage in 3 hrs. to 
Castel del Piano (omnibus 2V2 fr. ; Alb. Bisturrini, new, well spoken of), 
where a licensed guide may be obrained at the Slunicipio ; thence on horse- 
back in 3 3 /4 hrs., or on foot in 4'/2 hrs., to the summit of the "Monte Amiata 
(5644 ft.), which affords an admirable survey of the whole country between 
the Tyrrhenian Sea, the Apennines, and the Ciminian Forest. (The rock- 
formation is volcanic and interesting to geologists.) A pleasant return- 
route leads through beautiful wood to Vivo, a suppressed Camaldulensian 
monastery, now the property of Count Cerrini, where a one-horse carriage 
may be hired of the miller. — From Vivo to stat. 3Ionte Amiata 11 31., or 
to Torrenieri 17 31. The latter road leads by Castiglione d'Orcia, not far 
from the Baths of Vignoni (see above), and by S. Quirico (see above).]— 

28 31. S. Angelo and Cinigiano. The train follows the right bank of 
the Orcia, the E. affluent of the Ombrone, and crosses the latter. 

32'/2 31. Monte Antico. The train then follows the Ombrone as far as 
Paganico , where it quits the river and begins to thread its way among 
the hills. 42 31. Rocca Strada, a village (1640ft.) on the right; then Stic- 
ciano. At (53 31.) Montepescali the line unites with the Maremme Rail- 
way , to the N. of Grosseto (p. 3). 

85 M. Bapolano. The village, to the right, possesses baths which 
are frequented in July and August. The country becomes more 

93 M. Lucignano ; the mediaeval village lies on the hill to the 
left. The improving cultivation of the soil indicates the proximity 
of the charming valley of the Chiana. To the left in the distance 
the chain of the Apennines is visible. 

96 M. Sinalunga, or Asinalunga ; on the right the village, where 
Garibaldi was captured on his march to Rome , 24th Sept. 1867. 

100 M. Torrita, beyond which Monte Pulciano becomes visible 
to the right. 

104 M. Stat. Montepulciano ; the station is in a lonely situation 
6 M. distant from the town (omnibus in 1 i/ 2 hr. , meeting nearly 
every train ; fare 2 fr.); the road passes through several insignificant 

Montepulciano. — Albergo Bruzzichelli , with trattoria, Via Gari- 
baldi 32, tolerable, R. 1-1 1/2 fr. , D. according to bargain 2-3 fr. — The 

to Siena. MONTEPULCIANO. 4. Route. 19 

Wine of Montepulciano is justly celebrated. The ordinary red wine of the 
place is strong and somewhat rough. ' Vino santo' is a sweet white wine 
(2 fr. per bottle). Vermouth is a white wine flavoured with fragrant herbs 
and wormwood. 

Montepulciano , a picturesque town with 3000 (or with the ad- 
joining suburbs 13,000) inhab., surrounded by mediaeval walls, lies 
conspicuously on the slope of a mountain (2073 ft.). It was the 
birthplace of the scholar and poet Angelo Ambrogini (1454-94), 
surnamed Politianus after this his native place ('Respublica Po- 
litiana'), the friend of Lorenzo il Magniflco and preceptor of his chil- 
dren. The beautiful situation as well as the monuments of the place 
repay a visit. The sights may be inspected in 4-5 hrs. 

We follow the main street, generally running from E. to W.. 
and ascending from the gate next the railway-station to the plateau 
of the hill on which the town lies. It is first named Via Garibaldi, 
then Via Cavour, and lastly Via Poliziano. — In the Via Garibaldi, 
No. 32, on the left, is the Palazzo Bruzzichelli (containing the 
above mentioned inn), built by Vignola. Opposite, Nos. 35-37. 
Palazzo Avignonesi, dating from the latter half of the 16th cent. 
Then, also on the right, S. Agostino, of the 17th cent., with curious 
touches of Gothic. — In the Via Cavour, on the left, Chiesa del 
Gesii, a characteristic example of the Jesuit style. On the right the 
*Mercato (market-halls) by Vignola. — In the Via Poliziano, on the 
left, No. 1, is the house in which Angelo Poliziano was born, a brick 
building of the 14th cent., with an inscription. 

We next reach the Piazzetta di S. Maria, with the small 
church of 5. Maria of the 13th cent, (handsome portal). It com- 
mands an admirable retrospective view of the lakes of Monte- 
pulciano, Chiusi, and Trasimeno; to the left rises the Monte Amiata ; 
farther up we obtain a survey of Pienza, S. Quirico, Montalcino, 
and the whole valley of the Chiana. — A road hence descends to 
the left in 12 min. to the — 

*Madonna di S. Biagio, situated in the valley, designed by An- 
tonio da Sangallo and commenced in 1518. The beautiful marble 
chapel of the high altar, by the brothers Giovanozzo and Lisandro 
Albertini, was completed in 1584. 

Returning to the hill, and again following the main street, we 
next reach the Piazza Grande , enclosed by the cathedral and 
handsome palazzi. The interesting fountain in the centre dates from 
1520. On the left is the — 

Palazzo Municipale, of the 14th cent., resembling the Palazzo 
Pitti at Florence, and containing a few pictures and curiosities. 

Ante-chamber of first floor : Madonna, John the Baptist, and saints, of 
the school of Delia Robbia. — Picture Galleet on the second floor. 
I. Room: Matteo da Siena (?), Madonna. II. Room: 9. Seb. del Piombo, 
Pope Panl III.; 80. Pacchiarotto, Madonna; '86. Vmbrian School (ascribed 
to Raphael) , Portrait of a lady. A collection of dies once used by the 
engraver Cerbano is preserved here. 

On the W. side of the piazza is the Cathedral, with a ruinous 


20 Route 4. PIENZA. 

In the Istekiok, over the principal entrance , is the Assumption and 
Coronation of the Madonna by Taddeo Bartoli. The church was once 
adorned with an imposing monument to Bartolommeo Aragazzi, secretary 
of Pope Martin V., erected by the famous architect Michelozzo Michelozzi, a 
pupil of Donatello. It was taken down, however, during the last cen- 
tury, when several parts of it were lost and others were placed in diffe- 
rent parts of the church : thus, to the left of the principal entrance, two 
reliefs ; by the two first pillars, two allegorical '-statues ; by the high al- 
tar, the marble summit, consisting of cherubs with garlands. 

To the right, opposite the Palazzo Municipale, is the Palazzo 
Contucci, by A. da Sangallo, and adjoining it the Palazzo Nobile- 
Tarugi, attributed to the same master. 

We next enter the Via Ricci, where on the right rises the *Pa- 
lazzo Bombagli, a Gothic brick building. — Crossing the Piazzetta 
della Misericordia, with the church of S. Francesco (Gothic portal) 
and fine view, we now descend the Via del Poggiolo. Immediately 
to the left in this street is the entrance to the Oratorio della Mi- 
sericordia, which contains a Christ in a glory and an Annunciation 
over the high altar of the school of the Della Robbia. 

A visit to Pienza is most conveniently made from 
about 9 M., one-horse carriage 10, two-horse there and back 20 fr. 

Fienza (Albergo Franci, poor), a small town with about 2000 ii:' ah, 
was originally called Corsignano, but subsequently named the 'town ol Pius' 
after Pius II. (^Eneas Sylvius Piccolomini , p. 27), who was born here on 
18th Oct. 1405, and who adorned the town with very handsome buildings, 
chiefly designed by the Florentine Bernardo di Lorenzo, an architect who 
was also much employed at Rome by Nicholas V. und Paul II. As all these 
buildings date from about the same period (1460) and are situated in the 
same piazza (del Duomo), they afford a more compact survey of early Re- 
naissance architecture than is to be obtained in most Italian towns. The 
chief edifices are the Cathedral, with its studiously simple facade ; to the 
right of it is the Vescovado or episcopal palace ; opposite the cathedral 
the Palazzo Pubblico, with a colonnade; to the right the finest of all, 
the "Palazzo Piccolomini, which like the Palazzo Rucellai at Florence 
exhibits the rustica style in combination with pilasters (handsome court 
and colonnade) ; in front of the palace is a charming Fountain of 1462. — 
The right transept of the cathedral contains a Madonna with four s:iints 
by Matteo da Siena; the choir-stalls, carved in the Gothic style, date from 
1462; in the chapel to the left of the high altar is an Assumption of the 
Virgin by Vecchietta; in the left transept a Madonna and four saints by 
Sano di Pietr". The Cathedral Treasure comprises a perfect museum of early 
Renaissance works (shown by the sagrestano in presence of one of the 
canonici, sacristan 2 fr.): crozier in gilded and embossed silver, a Pax- 
vobiscum, a silver censer in the Gothic style, "mitre of Pius II. de- 
corated with pearls and jewels, reliquary of St. Andrew of Salerno, 
crucifix with rich filigree-work, etc. — The Opera del Duomo, to the left 
of the cathedral, contains the ecclesiastical vestments, including those of 
Pius II., one of which is of Flemish, the other of Italian workmanship. 

Continuation of Journey. To the right we soon observe the 
Monti di Cetona , which are connected with the Monte Amiata 
(p. 18). To the left stretches the long Lake of Monte Pulciano, 
beyond which is the Lake of Chiusi , connected with the other by 
a canal. The lakes exhale unhealthy malaria in summer. 

109V2 M- Chianciano-Salcini. — 116 M. Chiusi, see p. 56. 


5. Siena. 

Hotels. *Graxde Albergo di Siexa , new, Via Cavour (PI. E, 3; 
the back looks out upon the Lizza , see p. 34), R. 2'/2-5 fr., D. 5, L. l U, 
A. 1 fr., omnibus at the station; 'Aquila Neka, Via Cavour (PI. E, 5), 
R. 2-3, D. 2'/2-4, A. '/a fr. ; ; Albebgo Reale d'Inghilteeba , also in the 
Via Cavour (PI. E, 4), similar charges. — Scala, Via Diacceto 10, not far 
from the Piazza S. Giovanni (PL D, 4), less pretending, but with airy 
rooms and good cuisine. Tee Mori, Via Garibaldi (PI. F, 3) , near the 
station , for moderate requirements, R. l l /2 fr. — For a prolonged stay : 
''Pension Chiusaeelli, Via del Paradiso 22, near S. Domenico (PI. D, 3), 
6 fr. per day. 

Trattorie. Minerva, near the Piazza Tolomei (Via Cavour), tolerable; 
Scala, see above. — Beer: Bischoff, Via Diacceto 7, not far from th Caffe 
Greco. — Wine and fine view at Talliani's, Via delle Belle Arti 31. 

Caffe Greco, near the Casino dei Nobili. 

Cab Tariff: 

In the town, per drive . . . 

— first hour 

— each additional hour . 
Beyond the town, as far as 2 M. 

for one hour . 

— each additional hour . 
From the station to the town 

— — one seat .... 
Box above 22 lbs. 30 c. 

- 80 
1 fr. 50 

1 — 

2 — 

2 - 

1 50 



two - 


1 fr 













At Night 



1 f r 













two -horse 

1 fr. 50 
3 — 

2 — 

3 — 

2 50 

Vetturino: Celso Vannini, Via Cavour 27; carriage per day 25 fr., half- 
day 8-10 fr. Saddle-horses, per day 7'/2 fr., half-day 5 fr. 

Post-Office , Piazza Piccolomini , next to the Palazzo del Governo, 
open 8-3 a.m. and 6-7 p.m. — Telegraph Office, in the Palazzo Reale, Piazza 
del Duonio. 

Baths. Swimming-bath near the Fontebranda (p. 33), poorly fitted up ; 
water cold. 

Good Photographs at Lombardi's, alia Costarella, near the Caffe Greco. 

On 2nd Juli and 15th August, horse-races, called il Patio , take place, 
presenting a very picturesque scene (seat on balcony 2-2'/2 fr.). 

Siena, the capital of the province of that name, with 23,000 
inhab., the seat of a university which was in high repute as early 
as the 14th cent., and the residence of an archbishop , is pictures- 
quely situated 2oM. due S. of Florence, and 1330 ft. above the sea, 
on three connected hills (the clayey soil of which is called 'Terra 
di Siena'). It is now a busy trading and manufacturing place ; it 
also possesses several libraries and scientific societies, and is one of 
the pleasantest towns in Tuscany. The climate is healthy, the at- 
mosphere in summer being tempered by the lofty situation ; the 
language and manners of the inhabitants are pleasing and pre- 
possessing. Most of the streets are narrow and crooked, but contain 
many palaces and handsome churches. Next to Home , Florence, 
and Venice, Siena is perhaps the most important town in Italy 
for the study of the art of the 13th-16th centuries. 

Siena, the ancient Sena Julia, or Colonia Julia Senensis, is said to have 
been founded by the Senonian Gauls and converted into a Roman colony 
by Augustus, whence it derives its arms, the female wolf and the twins. 
T he only Etruscan antiquities here are a few tumbs which were discovered 

22 Route 5. SIENA. History of Art. 

in 1864 near the Porta Cainollia. The town attained the culminating point 
of its prosperity in the middle ages , after it had become a free state at 
the beginning of the 12th cent., and, having banished the nobility, had 
united with the party of the Ghibellines. Farinata degli Uberti and the 
Ghibellines from Florence were then welcomed in Siena, and on 4th Sept., 
1260, a great victory over the Guelphs was gained near Monte Aperto (6 M. 
distant). The nobility afterwards returned to Siena, but the city kept a 
jealous watch over its privileges, and increased to such an extent that it 
numbered nearly 100,000 inhab. , and vied with Florence in wealth and 
love of art. At length the supremacy was usurped by tyrants, such as 
(about 1500) Pandolfo Petrucci, surnamed II Magnifico (whom Macchiavelli 
represents as a pattern of a despot), by whose aid the Medici of Florence 
gradually exercised an influence and finally obtained the sovereignty over 
the city. During this period, under the Grand-Duke Cosmo I., the savage 
Count of Marignano devastated Siena with fire and sword , and cruelly 
massacred the population of the Maremme, in consequence of which the 
malaria obtained so fatal an ascendancy in that district. 

History of Art. The bitter political fate which overtook Siena, and 
converted the mighty rival of Florence into a quiet provincial town, will 
strike the antiquarian and the admirer of ancient customs as a very for- 
tunate circumstance ; for here are still preserved many monuments and 
reminiscences of mediaeval life comparatively unaffected by the vicissi- 
tudes and the progress of subsequent ages. The conservative character 
of Siena has not, however, been produced, as in the case of Bruges, by 
the withdrawal of the stream of history ; for even when at the height 
of its power, particularly as compared with Florence, it manifested a pre- 
ference for old established rules and a dislike for innovations. In the 
province of Art , despite the abundant supply of artists at their disposal, 
the citizens never seem to have taken the initiative , but adhered with 
remarkable tenacity to the earlier style. The best period of Sienese art 
still belongs to the middle ages , when the towns of Italy had begun to 
pride themselves on their practice of art, but before the pedantic element 
had given way to the pure sense of the beautiful. There is no town in 
Italy which presents such instructive examples of the Italian Gothic 
Architecture of the 13th and 14th centuries as Siena, where we find magni- 
ficent stone buildings vying with graceful structures in brick. If the Ca- 
thedral had been built according to the intentions of the citizens, it would 
have been one of the largest and most imposing churches in existence, 
and even in its reduced proportions it is one of the finest in Italy. In 
the secular buildings (of which perhaps the Palazzo Buonsignori is the 
linest example) the pointed style predominates; the windows are gene- 
rally divided by small columns, and the whole edifice is crowned with 
pinnacles. In the 15th cent., when the motive of the castellated mansion 
was clothed with Renaissance forms , Siena was not slow to imitate the 
example of Florence. It is , however , uncertain whether Rosellino and 
Francesco di Giokgio have been correctly designated as the architects of 
the Piccolomiiii, Spannocchi, and Nerucci palaces. The most interesting of 
the Renaissance churches is the small round church degli Innocenti, ad- 
joining the Spedale della Scala. 

Siena has produced no independent school of Sculpture, though a 
liberal patron of foreign masters. As throughout the rest of Tuscany, 
the development of art did not progress rapidly here till the beginning of 
the 13th century. Niccolo Pisaxo, the most famous sculptor of the 13th 
cent., and his son Giovanni were employed at Siena; and the sculptures 
on the font of S. Giovanni and on the Fonte Gaja are admirable works 
by Jacopo della Queecia (1374-1438), the earliest representative of the 
Renaissance style. 

Painting was the favourite art of the early Sienese. As early as the 
13th cent, they could boast of Duccio di Bvjonissegna, a painter whose 
works far surpass those of Cimabue in beauty and gracefulness. On his 
completion in 1310 of the 'Majestas 1 , or Triumphant Madonna, for the 
high altar of the cathedral of Siena (now in the chapels on the right and 

Piazza del Campo. SIENA. 5. Route 23 

left of the choir), the picture was carried to the church in solemn pro- 
cession. An equally important master was Simone Martini (1283-1344), 
who has been immortalised by a sonnet of Petrarch , and who , like his 
contemporary Giotto , practised his art and exercised his influence far 
beyond the limits of his native city. Works by his hand are, or were, 
to be found at Xaples , Orvieto, Assisi, and Avignon, as well as in the 
Palazzo Pubblico at Siena. So famous indeed was his name that it was 
usual to attribute to him all the best works of his period. His compo- 
sitions are of a very primitive character, but he certainly possessed great 
skill in his rendering of tender sentiment. Closely akin to these two 
masters was Lipfo JIe.mmi, who executed large frescoes with the same 
elaborate care as miniatures in missals. Several painters of the 14th 
cent, followed in Simone' s footsteps , such as Baena or Beena , Luca 
Thome, and Lipru Vanni, without however exhibiting much individuality. 
The easy narrative style and the imaginative allegory were cultivated 
by the brothers Pietro and Ambrogio Lorenzetti (both of whom pro- 
bably died of the plague in 1348) , and the approach of the Sienese 
school to that of Giotto was thus accomplished. A little later, however, 
the works of Baetolo di Feedi (1330-1409) fell short of those of his 
predecessors, and this was still more the ease with those of Taddeo 
Bartoli (1362-1422?), who was far inferior to his Florentine contem- 
poraries. For a time all artistic progress at Siena seemed to be at an 
end, and throughout the loth cent, the city did not give birth to a single 
master of note. The painters Domenico di Baetolo . Loeenzo di Pietro 
(nicknamed Vecchietta), Benvekuto and JIatteo di Giovanni, and others 
of this period adhered tenaciously to the limited sphere of their prede- 
cessors, from whose influence they were unable to emancipate themselves. 
At the close of the century, owing to contact with neighbouring schools, 
whose representatives were frequently invited to Siena, and to the intro- 
duction of the study of Florentine, Umbrian, and Lombard masters, the 
tide of progress at length began to set in. The most distinguished Sie- 
nese masters of this period, far surpassing their contemporaries Fungai, 
Petechia, Pacchiarolto , and others, were Baldassare Peruzzi and Gio- 
vanaxtonio Bazzi, surnamed II Sodoma. Peruzzi (1481-1537), who was 
associated with Eaphael at Rome, was endowed with an admirable per- 
ception of beauty of proportion, and was famous both as an architect and 
a decorative painter, but Siena now possesses none of his works. Sodoma 
(1480-1549), on the other hand, may be thoroughly studied at Siena. A 
Lombard by birth, he brought to Siena some traces of Leonardo's style, 
but instead of cultivating this , he seems to have trusted to his own na- 
tural ability, and with such success that in one respect he vies with Ea- 
phael himself. In the delineation of beautiful and youthful figures he is 
unsurpassed, and his technical skill in fresco painting and his fertility 
are marvellous; but, in spite of his strong sense of the beautiful, his 
works are apt to pall upon the taste owing to the superficiality of their 
composition. With Domenico Beccafumi (1486-1551) , who frequently 
altered his style, begins the final period of decline from which Siena never 

In the art of Wood Carving Siena has always taken the lead among 
the towns of Italy. In the 15th and 16th cent, the Barili family (particu- 
larly Antonio, d. 1516, and Giovanni, d. 1529) distinguished themselves 
in this branch of art, and their modern representative is GiuHi, whose 
pupils Gosi, Guidi, and Querci have an interesting studio at ~So. 31 Via 
delle Belle Arti, not far from S. Domenico. 

Ill the centre of the town , at the union of the three hills on 
which it stands, is the picturesque *Piazza del Campo, now offi- 
cially called Vittorio Emanuele (PI. D, 5), which has heen men- 
tioned by Dante (Purg. xi. 134). It is semicircular in form, and 
depressed towards the centre , somewhat resembling an ancient 
theatre. The popular assemblies and festivals of the ancient re- 

24 Route 5. SIENA. Palazzo Pubblico. 

public took place here, and it is here that the Palio horseraces 
(p. 21) are now held. 

The piazza is enclosed by pinnacled palaces. On the diameter 
of the semicircle rises the — 

*Palazzo Pubblico (PL 22; D, 5), a huge brick edifice of four 
stories , erected in 1289-1309 , with pointed windows divided by 
small columns, and wings lower than the central part of the build- 
ing. (The wings of the second floor are of a later date ; corap. 
p. 27.) Adjacent rises the slender tower del Mangia, begun in 
1325 , and finished after 1345 , so named after the stone figure of 
a man which used to strike the hours (a popular fig_uje somewhat 
resembling the Roman Pasquino). At the foot of the tower is the 
Cappella di Piazza, in the form of a loggia, begun after the cessation 
of the great plague of 1348 which carried off 30,000 persons , and 
completed in 1376, with damaged frescoes by Sodoma. The she- 
wolf on the column in front of the right wing, the arms of Siena, 
dates from 1429. 

The 'Interior (custodian l /z-l fr.) is embellished with numerous fres- 
coes of the Sienese school. Among those on the Ground Floor are a 
Coronation of the Virgin, by Sano di Pietro, 1445; a Madonna with SS. 
Ansano and Galgano, by Sodoma; a Risen Christ, also by Sodoma, 1535 (?), 
in the room of the Sindaco. 

On the First Floor, the custodian first shows the Sala del Gran 
Consiolio (or del Mappamondo , or delle Balestre) , adorned with large 
frescoes : -Madonna and Child under a canopy borne by saints, by Simone 
Martini, 1315, a somewhat stiff composition with numerous figures, hut 
with beautiful details ; opposite , 'Equestrian portrait of Guidoriccio 
Fogliani de Ricci by Simone Martini, and ''S. Ansano, "S. Vittorio, and 
S. Bernardo Tolomei by Sodoma, 1534; then a S. Bernardino by Sano 
di Pietro. Adjacent, and only separated from the council-chamber by 
handsome benches carved by Domenico di Niccolb (1429), is the Chapel, 
embellished with frescoes of the Death and Assumption of the Virgin by 
Taddeo Bartoli. The altar-piece is a Holy Family by Sodoma; tasteful 
font by Oiov. Turini of Siena. A beautiful iron railing (1436-45) separates the 
chapel from a small Vestibule, which also contains frescoes by Taddeo 
Bartoli (1414) , representing St. Christopher , Judas Maccabseus , and six 
figures of Roman gods and statesmen in quaint juxtaposition. — Another 
Room contains portraits of the eight popes and forty-one cardinals to 
whom Siena has given birth, and a Madonna by Matteo da Siena, 1484. 
— The adjoining Sala di Balia, or de' Priori, is adorned with frescoes 
from the history of Emp. Frederick I. and of Pope Alexander III. by Spi- 
nello Aretino (including a naval victory of the Venetians and the Emperor 
and Doge leading the Pope's horse). On the other side is the Sala del 
Concistoro, with ceiling-paintings by Beccafumi, of subjects from ancient 
history, and a fine marble doorway by Jacopo delta Quercia. — The Sala 
dei Novi, or della Pace, contains frescoes by Ambrogio Lorenzetti, painted 
in 1337-39, representing 'Good and Bad Government', three pictures which 
are indispensable to those who desire an insight into the disposition of 
the^ proud citizens of Siena in the middle ages. The allegories and al- 
lusions of a more or less obscure character which they contain are at 
least interesting as being of a much more homely kind than those custom- 
ary in modern times. One of these mural paintings represents the ideal 
of a state, under the guidance of wisdom, justice, and other virtues, 
while the two others pourtray the consequences of good and bad govern- 
ment in a realistic style. The preservation is imperfect, but the specta- 
tor will not fail to admire the heads of Peace, Justice, and Concord in 
the first of the series. 

S. Giovanni Batt. SIENA. 5. Route. 25 

At the E. end of the Piazza del Campo is the Palazzo del Go- 
verno (p. 29). In the centre of the piazza, opposite the Palazzo 
Pubblico, rises the marble *Fonte Gaja , with bas-reliefs of scrip- 
tural subjects by Jacopo della Querela, 1419. (The originals, in a 
very damaged condition, are now preserved in the Opera del Duomo, 
see p. 28; the copies substituted for them are by Sarrocchi.) A 
subterranean conduit, 18 M. in length, supplies the fountain with 
delicious water, the merits of which were extolled by Charles V. 

Ascending by steps through one of the passages beyond the 
Fonte Gaja , we reach the beginning of the Via di Citta, which 
presents a busy scene especially in the evening. 

To the right, the handsome *Loggia of the Casino de' Nobili 
(PL 2 ; D, 5), once the seat of the commercial tribunal. It was built 
in imitation of the Loggia de' Lanzi of Florence in 1417. The sculp- 
tures are by Sienese masters of the 15th cent., such as Ant. Fe- 
derighi (who executed the figures of S. Ansano and S. Savino and 
the stone bench on the right) and Lorenzo di Mariano (to whom is 
due the stone bench on the left). — The N. prolongation of this 
street towards the Porta Camollia is the Via Cavour, see p. 34. 

Proceeding to the left, past the Gaffe Greco, and then ascending 
the Via de' Pellegrini , a side-street to the right , we reach the 
small Piazza S. Giovanni. Here, in the corner to the left, is 
situated the *Palazzo del Magnifieo (PL 18; D,5), which was 
erected in 1508 for the tyrant Pandolfo Petrucci , surnamed II 
Magniflco (p. 22), from desigus by Oiacomo Cozzarelli. The bronze 
ornaments and rings on the outside are in admirable keeping with 
the style. 

In a straight direction we obtain a fine survey of the choir of 
the loftily situated cathedral, under which is the old baptistery, 
forming a kind of crypt, now the Pieve or parish-church of S. Gio- 
vanni (PL 5; C, D, 4, 5), with a handsome Gothic facade, but un- 
fortunately uncompleted (date about 1400). 

The marble "Font is an admirable early Renaissance work. It is adornad 
with six *Bronze-reliefs from the history of John the Baptist bv J. della 
Queraa (Zacharias led out of the Temple, 1430), by Lorenzo Ghiberti 
(Baptism of Christ and John the Baptist conducted to prison, 1427), by 
Donatello (Head of John the Baptist brought before Herod and his guests, 
1427), and (the others) by Turino di Sano and his son Giovanni di Turino. 
The latter also executed the figures of Charity, Justice, and Prudence ; 
those of Faith and Hope are by Donatello. — The frescoes by Sienese 
painters of the 15th cent, are of inferior value. — Over the high-altar is 
a Baptism of Christ by And. and Raf. Puccinelli of Brescia. 

From the Piazza S. Giovanni we may either continue to follow 
the street to the right, past the Palazzo Arcivescovile (PL 13; C.4), 
or we may ascend the steps to the left. By either way we reach the 
Piazza del Duomo. 

The **Cathedral, or Chiesa Metropolitana (PL C, 4, 5), occupy- 
ing the highest ground in the town, is said to stand on the site of a 
temple of Minerva, which was succeeded by a church of S. Maria 
Assunta. The present building was begun early in the 13th cent.; 

26 Route 5. SIENA. Cathedral. 

the dome was completed in 1264; and about 1317 the choir was 
prolonged to the E. over the church of S. Giovanni (see above). 
Owing to certain structural defects, to which the present irregu- 
larity of the edifice is still perhaps partly due, it was resolved in 
1339 to erect a huge nave, of which the present cathedral was to 
form the transept only. Parts of this building , designed in a 
beautiful style, still exist on the S. side of the cathedral in the 
form of a ruin. After the plague of 1348 this ambitious plan was 
abandoned, and the original structure was then completed. (Length 
07 yds., width 26y 2 yds., length of transept 55 yds.") The *Fa- 
cade, constructed in 1270-1380 from a design by Giovanni Pisano, 
showing a combination of the pointed and circular styles , is com- 
posed of red, black, and white marble , and richly decorated with 
sculptures representing prophets and angels by different masters. 
The campanile, consisting of six stories, does not taper towards the 
top. On each side of the entrance is a column bearing the wolf of 

The "Interior consists of a nave and aisles extending to the choir 
and intersected by a double transept, with an irregular hexagonal dome 
over the centre. The horizontal bands of colour, the continuous rows of 
busts of popes (in terracotta) over the arches, and the pillars with the 
half-columns will at first produce an unfavourable impression on northern 
travellers, but they will find that the pleasing ornamentation in marble 
compensates to a great extent for organic defects. 

The stained glass in the large circular window in the wall of the en- 
trance was designed by pcrino del Vaga, 1549. Over the entrance is a 
graceful tribune borne by two columns. The "basins for holy water are 
by Ant. Federighi, a pupil of Jac. della Querela, 1462-63; the support of 
the one on the right is antique. 

The ""Pavement is quite unique, being covered with 'Graffito 1 re- 
presentations in marble: scenes from Old Testament history, Moses, Sam- 
son, Judys Maccabseus, Solomon, and Joshua by Duccio; Abraham's sacri- 
fice, Adam and Eve, Moses on lit. Sinai, etc., by Beccafiimi; the symbols 
of Siena and the towns allied with it, Hermes Trismegistus, Socrates and 
Crates, the Sibyls, and other figures by masters of less note. The exe- 
cution varies. The oldest scenes are simple outlines engraved on the 
white marble and filled with black stucco. Shading was afterwards in- 
troduced by the use of grey and also of coloured marble, so that the 
graffito gradually developed into an elaborate mosaic. Most of these works 
are covered with boards for their protection, which the visitor may cause 
to be removed. They are now being replaced by copies, while the ori- 
ginals are being deposited in the Opera del Duomo. 

Left Aisle : "Altar of the Piccolomini with statues of SS. Peter, Pins, 
Gregory, and James (V) by Michael Angelo, and St. Francis, begun by Torri- 
giani, and completed by Michael Angelo. Farther on, adjoining the door 
of the Libreria, is the Monument of Bandini, with the Risen Christ and 
angels, attributed to Michael Angelo. — Over the door of the Libreria: 
Coronation of Pius III. (Piccolomini), 1503, who reigned 27 days only, 
by Bernardino Pinturiecltio, who also painted the frescoes in the" library 
(see below). 

The Left Transept contains the Cappella S. Giovanni, at the entrance 
to which are two columns resting on the bases of ancient altars. In the 
interior are a "statue of John the Baptist by Donalello, 1457; a statue of 
St. Catharine, etc., by Xeroccio, 1487; a font, perhaps by Jacopo della 
Quercia ; handsome stucco enrichments in the Renaissance style ; and five 
small frescoes by Pinturicchio , three being scenes from the life of 
St. John, and two from the life of Alberto Arringhieri, the donor. 

Cathedral. SIENA. 5. Route. 27 

The Pulpit, octagonal in form and constructed of white marble, 
borne by ten columns, some of which rest on lions, and adorned with 
admirable reliefs from the New Testament, is by Xiccolb Pisano, his son 
Giovanni, and his pupils Arnolfo and Lapo (1268). The flight of steps 
was designed by Bartolo Negroni, surnamed Riccio (1570). 

The Choik contains richly carved choir-stalls, reading-desk, etc. by 
Piceio (1569), and inlaid work (tarsia) by Fra Giovanni da Verona (1503). 
The bronze :S canopy is by Lorenzo di Pietro, surnamed Veccldetta (1472). 
The frescoes, by Beccafumi (1544), were entirely renewed and altered at 
the beginning of the present century. — The chapels on the right and 
left of the choir contain the two halves of a "picture by Duccio di Buonin- 
segna: on the left the Triumphant Madonna with the Child and saints, 
the once highly revered 'Majestas', which was placed over the high altar 
in 1310 (p. 22), with the inscription: Mater Sancta Dei. sis canssa Srnis 
req'iiei , sis Ducio vita, te quia pinxit ila. On the right is the Life of 
Christ, in 26 sections, originally forming a background to the Majestas. 
In the pavement in front of it is the monument of Bishop Peecio (d. 1426), 
a relief in bronze by Donatello. — By the pillars of the dome are two 
flagstaff's from the standard-waggon of the Florentines (il caroccio), 
captured at the battle of Montaperto in 1260, or, according to the latest 
authorities, those of the victorious waggon of the Sienese. Over a neigh- 
bouring altar is the crucifix which the Sienese carried with them on that 

In the Right Transept is the Chapel of the Chici, built by Alexan- 
der VII. (Fabio Chigi of Siena, papal nuncio at the Peace of Westphalia 
in 1648, pope in 1665-67) in 1661, richly adorned with lapis lazuli, marble, 
and gilding, and containing statues of St. Jerome and Mary Magdalene 
(said originally to have been an Andromeda) by Bernini. 

The Sacristy contains predelle by Duccio, a Nativity of the Virgin 
by Pietro Lorenzetti , in a lifelike genre style, and a picture of the 15th 
cent, (perhaps by Sano di Pietro), showing the original form of the Pa- 
lazzo Pubblico (p. 24). 

In the left aisle, as already mentioned, is the entrance to the cele- 
brated '"'Library of the Cathedral {Libreria; fee '/a h'-) °r Bala Piccolominea, 
erected by order of Cardinal Francesco Piccolomini , afterwards Pope 
Pius III., in 1495, and adorned in 1505-07 with ten frescoes by Pinturicchio, 
representing scenes from the life of JEneas Sylvius Piccolomini of Pienza 
(p. -20), afterwards Pope Pius II. (1458-64): (1) Departure of JEneas Sylvius 
for the Council of Basle; (2) JEneas Sylvius in presence of King James 
of Scotland, to whom he had been sent by the Council; (3) His coronation 
as a poet by Emperor Frederick HI. at Frankfort in 1445; (4) ./Eneas 
Sylvius doing homage to Pope Eugene IV. in the name of the Emperor ; 
(5) Betrothal of Emperor FYederick III. with Eleonora of Portugal at 
Siena by JEneas Sylvius; (6) JEneas Sylvius created a cardinal by Pope 
Calixtus III.; (7) JEneas Sylvius elected Pope Pius II.; (8) Pius II. at the 
diet of princes in Mantua; (9) Canonisation of Catharine of Siena; (10) 
Death of Pius II. at Ancona. Some of these pictures, which are connected 
by beautiful figures of nude or half-nude children, are admirably pre- 
served. Vasari asserts that Raphael assisted in their execution. It is 
tolerably certain that Raphael was at Siena at the same time as Pintu- 
ricchio , and it is not improbable that he furnished the older and less 
imaginative master with designs of which the latter availed himself more 
or less freely. Designs for these frescoes attributed to Raphael are now 
preserved in the Uffizi collection (that of No. 1), in the Brera at Milan 
(No. 3), in the Duke of Devonshire's palace at Chatsworth (No. 4), and 
by Sign. Baldecchi at Perugia (No. 5). 

Opposite the S. side of the cathedral, in the corner where the 
steps ascending from S. Giovanni terminate under the arches of the 
uncompleted nave (p. 26). is the *0pera del Duomo (della Metro- 
politana ; PI. 12; C,5), which contains several interesting works of art. 

In the entrance passage is the custodian's bell ('/» fr.). 

28 Route 5. SIENA. Palazzo Buomignori. 

The hall on the Ground Floor contains a famous antique "Group of 
the Three Graces, found at Rome in the reign of Pius III. and presented 
by him to the cathedral library, but removed thence in 1857 by desire 
of Pius IX. From this work Raphael made his first studies from the 
antique (drawing at Venice). The superb Renaissance pedestal is also 
interesting. The "Sculptures from the Fonte Gaja (p. 25) by Jacopo delta 
Quercia, representing a Madonna, the Virtues, the Creation of Man, and 
the Expulsion from Paradise, which are among the master's finest works, 
are unfortunately much damaged. Sculptures from the Cappella di Piazza 
(p. 24), and others from the facade of the cathedral before its restoration. 
Drawings and copies of the "Graffiti of the Cathedral Pavement, destined 
to replace the originals; also some of the originals themselves (comp. 
p. 28). Church-banner with a Transfiguration by Sodoma. — On the 
First Floor several interesting plans and architectural designs ; four 
Saints by Lorenzetti , a Credo by Taddeo Bartoli, and several other early 
Sienese pictures. 

Adjoining the Opera is the Palazzo Reale (PI. 23; C,5), erected 
by Bern. Buontalenti in the 16th cent., now partly used as a telegraph 
office. — Farther on , at the other corner of the Via del Capitano 
(see below) which diverges bere, is the Palazzo Pecci (PI. 20; C,5), 
a Gothic brick building of the 13th cent., restored in 1854. 

Opposite the facade of the cathedral are the church and hospital 
of S. Maria della Scala (PI. C, 5), of the 13th cent. Over the high- 
altar of the cburch is a Risen Christ, a statue in bronze by 
Vecchietta. Adjoining the handsome entrance-hall of the hospital 
is a large sick-room called 'II Pellegrinajo', adorned with frescoes 
from the history of the monastery by Domenico Bartoli, 1440-43, 
and other masters. Pleasing view from the windows (fee V.) fr.). — 
Descending to the left on the N. side of the Piazza del Duomo, we 
reach the small round church *Degli Innocenti (PI. C,4), a beauti- 
ful building with the ground-plan of a Greek cross. 

The above mentioned Via del Capitano leads to the quarters 
of the town situated on the S. and S.W. hills. It soon crosses the 
small Piazza Postierla, with the Palazzo Chigi, now Piccolomini 
(PL 16), on the right, which contains two saloons adorned with 
frescoes by Bernhard van Orley , a Fleming who joined Raphael's 
school. The column with the wolf in the piazza dates from 1487. 

— Not far distant, in the Via di Citta, which diverges here to the 
left, is the Palazzo Piccolomini, now Nerucci (PI. 19), erected by 
Bernardo Rosellino in 1463 for Catharine, the sister of Pius II. ; and 
beyond it is the Palazzo Saracini (PI. 24). — In the Via del Corvo 
(now Stalloreggi), which diverges from the Piazza Postierla to the 
right, is the Casa Bambagini-Galletti, on the facade of which is a 
fresco by Sodoma, called the 'Madonna del Corvo'. 

On the left, in the Via S. Pietro, the continuation of the Via 
del Capitano, is the *Palazzo Buonsignori (PI. 15; C, 5), a hand- 
some Gothic edifice in brick, with a rich facade, restored in 1848. 

— At the church of S. Pietro alle Scale (PI. 9 ; C, 6), which con- 
tains paintings by Salimbeni and Rutilio Manetti (16th cent.), the 
street bends to the right. — Following the main street and passing 
under an archway, we enter the Piazza 8. Agostino (PI. C, 6), 

8. Agostino. SIENA. 5. Route. 29 

where we observe the R. Collegio Tolomei, formerly a monastery and 
now a much frequented grammar-school, and the church of — 

S. Agostino (PI. C, 6) , remodelled by Vanvitelli in 1755, and 
containing some valuable pictures. 

Over the 2nd altar on the right, a Crucifixion by Pietro Perugino. 
Slaughter of the Innocents by Malleo da Siena, in a chapel on the right. 
Statue of Pius II. by Dupri. Altar-piece, an 'Adoration of the Magi by 
Sodoma. At the back of the choir, on the left, the Legend of S. Agostino 
Novello in three sections, by Lippo Memmi, probably his best work. Also 
pictures by Salimbeni, Rutilio Jfanetti, and others. 

Following the Via della Cerchia to the W. of this church, and 
inclining a little to the right, we enter the Via Baldassare Peruzzi, 
on the left side of which are the suppressed monastery (now a 
barrack) and the church of — 

S. Maria del Carmine (PI. B, 5), a handsome brick edifice, with 
campanile and cloisters, by Baldassare Peruzzi. On the right is the 
Cappella del Sagramento with a Nativity of Mary by Sodoma. 5th 
altar on the left, St. Michael by Beccafumi. 

Opposite is the Palazzo Pollini , formerly Celsi (PI. 21 ; B, 5), 
attributed to Peruzzi. — We may now proceed straight on through 
the Via delle Fosse di S. Ansano (with the R. Istituto Toscano dei 
Sordo-Muii, or Deaf and Dumb Asylum) either to the Piazza del 
Duomo, or, by turning a little to the left towards the end of the 
way, we may reach the Porta Fontebranda (see p. 33). 

Outside the Porta S. Marco (PL A, 5) there is a fine view. 

The E. angle ©f the Piazza del Campo is occupied by the *Pa- 
lazzo del Governo (PI. 17; D, E,5), erected for Giacomo Piccolomini 
between 1469 and 1500, probably from a design by Bernardo Rosel- 
lino. This is one of the most imposing private edifices at Siena. 
The principal facade with its tasteful decorations in wrought iron 
(horses' heads, etc.) looks to the Via delle Loggie and the small 
Piazza Piccolomini. Since 1859 the extensive * Archives (director, 
Cav. Banchi), one of the most important collections of the kind in 
Italy, have been deposited here. 

Parchment Charters, 52,000 in number, the oldest dating from 736. 
Under glass are a number of interesting specimens of these documents, 
Autographs of celebrated men (Pius II., Leo X.), Miniatures, etc. There 
is also a valuable collection of Book Covers, in chronological order, painted 
with scenes from sacred and profane history, and affording an admirable 
survey of the development of Sienese art. They include works by Dioti- 
salvi, Duccio, and the Lorettzetti. 

In the vicinity is the University (see p. 30). 

The elegant *Loggia del Papa (PI. 11 ; E, 5) , in the Piazza 
Piccolomini , opposite the Pal. del Governo , was erected in 1460 
by the Sienese Antonio Federighi by order of Pius II., and dedicated 
by the pope 'gentilibus suis'. 

Adjacent is the church of S. Martino (PI. 8; E, 5, 6). 

Over the 2nd altar on the right, a Circumcision of Christ by Ouido 
Reni. On each side of the 3rd altar are ornamental sculptures in marble 

30 Route 5. SIENA. S. Spirito. 

by Lorenzo di Mariano, surnamed II Marrina ; on tlie left: Nativity of 
Christ by Beccafumi. The choir contains gilded wooden statues, attributed 
to Jacopo della Querela. 

The Via Ricasoli, which begins by the Loggia del Papa, tra- 
verses the crest of the S.E. hill and leads to Porta Pispini and 
Porta Romana, the two S.E. gates. 

Immediately to the right in this street is the Fonte di Panta- 
neto, dating from 1352, recently restored. To the left, a little far- 
ther on, the Via di Follonica descends to the Fonte di Follonica, con- 
structed in 1239 and situated in a garden far below. 

A few paces beyond the church of S. Giorgio (PL E, 6) diverges 
to the left the Via de' Pispini, in which we first reach the church 
of — 

S. Spirito (PL E, 6,7), with a dome dating from 1508, and 
portal from 1519, the latter designed by Baldassare Peruzei. 

The 1st altar on the right (Cappella degli Spagnuoli) contains ''frescoes 
by Sodoma representing SS. Antonius Abbas, Sebastian, Alfonso, Cecilia, 
Kiccolo di Tolentino, Michael, with the Madonna in the centre and St. 
James on horseback above ; to the right, Nativity of Christ in terra cotta 
by Ambrogio della Robbia. — Over the door leading to the sacristy, Christ 
on the Cross, by Sano di Pietro. — In the left aisle Coronation of the 
Virgin by Petechia. — In the Cloisters (sagrestano 5-6 soldi): Crucifixion 
by a pupil of Fret Bartolommeo , probably designed by the great master 

The Fonte de' Pispini dates from 1534. The neighbouring Porta 
Pispini (PL F,S) is embellished with a damaged fresco (Nativity) 
by Sodoma. 

Opposite S. Spirito we enter the Vicolo del Sasso , follow to 
the right the broad Via S. Girolamo, and passing the column with 
the wolf, we reach S. Girolamo (PI. D, 7), belonging to a convent 
(on the 3rd altar to the left , Madonna with saints by Matteo da 
Siena, framed in marble by Lorenzo di Mariano). On the left we 
next come to the church of — 

SS. Concezione, or Servi di Maria (PL D, 8), erected in 1471, 
the beautiful interior completed in 1511-28, probably by Bald. 

First altar to the right: Madonna, by Coppo di Marcovaldo, 1261. 
Fourth altar to the right : Slaughter of the Innocents, by McMeo da Siena, 
1491. — In the right transept, above the first door leading to the sacristy: 
'La Vergine del Popolo', by Lippo Memmi, an able work. — At the back 
of the high altar, 'Madonna del Manto' , by Matteo da Siena, 143G. The 
Coronation of the Virgin, by Fitngai (1500?), is one of his earlier works. 

The Porta Romana (PL D, 8) is adorned with a fresco (Co- 
ronation of the Virgin) begun by Taddeo Bartoli and finished by 
Sano di Pietro. • — About i/ 3 M. beyond the gate is the church of 
Madonna degli Angeli, the choir of which contains a Madonna with 
saints, by Raffaele da Firenze, 1502. 

Opposite the N. side of the Palazzo del Governo (p. 29) the Via 
S. Vigilio leads to the E. to the church of the same name and to 
the University (PL 28; E, 5). The entrance to the latter is in the 

Oratorio di S. Bernardino. SIENA. 5. Route. 31 

corner to the right ; in the corridor is the monument of the cele- 
brated jurist Niccolb Aringhieri (d. 1374), with a bas-relief re- 
presenting the professor in the midst of his audience. 

The neighbouring church of S. Maria di Provenzano (PI. 7 ; 
E. 5) dates from 1594. — Traversing several streets to the E. we 
reaeh the grass-grown Piazza di S. Francesco (PI. F, 5), in which 
are situated the church of 8. Francesco, finished in 1236 (now a 
seminary), containing remains of frescoes by Ambrogio Lorenzetti, 
and (on the right) the — 

*Oratorio di S. Bernardino (PI. F, 5 ; generally closed; keys 
kept by the 'bastiere', or saddler, Fineschi, in the piazza near S. M. 
di Provenzano ; fee 1 fr.), possessing admirable pictures, especially 
by Sodoma. 

Lower Oratorio : Scenes from the life of St. Bernardino, of the latter 
part of the 16th cent. — ''Upper Oratorio : Salutation , Assumption , and 
Coronation of the Virgin; SS. Antony, Louis and "Francis, by Sodoma, 
1518-32, the single figures being of great beauty. Betrothal and Death of 
the Virgin, by Becca/umi, 1518. Nativity of the Virgin, Annunciation, and 
St. Bernardino , by Girolamo del Pacchia, 1518. The visitor should par- 
ticularly observe the admirable enrichments of the ceiling, the frieze, etc., 
which are among the most tasteful of early Renaissance work9, executed 
by Giuliano Turupilli after 1496. Altar-piece by Beccafumi, 1537. 

The Via dei Rossi leads straight to the Via Cavour, which 
with its prolongation, the Via Camollia , extends from the Casino 
dei Nobili (p. 25) to the Porta Camollia, a distance of nearly 1 M. 
Approaching from the Casino dei Nobili , we first reach a small 
piazza, named after the Palazzo Tolomei (PI. 26), a Gothic edifice 
of 1205 , on the left, and also adorned with a wolf. Farther on are 
the Palazzi Palmieri (1540), Bichi (1520), Gori (1677) and *Span- 
nocchi (PL 25), built in 1470 by a Florentine master, and re- 
cently thoroughly restored. 

To the left next diverges the Via delle Belle Arti , which 
contains the Art Institution and the Library and leads straight to 
the church of S. Domenico. 

The*Instituto delle Belle Arti (PI. 10 ; D, E,4) contains a valu- 
able collection of pictures, principally of the older Sienese school, 
formed at the beginning of the present century of works procured 
from suppressed monasteries and from the Palazzo Pubblico, and 
gradually extended since that period. Admission 9-3 o'clock daily, 
except on Sundays and holidays, when access may be obtained for 
a gratuity. 

At the entrance, reliefs of little value. The numbering of the pictures 
is as nearly as possible chronological and begins in the corridor to the 
left with the early Sienese school. I. Corridor: 1-5. Pictures in the 
Byzantine style; 6. Guido da Siena (?), Madonna. The next are by un- 
known masters. 18. Margaritone oVArezzo, St. Francis; 23. Duccio di 
Buoninsegna, Madonna with four saints; 39. Simone di Marlino (?), Ma- 
donna with four saints; 40. 48-52. by Ambrogio Lorenzetti; below, 45. An- 
nunciation (1344); 50, 51, 55-59. by Pietro Lorenzetti (about 1330) ; 66. Niccolb 
di Segna (1345), Crucifix; "90. Lippo Memmi, Madonna. — II. Corridor: 
109. Mino del Pelliciaio (1362), Madonna. — III. Corridor: 125-131. bv Tad- 
deo Bartoli (ii09); 134-139. bv Giovanni di Paolo (1445)); 140. Pietro "di Gio- 

32 Route 5. SIENA. House of St. Catharine. 

vanni, S. Bernardino; 141-147, 150-152. by Sano di Pietro (1479), the Fra 
Angelico of Siena. 153-156. JYeroccio di Bart. Landi, 153. Madonna and saints, 
1476; 166-170. by Malteo da Siena (1470). 

Small Rooms in the 2nd corridor to the left. 1st Room: 201. Sana 
di Pietro , Madonna appearing to Calixtus III. ; "205. Sodoma, Christ about 
to be scourged, al fresco, from the cloisters of S. Francesco; 219, 220. 
Luca Signorelli (?), two frescoes (^Eneas departing from Troy, and liberation 
of captives), with beautiful frames and handsome pilasters in carved 
wood, executed by Barili, 1511. — 2nd Room: 236, 241. Spinello Aretino 
(1384), Death and Coronation of the Virgin. — We next visit the room 
at the end of the 1st corridor in a straight direction : 294. Sano di Pietro, 
Madonna with saints, a large altar-piece; 296. Pacchiarotto, Annunciation 
and saints. — We now come to a small room containing pictures of a 
later period. In the last room antique sculptures. — We then return 
to the entrance and enter the — 

Gkeat Hall. Immediately to the right and left : *341 , 342. Sodoma, 
Christ on the Mt. of Olives and in hell, two frescoes; 345. Fttngai, Ma- 
donna and saints; 356. Sodoma, Judith; 352. Beccafumi, Madonna; 365. 
Francesco di Giorgio , Nativity of Christ ; 368. Beccafumi , Fall of the 
angels ; 369. Francesco di Giorgio, Coronation of the Virgin ; "377. Sodoma, 
Descent from the Cross. — The following Room contains upwards of 100 
pictures of different schools , including : 26. Old copy of Raphael's Ma- 
donna della Perla (at Madrid); 36. Caravaggio, Morra-players; 39. Morone, 
Portrait; 45. Pinturicchio , Holy Family ; "53. Schongaver (?), Portrait; *54. 
German School, Portrait of Charles V.; *63. Beccafumi, St. Catharine of 
Siena with the stigmata; 71. Sodoma, Same; 73. German School, Portrait; 
*81. Palma Vecchio, Madonna and Child to whom a saint introduces the 
donor; 85. Sodoma, Nativity; 91, 99. Fra Bartolommeo, St. Catharine and 
St. Mary Magdalene; 103. Palma Giovane, Brazen Serpent; 105, 106. Sodoma, 
Pieta and Madonna. — The next Room contains the seven original car- 
toons of Beccafumi from the history of Moses, executed in marble-graffito 
on the pavement of the cathedral. — Several fine works in carved wood 
by Gosi, Guidi, & Querci (p. 23) are generally exhibited here. 

The Biblioteca Comunale (PI. 1 ; D, 4) is reputed the most an- 
cient in Europe (in the 17th cent. Siena possessed sixteen libraries, 
and in 1654 even one for women); it contains 40,000 vols, and 
5000 MSS. 

The most interesting are : the "Greek Gospels , formerly in the cha- 
pel of the imperial palace at Constantinople, of the 9th cent., magni- 
ficently bound and mounted in silver; 'Treatise on architecture by .Fran- 
cesco di Giorgio with sketches and drawings by the author; s 'Sketch-books 
of Baldassare Peruzzi and Giuliano da Sangallo. 

Beyond the library, to the left, we descend the Via Costa S. An- 
tonio , and enter the first side-street to the right , which leads 
straight to the upper entrance of the House of St. Catharine (PI. 3; 
D 4) : 'Sponsae Christi Katherine domus'. Visitors knock at the door 
to the left (1/2 fr-~)- St. Catharine of Siena, the daughter of a dyer, 
was horn in 1347, took the veil at the age of eight, and having 
become celebrated for visions, she prevailed on Pope Gregory VI. 
to retransfer the papal throne from Avignon to Rome (1377). She 
died in the year 1380, and was canonised in 1461. The best-known 
vision is that of her betrothal with the Infant Christ , a favourite 
theme with painters. Her festival is on 30th April. 

The different rooms in the building have been converted into small 
chapels or Oratories, which belong to the Confraternita di S. Caterina. 
Above the altar in one of the Upper Oratories , once a kitchen , is a 
portrait of the saint, by Ftmgai; the other pictures are by Salimbeni and 

S. Domenico. SIENA. 5. Route. 33 

Fr. Vanni; attention should also be paid to the beautiful ceiling, the pi- 
lasters and the pavement of glazed tiles. — The pretty little court is at- 
tributed to Bald. Pernzzi. — The Oeatoeio del Ckocifisso contains the 
wonder-working crucifix , a work by Giunta Pisano (?), from which St. 
Catharine, according to the legend, received the stigmata. — Below is the 
Chuech, containing frescoes and several good paintings by old masters; 
amongst others: Girol. del Petechia, St. Catharine healing Matteo di Cenni 
from the plague; St. Catharine rescuing Dominicans from robbers; The 
dead body of St. Agnes of Montepulciano stretching out her foot to be 
kissed by St. Catharine. The fourth picture, representing the saint being 
attacked by Florentine soMiers, is by Salimbeni, 1604; in the lunette, 
above the altar, "Angels by Sodoma. 

On leaving the church (the facade of which is remarkable") we 
come to the Via Benincasa (formerly dei Tintori; PI. D, 4), which 
is still inhabited, as in ancient days, by dyers and fullers. Not far 
distant is the celebrated fountain of ""Fontebranda (PI. C, D, 4), 
very picturesquely situated at the base of the hill of S. Domenico, 
mentioned as early as 1081, renovated in 1198, and praised by 
Dante (Inf. 30, 78 : 'Per Fontebranda non darei la vista'). — The 
Via di Fontebranda ascends to the Campo (on the left) , and to the 
cathedral (on the right). — Passing the fountain, and ascending to 
the right, we reach — 

S. Domenico (PI. D, 3, 4), a lofty brick edifice in the Gothic 
style (1220-1465), the massive substructions of which rest on the 
slope of the hill, with a campanile dating from 1340. 

The Inteeiob is destitute of aisles, and has a transept and open roof. 
At the entrance, to the right, is the Cappella delle Volte (closed), con- 
taining a Madonna and saints by Girolamo di Benvenuto , 1508, and an 
altar-piece, St. Catharine by Andrea Vanni. — Farther on, to the right: 
Monument of the mathematician Gius. Pianigiani (d. 1850), by Becheroni. 

— Third altar: St. Peter the Martyr, by Salimbeni, 1570. — The "Chapel 
op St. Cathaeine, in which the head of the saint is preserved in a 
silver reliquary enclosed in a shrine dating from 1466 , is adorned with 
admirable frescoes by Sodoma. On the wall near the altar, St. Catharine 
in ecstasy, supported by two sisters, and an angel bringing her the host; 
on the wall to the left, The prayer of the saint saving the soul of a de- 
capitated culprit; to the right, Healing of the possessed, by Francesco 
Vanni, 1593. The two saints on the right and left of the entrance are by 
the same master; the ceiling was executed by Sodoma. — The pavement 
of the chapel is richly decorated with graffito representations on marble. 

— Last altar to the right: Nativity of Christ of the school of Franc, di 
Giorgio, executed under the influence of Luca Signorelli, to whom the 
work was formerly attributed; the upper part is probably by Matteo da 
Siena, the foreground by Fungai. 

Choie. The beautiful "Marble Ciborium at the high-altar, hitherto 
ascribed by the Sienese to Michael Angelo , is more probably the work 
of Benedetto da Majano. — A beautiful "view of the lofty and imposing 
Cathedral may be obtained from the window at the back of the high 
altar. — The 2nd Chapel to the left of the high altar contains a Ma- 
donna by Guido da Siena , an interesting picture, although the date 1221 
appears to be spurious (1284). To the right: SS. Barbara, Mary Magdalene, 
and Catharine by Matteo da Siena, 1479; in the lunette above, a Pieta by 
Girolamo Benvenuto; the Madonna with saints to the left was executed by 
the same master, 1508; the lunette representing the Adoration of the 
Magi is by Matteo da Siena. — The 2nd Chapel to the right of the high 
altar contains numerous old tombstones with coats of arms , many of 
which belong to Germans who studied at the university in the 15th and 
16th centuries. 

Baedeker, t*- 1 " tt * tl - ^"'"~- 3 

34 Route 5. SIEXA. Fonteyiusta. 

We now return by the Via del Paradiso and the small Piazza 
Giuseppe Pianigiani, in which 'stands the little church of S. Maria 
delle Nevi ("PL 6). with a handsome facade, and a good picture hy 
Matteo da Siena (Madonna with numerous saints, 1477), to the Via 
Catoub. (p. '25), which farther on contains several handsome pa- 
laces, such as Palazzo Mocenni, Ciaia, and others. 

We next come to the small Piazza S. Petronilla on the right, 
whence the Via Garibaldi leads to the Porta S. Lorenzo and the rail- 
way-station. — The streets to the left of Via Cavour open into the 
lizza (PL E, 2, 3), a small promenade which was laid out in 1779 
on the site of a former fortress erected by Charles V., commanding 
good views of S. Domenico and the Cathedral. These walks extend as 
far as the entrance to Fort St. Barbera, built by Cosmo I. in 1560, 
open to the public and affording a good survey. 

The latter part of the Via Cavour, as far as the gate, is called the 
Via di Camollia (PL F, 1, 2). From this street the Via de' Campansi 
diverges to the right to the former monastery de' Campansi , now 
the Bicovero di Mendicitd, (PL F, 2; visitors ring); the cloisters are 
adorned with a fresco, the lower part of which, representing saints, 
is by Perugino, the upper part , Mary in a choir of angels, by a 
somewhat later master. Handsome rococo church. 

"We continue our way up the Via Camollia for some minutes, 
and, opposite a small square, turning to the left under an archway, 
and descending the Via Fontegiusta, arrive at the little church of — 

Foutegiusta (PL F, 2), belonging to a brotherhood (if closed, 
ring the bell to the right). This church was built by Francesco di 
Cristofano Fedeli and Giacomo di Giovanni in 1479, and possesses 
a beautiful *high-altar by Lorenzo di Mariano (1517), one of the 
finest existing sculptures of Raphael's time. The bronze holy-water 
basin, by Giov. delle Bombarde, is of simple but able workmanship. 
The 3rd altar to the right is adorned with a Coronation of the Ma- 
donna by Fungai • the 2nd to the left with a restored fresco by B. 
Peruzzi, the Sibyl announcing to Augustus the Nativity of Christ. 

Farther up in the Via Camollia, to the right , No. 48, is the 
house of Baldassare Peruzzi (p. 23), indicated by an inscription. 

A pleasant Walk may be taken by a road that skirts the town- 
walls to the right, outside the Porta Camollia (PL F, 1), affording 
pleasant views of the Tuscan hills. On a height opposite, beyond 
the railway-station, lies the monastery of Osservanza (see below) ; 
in the valley below, outside the Porta Ovile (PL F, 4), is the pic- 
turesque Fonte Ovile. In about l U hr. we reach the Porta Pispini 
(PL F, 8; p. 30). 

The Campo Santo is adorned with sculptures by Dupre, Sar- 
rocchi, and others. 

Excursions (most of them best made by carriage). — About 2 1 k M. 
to the N.E. of Siena, beyond the railway-station, is situated the suppres- 
sed Franciscan monastery of L'Osservanza, erected in 1423. The N. aisle 

Excursions. SIENA. 5. Route. OD 

of the church contains a "Coronation of the Virgin, a relief of the school 
of Delia Robhia; at the back of the high altar, two "statues, 3Iary and 
the Archangel Gabriel, of the same school. Pandolfo Petrucci is interred 
in this church (d. 1512; p. 22). 

S. Colomba, Celsa, and Marmoraja are most conveniently visited on 
horseback; there and back, with stay, in 5 1 /™ hrs. ; horse 5 fr. ; one-horse 
carriage (carozzino) 6 fr. For larger carriages the road is only good as 
far as S. Colomba. 

Leaving the Porta Camollia, we follow the high road for 2'/2 31. and 
then diverge to the left by the road passing between two cypresses and 
descending into the valley. This road leads us to the villa S. Colomba 
Cl','2 31.), designed by Bald. Peruzzi, now the property of the Collegio To- 
lomei (p. 29), with handsome staircase, and line view from the balcony. — 
After descending from S. Colomba we continue to follow the road by 
which we arrived, which leads through beautiful woods to Celsa (3 3 /4 31. 
from Colomba), a castellated villa, also designed by Bald. Peruzzi, where 
3Iino Celsi, a defender of the doctrines of Luther, lived at the begin- 
ning of the 16th cent. View from the highest story (refreshments sold 
by the fattore of the villa). — About 2>/4 31. beyond Celsa is Marmoraja. 
where on 7th Sept. 1187 peace was concluded between the Republic of 
Siena and Bishop Hugo of Volterra. The piazza in front of the parish 
church affords a fine view in the direction of Volterra, Colle d'Elsa. 
S. Gimignano etc. 

Fagnano lies about G 31. from the Porta Camollia. We follow the 
high road for about l 1 /^ 31. to Fontebecci, where we take the road to the 
right; a long avenue of cypresses diverging from the latter leads to the 
Villa Fagnano, the property of the Bandini-Piccolomini family. (Permis- 
sion to visit it is obtained of Cav. Bandini-Piccolomini in the Opera 
della Chiesa di Provenzano in Siena, 9-11 a. m. ; p. 31.) On the first 
floor is a line collection of mediseval and Renaissance weapons and 
armour. The picture gallery on the ground floor includes a 3Iadonna 
and St. Catharine by Sodoma, 3Iadonna and saints by Malteo da Siena, 
and a fine portrait of himself by the famous wood-carver Barili (p. 23). 

The Certosa di Pontignano, 5 31. from the Porta Ovile, # was founded 
in 13i3, fortified in 1383, and suppressed in 1810. The church was mo- 
dernised in the 17th cent. "View from the Parocchia. 

S. Ansano in Sofana, 9 31. from Porta Pispini, is reached by a good 
road diverging from the high road to the left about lVi 31. beyond" the 
Taverna d'Arbia , near the bridge over the Arbia. The parish church 
contains a Madonna by Bald. Peruzzi. Visitors should apply at the par- 
sonage for a guide with the keys of the (8 min.) Martirio di S. Ansano, 
a handsome brick edifice by Bald. Peruzzi, containing a 3Iadonna and 
saints by Pietro Lorenzetti, 1329. 

The Abbazia di S. Eugenio, l'/4 31. to the S. of the Porta S. 3Iarco, 
commonly known as II Monastero , is an ancient Benedictine monastery 
said to have been founded by Warnfried, a Lombard, in 750, fortified in 
1553 by Pietro Strozzi, and secularised in the last century. The buildings 
are thoroughly modernised. The church contains several early Sienese 
pictures, some of which have been ruined by restoration. "View from the 

The high road next leads to the Osieria della Volte, about 5 31. beyond 
the Porta S. 3Iarco, whence a road diverges to the right to (4 31.) Cetinale, 
a villa erected by Flavio Chigi, a nephew of Pope Alexander VII., from 
designs by Carlo Fontana in 1680. With the villa is connected the 
'Thebais' park, profusely embellished with sculptures and chapels in the 
taste of the period. Fine view from the hill ('Romitorio') above the villa. 

About l'/j 31. beyond the Osteria della Volte lies the venerable 
church of S. Giovanni di Ponte alio Spino, dating from the beginning of 
the 11th cent. About 3 31. further is Rosia, the church of which con- 
tains a holy-water basin of 1332. We may then proceed to (2 31.) Torri 
or S. Mustiola a Torri in Val-di-Merse, an old monastery belonging to the 


36 Route 5. MONTE OLIVETO. 

Vallombrosians , possessing a church, consecrated in 1189, and a fine 
Romanesque monastery court, now used as farm-buildings. 

The Chateau of ''Belcaro , to the W. of Porta Fontebranda , reached 
by carriage in V/z hi\, commands a splendid view of Siena and its envi- 
rons. On the ground-floor is a ceiling-painting by Said. Peruzzi: Judg- 
ment of Paris. The frescoes in the chapel, by the same master, have 
been sadly injured by recent restorations. 

From Siena to Monte Oliveto, 19 31. to the S., a drive of 3'/2 hrs. 
(carriage there and back 25 fr. and a fee of 5 fr.). It may also be reached 
from the stations nearer to it , such as Asciano (p. 17 ; one-horse car- 
riage 12 fr.) and S. Giovanni d'Asso (p. 17; short-cut for pedestrians, 
l'/2 hr.), perhaps as a digression from the journey to Orvieto. 

We quit Siena by the Porta Romana and follow the high road, which 
before the construction of the railway was one of the great commercial 
routes to Rome, and affords a succession of charming views. On the left 
(3 SI.) is the Borgo Malamerenda, said to derive its name from the story, 
that eighteen members and partisans of the Tolomei family were assas- 
sinated at a banquet (merenda) here in 1331 by their enemies the Salimbeni. 
We then pass Isola and Tressa on the left , cross the Arbia and the Om- 
brone, and reach Buonconvento, a small town with 3400 inhab., where the 
Emperor Henry VII. died in 1313. It was fortified by the Sienese in 
1366; the churches contain early Sienese pictures. — Beyond Buoncon- 
vento we leave the high road by a road diverging to the left, which 
leads across chalk hills in numerous windings (pedestrians may effect a 
saving of fully l>/2 SI. by taking the short-cuts) to the famous, but now 
suppressed Benedictine monastery of — 

Monte Oliveto Maggiore (a tolerable dinner may be obtained from 
the four monks who are left in the building as custodians ; for a leng- 
thened stay 4 fr. per day), founded in 1320 by Bernardo Tolomei , after- 
wards greatly enriched by donations, and still affording an excellent idea 
of a great establishment of the kind. The monks must have been won- 
derfully energetic to have been able to transform the sterile chalk-soil 
here into a smiling oasis. jEneas Sylvius Piccolomini (Pius II.) gives 
an interesting description of the monastery in his annals. 

The walls of the SIonastery Court are adorned with celebrated 
-Frescoes by Luca Signorelli (1497) and Ant. Bazzi, called Sodomu (1505), 
representing scenes from the legend of St. Benedict. The order of the 
pictures does not correspond with the date of their execution. The series 
begins with the first picture on the wall opposite the entrance (adjoining 
the entrance to the church), representing St. Benedict's departure from 
home, by Sodoma. The earliest part of the series are the frescoes on the 
entrance-wall, executed by Signorelli, eight in number: Totila kneeling 
to the saint; Soldier in disguise, attempting to deceive the saint; Temp- 
tation of the fasting monk ; Punishment of two monks addicted to dainties ; 
Resuscitation of a dead man whom Satan has thrown from a wall; Con- 
juration of Satan; Fall of the idol; Fall of a house. — The 'Sending forth 
of Slissionaries', on the left of the corner to the right, is by Riccio, 
but all the other pictures are by Sodoma, whose sense of beauty is every- 
where apparent, though he is doubtlessly far inferior to Signorelli in 
depth and excellence of conception and execution. In the first pictures 
by Sodoma we can trace a resemblance to the frescoes of Pinturicchio 
in the Cathedral library at Siena, and, in the others, features that recall 
Leonardo da Vinci. — The Church (entrance to the left of the monastery 
court) which was modernised in the last century, contains little to detain 
us , beyond the handsome choir stalls and reading - desk , in inlaid 
work, by Fra Giov. da Verona (1502-5). — In the Libreria are a door and a 
cabinet, also beautifully inlaid by the same master. — The visitor should 
also notice the extensive stables at the back of the monastery, the dif- 
ferent sections of which bear the names and arms of the chief towns 
of Italy , in order that guests might know on arriving where to put up 
their horses. 

S. GIOVANNI. 6. Route. 37 

About IV2 M. to the E. of Monte Oliveto lies Chiusure, commanding 
beautiful views. It was a populous and prosperous place down to 1348, 
when the plague swept away nearly all the inhabitants, but is now of no 
importance. — Hence to S. Giovanni d'Asso, 2'/2 M., see p. 17. 

6. From Florence by Arezzo and Terontola (Chiusi, 
Rome) to Perugia. 

103 M. Railway. Express in 41/a hrs., fares 18 fr. 80, 13 fr. 20 c; 
ordinary trains in 63/ 4 hrs., fares 17 fr. 85, 12 fr. 20, 8 fr. 45 c. — To 
Arezzo, 5i'/z M., in 2>/4-4 hrs., fares 10 fr. 10, 7 fr. 5 c, or 9 fr. 60, 6 fr. 
55, 4 fr. 55 c. ; thence to Cortona, 17V3 M., in 52 min. (the express does 
not stop at Cortona); fares 3 fr., 2 fr. 5, 1 fr. 40 c. — Those who wish 
to see Arezzo and Cortona and arrive at Perugia in one day, had better 
leave Florence in the afternoon or evening and sleep at Arezzo. 

The Express to Rome quits the Perugia line at Terontola and runs 
via Chinsi, Orvieto, and Orte (E. 7). Passengers for Perugia generally 
change carriages at Terontola. 

Florence, see vol. I. of this Handbook. The train describes a 
curve round the town and runs along the N. bank of the Arno. By 
degrees the valley contracts ; Fiesole on the height to the left long 
remains visible. 7^2 M. Compiobbi. The surrounding heights are 
barren, the slopes and valley well cultivated; to the left is seen the 
mountain chain of the Pratomagno. 12'/2 M- Pontassieve , at the 
influx of the Sieve into the Arno ; to the left a beautiful glimpse of 
tbe valley of the Sieve. The train passes through a short tunnel, 
and then crosses to the left bank of the Arno. 17!/2 M. Rignano ; 
the train passes through another tunnel and reaches (22 M.) Incisa, 
with a couspicuous castle. The river forces its way here through the 
limestone rock, whence the name of the village. 25 M. Figline. In 
a palseontological point of view the valley of the Arno near Figline, 
and farther on, near Montevarchi and Arezzo, is very interesting 
owing to the great number of fossil bones of the elephant, rhino- 
ceros, mastodon, hippopotamus, hyaena, tiger, bear, etc., which have 
been found here. This basin seems to have been filled with a fresh- 
water lake at some remote period. 

30 M. S. Giovanni, a small town to the left, the birthplace of 
the celebrated painter Masaccio (in 1402 ; d. at Florence 1443), and 
of Giovanni da 8. Oiovanni (1590-1636). The Cathedral contains 
pictures by the latter : Beheading of John the Baptist, Annuncia- 
tion, etc. The chapel to the right of the high-altar in the church 
of S. Lorenzo contains a Madonna, formerly attributed to Masaccio. 

34 M. Montevarchi (Loeanda a" Italia , in the main street), a 
small town with 9600 inhab. The loggia of the principal church in 
the piazza is embellished with a richly sculptured relief by Delia 
Robbia ; opposite is the house of Benedetto Varchi (d. 1555), the 
Florentine historian and independent favourite of Cosmo. The Ac- 
cademia di Val d'Amese contains a valuable collection of fossil 
bones (see above). 

3S Route 6. 


From Florence 

Views as far as Arezzo on the left. The train ascends, passing 
through four tunnels, to (39 >I.) Bucine; the village is close to 
the line on a hill to the right. Four more tunnels follow in rapid 
succession; 42 M. Laterina and (45 >I.) Ponticino, beyond which 
the train gradually ascends to the level of Arezzo, which is visible 
to the left in the distance. 54 1 / 2 M. Arezzo. 

Arezzo. — Inghiltekra, Vittoria, opposite each other in the Via. 
favour; Caxxox d'Oeo, unpretending, near the station. — Caffi dei Con- 
stantly Via Cavour. 

Arezzo (780 ft.), the ancient Arretium, the seat of a bishop and 


t S.iLidlf Oralis 

to Periiyw. AltEZZO. 6. Ecute. 39 

a prefect, is a clean and pleasant town with 11,150 (or, including 
the neighbouring villages, 38,900) inhab., in a beautiful and fertile 
district, abounding in historical reminiscences. 

Arrelium was one of the most powerful of the twelve confederate cities of 
Etruria, and (like Cortona and Perusia) concluded peace with the Romans 
in the great war of B.C. 310, after which it continued to he an ally of 
Rome. In 187 the Consul C. Flaminius constructed the Via Flaminia from 
Arretium to Bononia (Bologna), of which traces are still distinguishahle. In 
the civil war Arretium was destroyed by Sulla, hut was subsequently colo- 
nised (Colonia Fidens Julia Arretium), and again prospered. Its manufactures 
were red earthenware vases, of superior quality, and weapons. — In the 
middle ages the town suffered greatly from the Goths and the Lombards, 
and at a later date from the party- struggles of the Guclphs and Ghibellines, 
in which it generally took the part of the latter against the Guelphs of 
Florence. In the 14th cent, it was for a time subject to the rule of the 
Tarlati, and in 1337 temporarily, and in the 16th cent, under Cosmo I. 
finally to that of Florence. 

Arezzo was the birthplace of many distinguished men, of whom may 
tie mentioned: C. Cilnius Maecenas (d. 9 A.D.), the friend of Augustus 
and patron of Virgil and Horace; the Benedictine monk Guide* Aretino 
(1000-1050), the inventor of our present system of musical notation; 
Francesco Petrarca, the greatest lyric poet of Italv, born of Florentine 
parents in 1304 (d. 1374) ; Pietro Aretino , the satirist (1492-1557) ; several 
members of the noble family of the Accolti , jurists and historians, in the 
15-17th cent.: A. Cesalpini, the botanist and physician (1519-1603); Franc. 
Iledi, the physician and humourist (d. 169-). — Arezzo has also produced 
several artists: Marguriione (about 1236) , a painter and sculptor of no 
great importance; Spinello Aretino (1318-1410), an able pupil of Giotto, 
whose style he steadily followed and rendered popular (his best works 
are in S. Iliniato near Florence, in the Campo Santo at Pisa, and in the 
Palazzo Comunale in Siena); at a later period Giorgio Yasari (1512-74), 
the painter, architect, and biographer of artists. The town, however, 
never possessed a school of its own. Its requirements in the province 
of art, which were at there height in the 13-14th cent., were fulfilled by 
Florentine and Sienese masters, and Giotto, Lippo Jlemmi, Lorenzetti, 
and others were employed here. 

Leaving the station, we follow the new Via Grino Monaco lead- 
ing in 5 min. to the Via Cavour, Here, to the right, in the small 
Piazza S. Francesco, is a Monument to Count Fossombrone (b. in 
Arezzo 1754. d. 1844; PI. 1 ; p. 42), and the church of — 

S. Francesco (PI. 2), remarkable for its frescoes, dating from 
the 15th cent. 

In the Choir: 'Frescoes by Piero delta Francesco, the master of Luca 
Signorelli (best light in the evening). They narrate the legend of the 
Holy Cross, according to which a seed of the tree of knowledge, planted 
upon Adam's grave, grew up to be a tree. Solomon caused the tree to be 
felled and abridge to be constructed of the wood, of which the Queen of 
Sheba afterwards discovered the origin. At a later period it was used 
for making the Holy Cross. The Emp. Heraclius rescued the cross in a 
battle with the Persians , and it was afterwards re-discovered by St. He- 
lena. All these scenes, from the death of Adam down to the finding of the 
cross, are pourtrayed by Piero with great technical skill, in which respect, 
as well as in his appreciation of the nude, he surpassed all his contem- 
poraries. His pictures , however, are stiff and destitute of gracefulness. 
— The Evangelists on the ceiling have been attributed to Bicii di Lo- 
renzo. — The Save, recently freed from whitewash, contains frescoes by 
Spinello Aretino, sadly injured. 

The Via Cavour forms a right angle with the Coeso Vittorio 

40 Route 6. AREZZO. From Florence 

Emanuele, the principal street of the town. Ascending this street, 
we observe on the right the interesting church of — 

S. Maria della Pieve (PL 3), which is said to have been built 
at the beginning of the 9th cent, on the site of a temple of Bacchus; 
tower and facade of 1216. The latter is very peculiar, consisting 
of four series of columns, distributed with singular incongruity. 

Ancient sculptures over the doors. — The Interior, now undergoing 
restoration, consists of a nave and aisles with a dome. Above the high- 
altar, St. George by Vasari; to the right, an altar-piece by Pietro Laureati 
(according to the inscription; but, according to Crowe, by Pietro Loren- 
zetti), Madonna surrounded by saints (both these pictures are temporarily 
deposited in the Badia, p. 41). 

The Via di Seteria diverges here from the Corso to the right 
and leads to the Piazza Grande, embellished with a fountain and a 
Monument of Ferdinand III., erected in 1822 (PI. 4). On the N. 
side of this square are the Loggie (PI. 5), built by Vasari in 1573. 
— To the left of the choir of S. Maria della Pieve is situated the — 

*Museum (PI. 6) in the cloister of the Fraternita della Miseri- 
cordia, with a handsome Gothic facade of the 14th cent. On the 
first floor are the museum and library. 

Visitors ring on the first floor opposite the entrance door. 

Rooms I. and II. contain a rich Palceontological Collection, chiefly from 
the vicinity of Arezzo (comp. p. 37). Among the fossils is a stag's head 
found in the Chiana Valley not far from Arezzo. — Room III. By the wall 
of the entrance antique and modern bronzes. Right wall, Roman inscriptions 
and reliefs. On the wall of egress, antique utensils in bronze. In the cen- 
tre, "mediaeval and antique seals. — Room IV.: line majolicas dating from 
the 16th cent. ; in the centre an "antique vase, Combat of Hercules and 
the Amazons. In the cabinets, cinerary urns and other vessels in red clay 
(vasa Arretina, p. 39). — Room V. : Etruscan cinerary urns. In the centre 
several antique vases; on one of them the "abduction of Hippodamia by 
Pelops. To the right a "reliquary of the 15th cent., by Forzore, containing 
the bones of the martyrs Laurentius and Pergentius. 

Passing under Vasari's Loggie we now return to the Corso, 
which we reach just opposite the Palazzo Pubblico (PI. 7). This 
edifice, built in 1322, and adorned with numerous armorial bearings 
of the ancient Podesta, has unfortunately been modernised , and is 
now used as a prison. 

A little farther the Via dell' Orto diverges to the left, near the 
entrance to which, No. 22, a long inscription indicates the house 
(PI. 8) in which Francesco Petrarca was born, 20th July, 1304, his 
parents, like Dante, the victims of a faction, having been expelled 
from Florence (p. 39). In the vicinity rises the — 

*Cathedral, a fine specimen of Italian Gothic, begun in 1177, 
with later additions ; facade unfinished. 

The Interior, which has no transept and is of handsome and spacious 
proportions, contains stained glass "windows, dating from the beginning 
of the 16th cent., by Guillaume de Marseille; the middle window in the 
choir is modern. In the Right Aisle is the Tomb of Gregory X., by Mar- 
garilone (? Pisan school). This indefatigable prelate expired at Arezzo, 
10th Jan., 1276, on his return from France to Rome, after having 
proclaimed a new crusade. — On the High Altar, "marble sculptures 
by Giovanni Pis'ino of 12?6 : Madonna with St. Donatus and Gregory, and 

to Rome. AREZZO. 6. Route. 41 

bas-reliefs from their lives. — In the Left Aisle s the tomb of the poet 
and physician Redi (d. 1693). Near it is the chapel of the Madonna del 
Soccorso with two altars of the Robbia school. Farther on, at the E. 
end of the left aisle , the "Tomb of Guido Tarlati di Pietramala . the 
warlike bishop of Arezzo, the work of Agostino and Agnolo da Siena, 
about 1330, from the design of Giotto, as Vasari conjectures, in 16 
sections, representing the life of this ambitious and energetic prelate, 
who, having been elected governor of the town in 1321, soon distinguished 
himself as a conqueror, and afterwards crowned the Emperor Louis the 
Bavarian in the church of S. Ambrogio at Milan (d. 1327). — Close to 
the door of the sacristy is a St. Magdalene, al fresco by Piero delta Fran- 

In front of the cathedral rises a Marble Statue of Ferdinand 
de' Medici, by Giovanni da Bologna, erected in 1595. In the cathe- 
dral-square (No. 1) is the Palazzo Comunale (PI. 9), adorned with 
numerous old armorial bearings. — We now follow the Via Ricasoli, 
and turn to the right to S. Domenico (PI. 10), situated in the Piazza 
<?ossombrone and adorned with frescoes by Spinello Aretino and 

In the Borgo di S. Vito, on the right, is the House of Giorgio 
Vasari ( No. 27) , containing works by the master. The street 
leads back to the W. end of the Via Cavour (p. 39). 

In a small piazza adjoining the Via Cavour stands the church of 
S. Annunziata (PI. 12), a handsome Renaissance structure chiefly 
by Antonio da Sangallo ; the interior, with its tunnel- vaulting , is 
very picturesque; stained glass of the 15th cent. 

Farther on in the Via Cavour is the Badia di S. Fiore (PI. 13), 
also situated in a small piazza, which now contains the Accademia 
Aretina di Scienze , Lettere ed Arti, and the small Picture Gallery 
belonging to the town. Door No. 1 leads from the piazza into a 
court with arcades, where visitors ring for the custodian (fee '/ 2 r"r.). 

The Picture Gallery contains few works of great value. The names 
of the painters are indicated on the pictures. The First Room contains 
a Madonna with numerous saints, by Pietro Lorenzetti , a characteristic 
work of the Sienese master (this picture belongs to S. Maria della Pieve, 
p. 40). — The next Rooms contain casts and prints. — We next enter a 
Room with a number of paintings by Vasari; besides, on the wall facing 
us: "Madonna enthroned, with saints, by Lvca Siynorelli (about 1520)"; 
St. Roch being invoked during the plague, two pictures by Bartol. della 
Gatta, a master who was influenced by Signorelli. — The LiBRARr of the 
Accademia Aretina, formerly the refectory, contains the Feast of Ahasuerus 
by Vasari, 1548. 

At the lower end of the Corso, near the Porta S. Spirito, the 
Via dell' Anfiteatro (to the left) leads to the church of S. Bernardo 
(PI. 14) ; the frescoes in the anterior quadrangle are attributed to 
P. Uccello. From the corridor to the left are seen the insignificant 
Temains of a Roman amphitheatre in the garden. 

About '/2 M. from the Porta S. Spirito (outside which we take the 
avenue to the left, and then at the corner, after 3 min. , the road to the 
Tight), is situated the church of S. Maria delle Grazie , an edifice of the 
early Renaissance period, with an elegant porch borne by columns, and 
a handsome altar, by Benedetto da Majano (?). 

From Arezzo to Citta di Oastello, 22'/2 M. (high-road, see p. 55). 

42 Route 0. 


From Florence 

On leaving Arezzo we obtain a beautiful retrospect of the 
town, from which the cathedral rises picturesquely. The railway 
and high-road skirt the chain of hills which separate the valleys 
of the Arno and Chiana from the upper valley of the Tiber. Beyond 
a tunnel the train crosses the plain in a straight direction to 
(63 M.) Frassinetto and (66 M.) Castelfiorentino , the latter situated 
on a mountain spur. Farther on, to the left, the dilapidated fortress 
of Montecchio. Somewhat farther, the loftily situated Cortona he- 
comes visible to the left in the distance. 

The luxuriant and richly cultivated Valley of the Chiana, which 
was anciently a lake, was a noisome swamp down to the middle of 
last century. The level was raised and carefully drained, the brooks 
being so directed as to deposit their alluvial soil in the bottom of 
the valley. This judicious system was originated by Torricelli and 
Viviani, celebrated mathematicians of the school of Galileo , and 
carried out by the worthy Count Fossornbrone, who combined the 
pursuits of a scholar and a statesman (p. 39). The Chiana, Lat. 
Clanis, which once flowed into the Tiber, now falls into the Arno. 

73 M. Cortona. The station lies at the foot of the hill on 
which the town itself is situated, near the village of Camuscia. 

A carriage road (8/4 hr. ; omnibus 1 fr.) ascends to Cortona. 
passing S. Spirito on the right, and reaching the town on the S. 
side. Pedestrians cut off the windings by following the old road, 
which passes the Madonna del Calcinajo (a small early Renaissance 
building by Ant. da Sangallo , with a handsome altar of 1519) and 
leads to the low-lying S."VV. gate of the town (p. 43). 

Cortona. — Albeego dklla Stella, at the W. entrance of the town; 
Alb. Nazionale, farther up in the Via Nazionale, both clean and good. 
(Enquiry as to charges had better be made beforehand.) 

to Borne. CORTONA. 6. Route. 43 

Cortona, a small, loftily situated town with 9000 inhab. (with 
neighbouring villages 26,000), above the valley of the Chiana, and 
not far from the Trasimene Lake, is one of the most ancient cities 
in Italy. Its situation and views, its Etruscan antiquities, and the 
number of good pictures it possesses, render it well worthy of a visit. 

It appears that the Etruscans, immigrating from the plain of the Po, 
wrested the place from the Umbrians, and constituted it their principal 
stronghold when they proceeded to extend their conquests in Etruria. 
Cortona was one of the twelve confederate cities of Etruria, and with 
them shaved the fate of being converted into a Roman colony. After various 
vicissitudes and struggles it came under the dominion of Florence in 1410. 

Llca Sigxorelli , one of the most distinguished painters of the 15th 
cent., was born at Cortona in 1441. He has justly been called a precursor 
of Michael Angelo. Like his master Piero della Francesca (p. 39), he was 
a zealous student of anatomy ; in the embodiment of the nude , in the 
conception of movement and foreshortening he surpasses all his contem- 
poraries. On the other hand, his deficiency of refined pictorial sentiment 
forbids the full development of plastic vigour in his pictures. He there- 
fore prefers extensive fresco-paintings as a suitable' field for his abilities 
to easel-pictures. Frescoes of this kind he has executed in the Sixtine 
Chapel at Rome (1508; p. 287), at Monte Oliveto (1497; p. 36), and at Orvieto 
(1499: his principal work, p. 60). At his native town, where he held 
several municipal appointments and lived almost constantly the twenty 
last years of his life (d. 1523) , a number of works by his hand are still 
preserved, none of which, however, are of much importance. — Cortona 
was also the birthplace of Pietro Berettini , surnamed Pietro da Cortona 
11596-1669), the painter and decorator, who was chiefly employed at Rome 
and Florence. 

From the S. entrance of the town, which we have reached by the 
road, the Via Nazioxale leads in 3 min. to a semicircular terrace- 
on the left, commanding an unimpeded view of part of the Trasimene 
Lake and the surrounding heights. On the right is the church of — 

■S. Domenico , dating from the beginning of the 13th cent.; on 
the left wall an altar-piece by Lorenzo di Xiccolb (1440), Coronation 
of the Virgin, presented by Cosmo and Lorenzo de' Medici ; on the 
right, a *Madonna with four saints and angels, by Fra Angelico ; on 
the left, a *Madonna with St. Petrus Martyr and a Dominican monk, 
by Luca Signorelli (1515). 

The Via S. Margherita, which ascends steeply to the right, see 
p. 44. The Via Xazionale leads straight to the Piazza Vittoeio 
Emaxvele, where the Municipio is situated. Here, to the left, 
diverges the Via Guelfi, in which are situated, to the right, a 
beautiful palazzo of the 16th cent., and lower down the church of 
S. Agostino, with a Madonna and saints by Pietro da Cortona (be- 
yond this the street leads to the S.AV. gate, Porta IS. Agostino, p. 4'2). 

Turning to the right from the Piazza Vitt. Em., we immediately 
reach the small Piazza Signorelli, where we observe, opposite to 
us, the Palazzo Pretorio, and on the left an ancient Marzocco (lion). 

The Palazzo Pretorio (PL 2), with numerous armorial bearings of 
old magistrates, is now occupied by various public offices, and con- 
tains the Accademla Etrusca , founded in 1726, which possesses a 
*Ml t seum op Etruscan Antiquities, well worth visiting. (Fee 
1-1 i J2 fr. to the custodian who lives close by.) 

44 Route (!. CORTONA. From Florence 

The gem of the collection is a circular Etruscan ''Candelabrum (lam- 
padario), made to hold 16 lights ; on the lower side in the centre a Gorgo- 
neum, surrounded with a combat of wild beasts; then waves with dol- 
phins; and finally eight ithyphallic satyrs alternately with eight sirens; 
between each lamp a head of Bacchus. — An encaustic painting on 
lavagna-stone, 'Polyhymnia'', said to be ancient. — Remarkable Etruscan 
bronzes, a votive hand with numerous symbols, vases, urns, inscriptions, etc. 

The Ponbuni Library, in the same building, possesses a fine MS. of Dante. 

The Via Casali descends from the Palazzo Pretorio to the — 

*Cathedral, a handsome basilica, ascribed to Antonio da San- 
yallo , altered in the 18th cent, by the Florentine Galilei. 

The Choir contains a Descent from the Cross, and "Institution of the 
Last Supper, with predella, by Luca Signorelli. To the left of these a 
Pieta, by the same master. — In the Sacristy , a Madonna by the same. 
To the left of the choir, an ancient sarcophagus, representing the contest 
of Dionysus against the Amazons, erroneously supposed to be the tomb 
of the Consul Flaminius (p. 45). 

Opposite the cathedral is the Baptistery, formerly a Jesuit Church. 

It contains two pictures by Luca Signorelli , the Conception and Ka- 
tivity, and three by Fra Angelica da Fiesole, the Annunciation and "two 
predelle, representing scenes from the life of the Virgin and S. Domenico. 

Passing the colonnades of the theatre in the Piazza Signorelli, 
we follow the Via Dardano in a straight direction to the Porta Dai- 
dano, where we obtain the best survey of the * Ancient Etruscan 
Town Walls, constructed of huge blocks, and for the most partwell 
preserved , which surround the town irJ a circumference of about 
2869 yds., and along the outside of which we may descend. 

Ascending the Via S. Margherita from S. Domenico, we reach 
(20 min.) the hill commanding the town, on which are situated the 
church of 8. Margherita, and a dilapidated fortress (see below). — 
About halfway up, the Via delle Santucce diverges to the left, and 
leads in a few minutes to the church of 8. Niceolb, with a small 
entrance court planted with cypresses. 

The Interior ('/z fr.) contains a freely restored fresco and an -altar- 
piece, painted on both sides (in front the Body of Christ borne by angels 
and surrounded by saints ; at the back, Madonna della Seggiola with SS. 
Peter and Paul), by Luca Signorelli. — The sacristan will point out a 
direct route, ascending hence by steps to S. Margherita. 

The church of S. Margherita, a Gothic building by Niceolb 
and Giovanni Pisano, possesses a handsome rose window, which 
has of late been partially renewed and enlarged. In the high-altai 
is the tomb of the saint (13th cent.); the silver front with the 
golden crown was presented by Pietro da Cortona. — The visitor 
should not omit to ascend somewhat higher to the old *Fobtbzza, 
2165 ft. in height (trifling fee), from the walls of which the noble 
prospect is entirely uninterrupted, except at the back, where it is 
bounded by the mountain-chain {Alto di S. Egidio, 3432 ft.). 

Besides the town-walls , there are several less interesting anti- 
quities : an ancient vault beneath the Palazzo Cecchetti; near S. 
Margherita, remains of Roman Baths, erroneously called a 'Temple 
of Bacchus' 1 ; outside the gate of S. Agostino. an Etruscan tomb, 
the 'Grotta di Pitagora'. 

to Rome. TERONTOLA. 6. Route. 45 

The visitor may (by presenting a -visiting -card) possibly ob- 
tain access to the private collection of Sign. Colonnese in the Pa- 
lazzo Madama, Via Nazionale 5 : beautiful half-length picture of 
St. Stephen and a Nativity by Lvca Signorelli, a picture of the 
German school, and two Italian works of the loth century. 

76 M. Terontola, an unimportant place near the N.W. angle of 
the Trasimene Lake, is the junction of the lines to Chiusi, Orte, 
and Rome ( see R. 8), and to Perugia and Foligno. Passengers in 
the latter direction generally change carriages here. 

The Lago Trasimeno, the ancient Lacus Trasimenus (846 ft. J, 
is 30 M. in circumference, and at places 8 M. in breadth, and 
is surrounded by wooded and olive-clad slopes , which as they 
recede rise to a considerable height. The lake contains three 
small islands , the Isold Maggiore with a monastery , the Isola 
Minore near Passignano, and the Isola Polvese towards the S. ; 
on the W. side an eminence abuts on the lake, bearing the small 
town Castiglione del Lago (p. 56). Its shores abound with wild- 
fowl, and its waters with eels, carp, and other fish. The brooks 
which discharge themselves into the lake gradually raise its bed. 
The greatest depth, formerly 30-40 ft., is now 20 ft. only. In the 
15th cent, a drain (emissarius) conducted the water into a tribu- 
tary of the Tiber. In ancient times the area of the lake appears 
to have been smaller. A project for draining it entirely, formed 
by Napoleon I., is still frequently canvassed. 

The reminiscence of the sanguinary victory which Hannibal gained 
here over the Eoman consul C. Flaminius in May, B.C. 217, imparts a 
tinge of sadness to this lovely landscape. It is not difficult to reconcile 
the descriptions of Livy (22, 4 et seq.) and Polybius (3 , 83 et seq.) with 
the present appearance of the lake. In the spring of 217 Hannibal quitted 
his winter-quarters in Gallia Cisalpina, crossed the Apennines, marched 
across the plains of the Arno, notwithstanding an inundation, devastating 
the country far and wide in his progress , and directed his course towards 
the S. , passing the Roman army stationed at Arezzo. The brave and able 
consul followed incautiously. Hannibal then occupied the heights which 
surround the defile extending on the N. side of the lake from Borghetto to 
Passignano, upwards of 5M. in length. The entrance at Borghetto, as well 
as the issue at Passignano, were easily secured. Upon a hill in the centre 
(site of the present Torre) his principal force was posted. A dense fog 
covered the lake and plain , when in the early morning the consul , igno- 
rant of the plan of his enemy, whom he believed to be marching against 
Rome, entered the fatal defile. When he discovered his error, it was too 
late : his entire left flank was exposed, whilst his rear was attacked by 
the hostile cavalry from Borghetto. No course remained to him but to force 
a passage by Passignano, and the vanguard of 6000 men succeeded in 
effecting their egress (but on the following day were compelled to sur- 
render). The death of the consul rendered the defeat still more disastrous. 
The Romans lost 15,000 men, while the remaining half of the army was 
effectually dispersed ; and the Roman supremacy in Italy began to totter. 
The slaughter continued for three hours. From the Gualandro two small 
brooks fall into the lake. One of these, crossed by the road, has been 
named Sanguinetto in reminiscence of the streams of blood with which it 
was once discoloured. 

The line skirts the lake, and passes through a tunnel. 84'/ 2 M. 

46 Route 7. PERUGIA. 

Passignano. Two more tunnels. Then (90 M.) Magione, a borough 
with an ancient watch-tower of the period of'Fortebraccio and Sforza. 
96 M. Ellera. On the left Perugia is visible picturesquely situated 
on the heights. 

103 M. Perugia. Omnibus to the town (1 fr.) in great request, 
so that no time should be lost in securing a seat; to the Albergo 
di Perugia a drive of l / i hr., to the top of the hill 25 min. (Before 
the first bend of the road to the left , a good path to the right 
ascends to the town in 20 min.) 

7. Perugia. 

Hotels. "Albergo di Perugia , at the lower entrance of the town 
(15 min. drive from the station), new, first class, with an uninterrupted 
view, English landlady; rooms not always obtainable unless previously 
ordered. — 'Grande Bretagne, 10 min. drive farther up, at the beginning 
of the Corso , R. 2 fr. and upwards, L. i/», A. 1/2, D. 3-4 fr. — Second 
class : Albergo di Belle Arti, Via Cappellari, a side-street of the Corso. 

Restaurant. Progresso, Piazza Sopramura, near Via Nuova. 

Cafes. "Baduel, Trasimeno, both in the Corso ; Melinelli, in the Piazza 
S. Lorenzo, opposite the Cathedral fountain ; also a pleasant Cafe under 
the arcades of the Prefettura, with view. 

Post-Office: Via Riaria, 33. — Telegraph Office at the Prefettura, in 
the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele. — Diligence Office, Corso 38. 

Perugia is well adapted for a summer resort, and apartments are not 
expensive. — One day, or a day and a half at least should he devoted to 
the town. As a guide (not indispensable) Giovanni Scalchi is recommended, 
but dilettanti are cautioned against purchasing his 'antiquities 1 ; also Al 

Perugia, the capital of the province of Umbria, with 16,700 in- 
hab. (including the villages 49,500), residence of the prefect, of a 
military commandant , and a bishop , and the seat of a university, 
lies on a group of hills about 1300 ft. above the valley of the Tiber 
(1707 ft. above the level of the sea). The town is built in an an- 
tiquated style, partly on the top of the hill, and partly on its slope. 
Numerous buildings of the 14th and 15th cent, (when the town 
was in the zenith of its prosperity), the paintings of the Umbrian 
school , and the fine and extensive views of the peculiar scenery, 
render Perugia one of the most interesting places in Italy. 

Perusia was one of the twelve Etruscan confederate cities, and not less 
ancient than Cortona, with which and Arretium it fell into the hands of the 
Romans, B. C. 310. It subsequently became a municipium. In the war 
between Octavianus and Antony, who in the summer of 41 occupied Pe- 
rusia, and after an obstinate struggle was compelled by the former to sur- 
render (bellum Perusinum), the town suffered severely , and was Anally re- 
duced to ashes. It was afterwards rebuilt and became a Roman colony 
under the name of Augusta Perusia. In the 6th cent, it was destroyed by 
the Goth Totila after a siege of seven years. In the wars of the Lombards, 
Guelphs, and Ghibellines it also suffered greatlv; in the 14th cent, it acquired 
the supremacy over nearly the whole of Umbria, but in 1370 was compelled 
to surrender to the pope. Renewed struggles followed owing to the con- 
flicts between the powerful families of Oddi and Baglioni. In 1416 the 
shrewd and courageous Braccio Fortebraccio of Montone usurped the su- 
preme power, whence new contests arose, until at length Giovanni Paolo 

PERUGIA. 7. Route. 47 

Baglioni surrendered to Pope Julius II. Leo X. caused him to be executed 
at Rome in 1520. In 1540 Paul III. erected the citadel , 'ad coercendam 
Perusinorum audaciam\ as the inscription, destroyed during the last revo- 
lution, recorded. In 1708 the town was captured by the Duke of Savoy, on 
31st May 1849 by the Austrians, and in 1860 by the Piedmontese. 

Umbrian School of Painting. As early as the time of Dante an Um- 
brian artist, the miniature painter Odekisi of Gubbio , was celebrated, 
and art was practised in Gubbio, Fabriano, Perugia, etc. The neigh- 
bouring Siena doubtless exercised an influence on the prevailing style 
of art, which was confirmed by the situation of the towns, the character 
of their inhabitants, and the, religious atmosphere diffused by Assisi and 
Loreto. Neither dramatic power, nor wealth of imagination is to be 
found in the Umbrian sty r le , its characteristic features being reverie, 
tranquillity, and gentleness of sentiment. The men pourtrayed often ap- 
pear destitute of individuality and vigour, the female figures, on the other 
hand , excite our admiration owing to their winning and devout expres- 
sions. Technical improvements seem to have been introduced but slowly, 
but the old style was thoroughly cultivated snd rendered more attractive 
by frequent use of decorative adjuncts. 

Setting aside the painters of the 14th cent., who were dispersed among 
various small towns , we find that Ottaviano Nelli of Gubbio (15th cent.) 
was the first able representative of this school. Works by this master 
are preserved both at his native town and at Foligno. Nelli was, how- 
ever, eclipsed by Gentile da Fabriano (b. about 1360-70), who probably 
had studied the Sienese masters in his youth , and who afterwards un- 
dertook long journeys (e. g. to Venice and Rome), thus establishing his 
reputation throughout Italy. His style not unfrequently resembles the 
Flemish. Besides Gubbio and Fabriano, other Umbrian towns possessed 
local schools of painting , such as Camerino and Foligno. The latter, 
about the middle of the 15th cent., gave birth to Mccolb Alunno , a man 
of limited ability, which , however , he cultivated to the utmost. His 
prevailing theme is the Madonna, to whose features he imparts beauty in 
happy combination with reverie ; and in this department he may be re- 
garded as the precursor of Perugino and Raphael. 

Meanwhile Pf.bugia, the largest city in this district, by no means 
remained idle. In this wider and more enterprising field the old con- 
ventional styles were soon abandoned as unsatisfactory, and the necessity 
of adopting the Florentine style was urgently felt. In the latter half of 
the 15th century Benedetto Buonfigli was the first master, who strove 
to throw aside the local style of painting , and the same effort was made 
by Fiorenzo di Lorenzo, a younger master and perhaps a pupil of Bene- 

This improved style was brought to maturity by Pietko Vannucci of 
Citta della Pieve (1446-1524), surnamed Perugino, after the chief scene 
of his labours, a master to whom the Umbrian school is chiefly indebted 
for its fame. Perugia was, however, by no means the only sphere of his 
activity. He repeatedly spent years together in Florence, and was em- 
ployed for a considerable time in Rome. His endeavours to overcome 
the defects of his native school were crowned with success. In Ver- 
rocchio's studio in Florence he was initiated into the secrets of perspec- 
tive and the new mode of colouring, and in both respects attained con- 
summate skill. Down to the beginning of the 16th cent, his excellence 
•continued unimpaired , as his frescoes in the Cambio , and his Madonna 
and saints (No. 38) in the Gallery at Perugia sufficiently prove. During 
the last twenty years of his life, however , his works show a falling off, 
occasioned, doubtlessly, by his accepting more orders than he could 
conscientiously execute, whereby his art was degraded to a mere handi- 
craft. He seems , indeed , to have had more studios than one at the same 
time , as for example in 1502-5 both at Florence and Perugia , in the 
latter of which the young Raphael was employed. 

Another great master of the Umbrian school , vying with Perugino, 
is Bernardino Betti, surnamed Pinturicchio (1454-1513). Although he 

48 Route 7 PERUGIA. ~Cbllegio del Cambio. 

exercised no considerable influence on the progress of Italian art, and in- 
troduced no striking improvements like Leonardo, and others, yet he 
thoroughly understood how to utilise the traditional style and the cur- 
rent forms, and was marvellously prolific as a fresco painter. The Va- 
tican and Roman churches, the Cathedral library at Siena, and the Col- 
legiate church at Spello, are the chief scenes of his activity. _ — Amongst 
the younger contemporaries of Perugino we must next mention Giovanni 
di Pietro, surnamed Lo Spagna after his native country, whose paintings 
are hardly inferior to the early works of Haphael, and who, in common 
with all the Umbrian masters, exhibits great ease of execution. 

Other assistants of Perugino, but of inferior merit, were Giannicola 
di Paolo Manni (d. 15i4) and Eusebio di S. Giorgio. The latter was so 
successful in imitating Raphael in superficial respects , that several of 
his pictures, amongst others the Adoration of the Magi in the picture gal- 
lery at Perugia (No. 8) , have been attributed to Raphael himself. Of 
Sinibaldo Ibi and Tiberio d'Jssisi, who flourished during the first twenty 
years of the 16th cent., little is known, and their works are rare. Gerino 
of Pistoja seems to have been a good painter of the average class, and 
the works of Domenico di Paris Alfani, a friend of Raphael , possess con- 
siderable attraction. These last masters, however, show little individuality, 
and before the middle of the 16th century the Umbrian school was com- 
pletely merged in those of Rome and Florence. 

At the entrance to the upper part of the town, on the site of the 
citadel, which was removed in 1860, extends the Piazza Vittoeio 
Emaxueif. (PI. B, 5), in which rises the Prefettura, a simple and 
handsome modern building, adorned with arcades on the ground- 
floor. The garden terrace affords a *superh view of the Umbrian 
valley with Assist, Spello, Foligno, Trevi, and numerous other vil- 
lages , enclosed by the principal chain of the Apennines extending 
from Gubbio onwards ; the Tiber and part of the lower quarters of 
Perugia are also visible. (A band plays here twice a week.) 

Northwards from the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele runs the Corso 
to the left , leading to the Cathedral square ; and the Via Eiaria to 
the right , leading to the Piazza Sopramura (p. 52). 

We follow the Corso to the left, which is the busiest and hand- 
somest street in the town. No. 241, on the right, is the Palazzo 
Baldeschi (PI. 21 ; B, 4), on the 2nd floor of which is preserved a 
*drawing by Raphael (Pinturicchio ?) for the 5th fresco in the library 
of the cathedral of Siena (p. 27 ; fee 1/2 f r 0- 

On the left , farther on , is No. 249, the *CollegiO del Cambio 
(PI. 31; B, 4), the old chamber of commerce, containing frescoes by 
Perugino, dating from his best period, 1500. (Custodian 1/2 fr-i best 
light in the morning.) 

These frescoes adorn the s, Sala del Cambio : on the right, Sibyls and 
Prophets ; above , God the Father ; on the left, heroes , kings , and philo- 
sophers of antiquity; opposite, the Nativity and Transfiguration; on a 
pillar to the left, the portrait of Perugino; the whole surrounded by 
admirable arabesques. Raphael is said to have been one of Perugino's 
pupils who assisted in the execution of these frescoes , and whose handi- 
work is traceable in the arabesques on the ceiling. Perugino received 
350 ducats for his work from the guild of merchants. The carved and 
inlaid work ('tarsia') of the judicial benches, doors, etc., by Antonio Mer- 
catello , which are amongst the finest Renaissance works of the kind, 
also deserve notice. — The adjacent Chapel contains an altar-piece and 
frescoes by Giannicola Manni. 

Cathedral. PERUGIA. 7. Route. 49 

Immediately adjoining the Collegio is the *Palazzo Pubblico 
(or Comunale, PI. 22; B, 4), a huge edifice of 1281 and 1333, re- 
cently skilfully restored , with its principal facade towards the 
Corso and a second towards the Piazza del Duomo. It is adorned 
with fine windows , a handsome portal , and Gothic sculptures (the 
armorial hearings of the allied town, saints, etc.). In the group of 
animals over the chief entrance, the griffin represents Perugia, while 
the wolf, overcome by it, is Siena. The victory gained by the Peru- 
gians in 1358 over the Sienese is also commemorated by trophies 
(chains , bars of gates) on the portal in the Piazza del Duomo. In 
the Sala della Prefettura (third story, entrance from the Corso) are 
damaged frescoes from the history of St. Herculanus and St. Louis of 
Toulouse by Bonfigli. 

In the Piazza del Duomo (PI. B, 4) rises the *Fonte Maggiore, 
dating from 1277, and one the finest fountains of that period in 
Italy. It consists of three admirably constructed basins, adorned 
with numerous biblical and allegorical figures in relief, executed by 
Niccolb and Giovanni Pisano and Arnolfo del Cambio (1280 ; two 
of the statuettes are modern substitutes). — The W. side of the 
piazza is occupied by the Episcopal Palace (PI. 30), behind which 
is the so-called Maesta delle Volte (PI. 32), a relic of the former 
Palazzo del Podesta, which was burned down in 1329 and again in 

The Cathedral ofS. Lorenzo (PI. 11 ; B, 4), dating from the 15th 
cent., is externally unfinished. Adjoining the entrance from the 
Piazza del Duomo is a pulpit. 

The Interior, consisting of nave and aisles with a short transept, is of 
spacious but heavy dimensions. — At the beginning of each aisle is a chapel. 
On the right (of the principal entrance) is the Cappella S. Bernardino, 
with a Descent from the Cross, the master-piece of Baroccio, executed in 
1569; the painted window representing the Preaching of St. Bernardino 
of Siena is by Constantino di Rosato and Arrigo Fiammingo of Marines, 
1565; it was restored in 1863. — On the left is the Cappella dell' 
Anello , which down to 1797 contained the celebrated Sposalizio by 
Perugino , now in the museum of Caen in Normandy. In both the 
chapels are beautifully carved stalls, as also in the choir. — In the Right 
Transept, a marble sarcophagus containing the remains of Popes Inno- 
cent III. (d. 1216), Urban IV. (d. 1264), and Martin IV. (d. 1285). — The 
adjoining Winter-Choir contains an 'altar-piece by Luca Signorelli: Ma- 
donna with SS. John the Baptist, Onuphrius the Hermit, Stephen, and 
a bishop as donor. Below the 2nd window to the left : Christ imparting 
His blessing, and saints, by Lodovico Angeli. 

In the Library are preserved precious MSS., such as the Codex of St. 
Luke of the 6th cent. , in gold letters on parchment. 

On the W. and N. side of the Cathedral is situated the Piazza 
del Papa (PI. B, C, 3, 4) , so named from the bronze statue of Ju- 
lius III. by Vine. Danti (1556). — Opposite the ~W. portal of the 
Cathedral, Nos. 8-10, is the Palazzo Conestabile ; the small gallery 
which it contained is now dispersed, and the celebrated Madonna by 
Raphael was sold to the Emperor of Russia in 1871 for 350,000 fr. 
From the N. angle of the Piazza del Papa the Via Vecchia de- 
Baedrker. Italy II. 5th Edition. 4 

50 Route 7. PERUGIA. University. 

scends to the *Arco di Augusto (PI. 2 ; C, 3), an ancient town-gate 
with the inscription Augusta Perusia. The foundations date from 
the Etruscan period, and the upper portion from that subsequent to 
the conflagration. From this point the direction of the walls of the 
ancient city, which occupied the height where the old part of the 
present town stands, may be distinctly traced. Considerable portions 
of the wall are still preserved. 

The small space in front of the Arco di Augusto is called the 
Piazza Grimani (PI. C, 3); to the left is the Palazzo Antinori, dating 
from 1758. — A little to the N. lies the church of S. Agostino (PI. 5; 
C, 2), containing several pictures by Perugino and other Umbrian 
Masters, and handsome choir-stalls. 

From the Palazzo Antinori the Via de' Pasteni leads in a few mi- 
nutes to the University (PI. B, 2), established in 1320 in a monas- 
tery of Olivetans, which was suppressed by Napoleon. It possesses 
a small Botanic Garden, Natural History and Art History Collections, 
a Museum of Etruscan and Roman Antiquities, and a *Picturk 
Gallery consisting of works which have been collected since 1863 
from suppressed churches and monasteries. This collection is of high 
value to the student of the Umbrian School. 

The chief works are exhibited in the old monastery church. Entrance 
(daily 9-12 a. m.; fee i/a fr.) either from the small Piazza del Prato, or, 
more frequently, by the entrance of the University. We pass through the 
Coekidok, the walls of which are covered with Etruscan inscriptions, 
enter the first door on the right, and traverse two oblong Ante-Chambeks, 
in the first of which are inferior later paintings, and in the second works 
of the early Sienese School. 

Principal Saloon. (Catalogues for the use of visitors are placed in 
each room. The numbers begin from the large church-door.) 1. Bontigli, 
The standard of St. Bernardino of Siena, Christ blessing the saint; several 
other pictures by the same master, but of no great importance; 2. Peru- 
gino, Transfiguration (from the master's best period); 4. Boccati da Came- 
rino, Madonna and saints, with predella, 1446 (completely painted over); 
5. Domenico Alfani , Madonna with angels and saints , 1524 (Raphael's in- 
fluence is perceptible in the Child's head) ; without number, PMuricchio, 
St. Augustine; above it, 6. Perugino, S. Giacomo della Marca (about 
1512) ; 8. Eusebio di S. Giorgio , Adoration of the Magi (often said to be 
a Raphael). — 7. Perugino , Madonna , a later , inferior work ; an early 
Christian sarcophagus (on the frieze a representation of Jonah and the 
whale; below, Christ enthroned and nine apostles), which formerly con- 
tained the bones of St. iEgidius, successor of St. Francis of Assisi; 
22. Taddeo Bartoli, Coronation of the Virgin, 1403; ,: 23, 41. Perugino, Frag- 
ments of a large altar-piece belonging to the church of S. Agostino, Nativity 
and Baptism of Christ (Nos. 24, 42, 56 belong to the same picture); 25. 
Spagna, Madonna enthroned and saints, which affords a good example of 
the master's ability in combining different styles, and at once recalls Pe- 
rugino, Pinturicchio, and Raphael; 26. Giannic. Afaniii, Christ in Glory; 27, 
28. (reversible) Perugino, Coronation of the Virgin, Christ Crucified; 29. 
Fioremo di Lorenzo, Madonna and saints. — "30. Pinturicchio, altar-piece, 
Madonna with the Child and the youthful St. John, SS. Augustine and 
Jerome (with the lion); above, Annunciation and the Body of Christ borne 
by angels, 1498, one of the best works of the master; 164. Perugino, J.'ar- 
tyrdom of St. Sebastian, 1518 (chiefly done by his pupils). — 31. Perugino, 
Madonna and saints; :: 35. Perugino, Madonna blessing six monks, 1489; 
'39. Fiorenzo di Lorenzo, Adoration of the Magi (sometimes ascribed to 
Perugino and Ghirlandajo) ; 41. Perugino, Baptism of Christ (see above, 

S. Severy. PERUGIA. 7. Route. 51 

No. 23). — 44, 65. Bernardino da Perugia, Coronation of the Virgin, and 
Madonna with saints (partly painted under the influence of Raphael) ; 47. 
Piero delta Francesco, Madonna and saints ; 49. Spagna, Lunette , God the 
Father and angels; 51. Bonftgli, Annunciation. — 59. Domenico or Orazio 
Alfani, Holy Family (del Carmine), after a composition by Raphael which 
is now in Lille, and of which a photograph is shown. — 75. Nic. Alunno, 
Annunciation, with a striking figure of Gabriel. In the centre an early 
Christian altar. 

On the other side of the ante-chambers (see above) are two more 
rooms. I. Room: 185, 186, 190, 191. Bonfigli, Angels; 151. School of Siena, 
Madonna; to the right: 153. Sinibaldo Ibi, Lunette: Annunciation, 1528; 
Adoration of the Child, a fresco by P. Perugino, from the church of 
S. Francesco del Monte; Madonna, fresco by Lo Spagna, 1520; frescoes 
from S. Severo ; miniatures of the 14th and 15th cent. ; accessories to 
an altar-piece, probably by Luca Signorelli, representing in seven pictures 
scenes from the lives of SS. Bernardino of Siena, Francis, Lawrence, etc. 

— II. Room, to the right: 206. Benozzo Gozzoli, Madonna and SS. Peter, 
John the Bapt., Jerome, and Paul, 1456, an able work of the master; 
below it, a Resurrection; 207. Fiorenzo di Lorenzo, Madonna enthroned 
with saints and two donors; 209, 210, 221, 227. Representations of legends, 
School of Mantegna; 220. Fiesole, Miracles of St. Nicholas of Bari; above 
it, unnumbered , Fiesole , Annunciation ; 216, "223, 229. Fiesole , Madonna 
and saints ; 236. Raphael (?), Madonna ; 237. Perugino , Circumcision of 
Christ; 247. Same, Adoration of the Magi; Domenico Bartolo , Altar-piece. 
Below, an autograph letter of Perugino. 

The first floor contains the Antiquarian Museum. On the staircase and 
in the passages, Etruscan cinerary urns and Latin inscriptions. Contents of 
the "rooms similar. In the 1st Room the longest Etruscan inscription known, 
consisting of 45 lines, as yet undeciphered, and ancient Etruscan sculptures. 
2nd Room: Mediseval coins and other objects. 3rd Room: Ancient bronzes, 
among which are bronze and silver plates, found in 1810, appertenances of 
a chariot, or, as is now supposed, from a tomb. 4th Room : Terracottas and 
several painted vases. Lid of a sarcophagus, Death seizing his victims. 
5th Room : Cinerary urns of terracotta with traces of painting. In the 
centre a sarcophagus of terracotta, with sacrificial procession. 

The other scientific collections are of little value. Two of the corri- 
dors contain casts of ancient and modern sculptures. 

Near the Gate of S. Angelo (PI. A, 1), to which the Via Longara 
leads from the Piazza Grimani, is situated the architecturally inter- 
esting church of S. Angelo, a circular structure with 16 antique co- 
lumns in the interior, in the style of S. Stefano Rotondo in Rome, 
probably dating from the 6th cent., with additions of a later period. 

— On the other (S.) side of the Longara is <S. Agnese, adorned with 
frescoes from the later period of Perugino and his pupils. 

Ascending from the Piazza Grimani (p. 50) by the Monte di 
Porta Sole to the S.E. (or from the Piazza del Papa , p. 49 , by the 
Via Bontempi to the E.), crossing the Piazza de' Gigli, and then 
taking the first side-street (Via di S. Severo) to the left, we reach 
*S. Severo (PI. 14; C, 3), formerly a monastery of the order of Ca- 
maldoli, now a college, in the chapel of which Raphael painted his 
first fresco, probably in 1505, having left Perugino's school the year 
before, and gone to Florence. 

The fresco, which was seriously damaged, and of late has been restored 
by Consoni , resembles the upper part of Raphael's Disputa in the Va- 
tican; above, God the Father (obliterated) with three angels and the 
Holy Ghost; below, the Redeemer and the saints Maurus, Placidus, Bene- 
dict, Romuald, Benedict the Martyr, and John the Martyr. The inscription 

52 Route 7. PERUGIA. Piazza del Sopramuro. 

(added at a later period) runs thus : Raphael de Urbino dom. Octaviano Sle- 
phano Volaievrano Priore Sanctam Trinitatem ungelos astantes sanclosque 
pinxit, A.D.MDV. At the sides, lower down, St. Scholastica, St. Jerome, 
St. John Ev., St. Gregory the Great, Boniface, and St. Martha, by Pietro 
Perugino. Inscription : Petrus de Castro Plebis Penisinus, tempore domini 
Silrestri Stephani Volaterrani a destris et sinistris div. Christipherae sanctos 
sanctasque pinxit A. D. MBXXI. 

A vaulted passage under the clock of the Palazzo PubWico 
(p. 49) leads from the Corso to the Via db' Priori, the test route 
to the sights of the W. quarter of the town. The Via Deliziosa, di- 
verging to the left near the small piazza in front of the Chiesa Nuova 
(PL 10 ; B, 4), contains (PI. 18) the House of Perugino^. 

We continue to descend the Via de' Priori, passing the mediae- 
val Torre degli Sciri, or degli Scalzi (PI. 34 ; A, 4), and the Madonna 
della Luce (PI. 4), a pleasing little Renaissance church of 1518, and 
reach an open space on the right. Opposite us here rises the — 

*Oratorio di S. Bernardo ( Confraternita della Oiustizia, PI. A, 3). 
The facade , executed by Agostino a" Antonio , a Florentine sculptor, 
in 1459-61 , is a magnificent polychromic work , in which both co- 
loured marble and terracotta are employed, while the ground of the 
numerous and very elaborate sculptures is also coloured. A picture 
in the interior, representing the festival of the church , contains an 
admirable view of the facade. 

Immediately adjacent is the church of S. Francesco dei Con- 
ventuali, or del Prato (PI. 9 ; A, 3), a Gothic edifice of about 1230, 
modernised in the last century. 

The Interior contains several pictures by the Alfani and other masters 
of the Umbrian school , and also a copy by Cav . d'Arpino of Raphael's 
Entombment (now in the Borghese Gallery at Rome, p. 187) , which was 
originally painted for this church. — A wooden reliquary in the Sacristy 
contains the bones of the Condottiere Braccio Fortebraccio , killed during 
the siege of Aquila. 5th June 1424, a few months after his rival Sfor^a 
had been dro.vned in the Pescara. 

To the E. of the Corso, and parallel with it, stretches the 
Piazza jjkl Sopramvro (PI. C, 4), resting on extensive substructions, 
part of which belong to the ancient Etruscan town walls. — On the 
E. side of the Piazza rises the Palazzo delCapitano delPopolo, after- 
wards the Palazzo delPodesta (PI. 29), dating from 1472; adjoining 
it is the old University, built in 1483 ; both edifices are now occu- 
pied by courts of justice (PI. 35). Opposite, at the corner of the 
Via Nuova , is the Biblioteca Pubblica (PI. 3 ; C, 4) , containing 
30,000 vols., and including MSS. of Stephanus Byzantinus, St. Au- 
gustine with paintings, and others. 

The Via Riaria leads hence towards the S. to the Piazza Vittoiio 
Emanuele (p. 48). We descend here immediately to the left, passing 
the substructions of the old citadel , where an ancient gate , called 
Porta Marzia (PI. 33 ; C, 5), with interesting sculptures , and the 
inscriptions Augusta Perusia and Colonia Vibia, which was removed 
from its old site to make way for the fortress, has been re-erected. — 

Palazzo delta Penna. PERUGIA. 7. Route. 53 

Wo turn to the left here, and follow the broad main street with a 
chestnut avenue, at the end of which , to the left , rises the small 
Gothic church of S. Ercolano (PI. 6 ; 0,5), with an altar consisting 
of an ancient sarcophagus. 

The first side-street , which diverges to the right of the avenue 
before arriving at S. Ercolano, leads to the Palazzo della Penna 
(PI. '27; 0, 5), No. 42, to the right, lying a little back from the street. 
It contains a considerable picture gallery, which boasts of an ad- 
mirable *Madonna and Child with SS. Francis and Jerome, by Peru- 
gino ; several other paintings of the Umbrian school, a round picture 
(Madonna and saints) by Signorelli, and a number of works by masters 
of the latter half of the 16th and 17th cent. (Caracci, Guercino, Par- 
meggianino, Caravaggio, Salvator Rosa). Custodian 1 /-i-l fr. 

This side-street unites with the Via S. Ercolano , which begins 
opposite S. Ercolano (see above) to the S.E. and is continued by the 
Via. di Porta Romana. In the latter, in a small piazza to the left, 
stands the church of — 

S.Domenico (PI. 7; C, 6), originally a Gothic edifice of the 13th 
and 14th cent., built by Giov. Pisano in 1304, and almost entirely 
re-erected by Carlo Maderna in 1614, with a lofty campanile, part 
of which has been taken down. 

In the Left is the "Monument to Pope Benedict XI., who 
fell a victim to the intrigues of Philip IV. of France, and died in 1304 
from eating poisoned tigs. It was executed by Giovanni Pisano, and is one 
of the most famous monuments of its kind ; above the recumbent figure 
of the pope rises a lofty canopy, borne by spiral columns and adorned 
with mosaics (shove is a Madonna between bishops and monks). — The 
Choir , with a rectangular termination, contains a huge Gothic window 
(220 sq. yds in area), filled with rich stained glass, and the largest of its 
kind in Italy, executed in 1411 by Fra Bartolommeo of Perugia and re- 
cently restored. This window belonged to the original church of Giov. 
Pisano. — The inlaid Choir Stalls (tarsia) date from 1476. 

A few minutes' walk farther on we pass through the Porta 
S. Pietro , built in 1475. and arrive at the former monastery and 
church of — 

*S. Pietro de' Casinensi (PI. 13; D, 7, 8; entrance in the first 
court in the corner diagonally opposite to us, to the left). The 
church, which was founded about the year 1000 by S. Pietro Vincioli 
of Perugia, is a basilica, consisting of a nave, aisles' and a transept, 
with a richly gilded flat ceiling, borne by 18 antique columns of 
granite and marble , and two pillars , and is embellished with 
numerous pictures. 

In the Nave, above, are eleven large pictures by Ant. Vasillacchi. sur- 
named VAliense, of Perugia, a pupil of Tintoretto and Paolo Veronese, exe- 
cuted in 1592-94. — The Right Aisle contains several pictures by Umbrian 
masters. The chapel of St. Joseph, adorned with modern frescoes, con- 
tains, on the left, the 'Monumental relief of a Countess Baldeschi, executed 
in terracotta from a drawing by Fr. Overbeek ; on the right. Holy Family, 
a copy from Andrea del Sarto, by Pontormo. — Then, above the door lead- 
ing to the monastery, Two saints and a Holy Family by Sassofewito, co- 
pies from Perugino and Bonifazio of Venice. Above the door leading to 

54 Route 7. PERUGIA. Private Galleries. 

the Sacristy, Three saints, also a copy from Perugino by Sassoferrato. — 
In the Sacristy (shown by the custodian, 5-10 soldi) are -five small 
half-figures of saints, by Perugino (which formerly surrounded the Ascen- 
sion by the same master, removed by the French, now in Lyons) ; Holy 
Family , by Parmeggianino ; "Infant Jesus and St. John , a copy from 
Perugino, by Raphael^!). — The Missals are embellished with good minia- 
tures of the 16th cent. 

The '-Choir Stalls are in walnut, and are admirably carved and in- 
laid (tarsia) by Stefano da Bergamo, 1535. — Under the arch of the Choir, 
on each side, are ambos (pulpits) in stone, ornamented with reliefs on a 
golden ground, by Franc, di Guido, 1517-21. 

The Left Aisle, beginning at the upper end by the choir, contains a picture 
by Buonfigli (?), Mary with the body of Christ and two saints, 1469. In the 
adjoining chapel is a marble altar with reliefs, partly gilded, by Mino da 
Fiesole, 1473. In the two following chapels: pictures by Guido Reni, 
Giorgio Vasari, and others. Between these, on the wall of the aisle: Ju- 
dith, by Sassoferrato. Farther on : Adoration of the Magi , by Eusebio di 
S. Giorgio; Annunciation, a copy from Raphael, by Sassoferrato ; Pieta (the 
body of Christ supported by Mary , St. John, and Joseph of Arimathsea), 
one of the later works of Perugino, and part of a large dismembered 
altar-piece from the church of S. Agostino. 

Close to S. Pietro , on the opposite side of the street, are the 
gardens of the Passeggiata Pubblica (PL D, 8), extending to the 
Porta S. Costanzo , and commanding a magnificent *prospect of the 
valley of Foligno and the Apennines. 

Besides the Gallery Penna, the visitor may inspect the following 
private collections : the collection of Aw. Romualdi, Via del Bufalo, 
No. 5 (near the Albergo Gran Bretagna), comprising bronzes, coins, 
cameos, drawings and paintings by An. Caracci, Perugino, etc. — 
The Oalleria Monaldi (PI. 26; B, 5), in the palazzo of the same 
name, at the corner of the Via Riaria and the Piazza Vittorio Ema- 
nuele, and the Oalltria Meniconi (PI. 25; C, 5), Via di Porta Ro- 
mana, both chiefly contain works of later masters (end of 16th and 
17th cent.). 

Outside the Porta del Carmine is situated the pretty Cemetery 
(PI. E, 3J, containing a monument to the champions of liberty in 
1859, erected by Conte Ett. Salvatore. 

About 3 M. to the E. of Perugia, on this side of Ponte S. Giovanni, the 
first station on the route to Foligno and Rome, the Ancient Etruscan 
Necropolis of Perugia was discovered in 1480. Pedestrians, in going, 
may select the old road , quitting the town by the Porta S. Girolamo 
(PI. D, 6, 7) and return by the new road to the Porta S. Costanzo (PI. D, 8). 
Carriage there and back, a drive of 1V2-2 hrs., 12 fr. — The most in- 
teresting of the tombs, and one of the handsomest, though not oldest in 
N. Etruria, is the "Sepolcro de' Volunni (the tomb of the Volumnii), close 
to the road , where it is intersected by the railway. It consists of ten 
chambers, hewn in the coarse-grained tufa, of which the hill is composed, 
and bears inscriptions in Etruscan and Latin in front. A number of cinerary 
urns, with portraits of men and women, and various kinds of decoration, 
were found here. The tomb is well preserved; the urns, lamps, and other 
curiosities may be inspected at the neighbouring Villa of Count Baglioni, 
where the custodian is to be found. 

From Perugia to the Upper Valley of the Tiber (diligence daily in 
4'/2 hrs. to Citta di Castello). The road soon crosses the Tiber and ascends 
no its left bank to Fratta, or TJmbertide, a small town I8V2 M. from Perugia. 
In the church of S. Croce , a Descent from the Cross by Luca Signorelli. 


Valuable collection of majolicas at the house of Sign. Bom. Mavarelli. — 
Farther on, the road crosses the Tiber twice, and then traverses a luxur- 
iantly cultivated district, on its left bank, to — 

14 M. Citta di Castello (Locanda delta Cannoniera), with 6000 inhab. 
(including suburbs 24,000), occupying the site of Tifernum Tiberinum, which 
was destroyed by Totila. In the 15th cent, it belonged to the Vitelli family, 
and afterwards to the Church. The town, which is built in the form of a 
rectangle, is still surrounded by the ancient walls built in 1518, and con- 
tains many interesting small buildings of the early Renaissance period, 
but few mediaeval monuments. 

All that remains of the" old Cathedral of S. Florido, founded in 1012) 
is the campanile and the N. portal ; the present building , an admirable 
specimen of the Renaissance style , was begun in 1482, and completed in 
1522. Bramante has been frequently named as the builder, but Elia di 
Bartolommeo Lombardo is mentioned in the records as the architect. 
<S. Dcmenico (containing a St. Sebastian by Luca Signorelli) is the only 
church that has preserved a Gothic character, and the Palazzo Corau- 
nale the only secular edifice; the latter was built in the 14th cent, by a 
certain Angelus of Orvieto, in the style of the Florentine palaces. 

The Vitelli, the lords and masters of the town, were like most of 
the magnates of the Renaissance period passionately addicted to building. 
The oldest of the four palaces of the 15th and 16th cent., which bear their 
name, is the Palazzo di Alessandro Vitelli; the handsomest is the Palazzo 
Vitelli a S. Giacomo, and the largest the Palazzo Vitelli a Porta S. Egidio. 
The small summer-house ( Palazzino) connected with the latter is specially 
worthy of inspection. 

Raphael, it is well known, painted his first independent works for 
churches in Citta di Castello , but they have since disappeared, or (like 
the Sposalizio in the Brera at Milan) have been carried elsewhere. The 
only work of the master now here is a church banner, with the Trinity 
and Creation painted on linen, but in a deplorable condition. It was 
executed for the church of S. Trinita, and is now in the Palazzo Berioli 
della Porta (?). 

The church of S. Cecilia contains a Madonna by Luca Signorelli, and 
the Palazzo Mancini a "Nativity by the same master, as well as several 
other valuable pictures. 

From Citta di Castello to Arezzo, 22'/2 M., see p. 41. 

About 10 M. to the N. of Citta di Castello lies Borgo S. Sepolcro, a 
small and cheerful town. The churches contain several pictures by Piero 
della Francesca and Raffaello dal Colle, both of whom were born here. 
In S. Antonio Abbate, a fine Crucifixion by Signorelli. 

From Borgo S. Sepolcro a road crosses the Central Apennines to 
Urbania (31 M.) and Urbino (p. 87). — The Source of the Tiber, near the 
village of Le Baize, may be visited from Borgo S. Sepolcro. 

From Perugia to Narni by Todi, about 56 M. (diligence). This road, 
formerly the scene of very brisk traffic , but now of merely local im- 
portance, descends rapidly into the valley of the Tiber, which' its crosses 
and then remains on its left bank. The scenery presents no great at- 
tractions. About half-way between Perugia and Narni, and 19 M. to the 
E. of Orvieto lies — 

Todi (Posta, at the gate), the ancient Umbrian Tuder, a loftily situated 
town (1496 ft.) with 5000 inhab. ; the hill is so abrupt that the upper part 
of the town is not accessible to carriages. Its ancient importance is indi- 
cated by the fragments of walls and the extensive ruin of a Temple, or Ba- 
silica, usually styled a temple of Mars. Although poor in treasures of art, 
the town boasts of several interesting edifices, among which are the Cathe- 
dral and the Town Hall in the Piazza. The church of S. Fortunato pos- 
sesses a handsome* portal. The finest |building of all, however, is the 
pilgrimage church of ~S. Maria della Consolazione, in the form of a Greek 
cross and covered with a dome. The arms of the cross are also sur- 
mounted with domes , and are polygonal in shape with the exception 

56 Route 8. CHIUSI. 

of the choir, which is semicircular. The exterior is remarkable for its 
simple and massive style, and the interior for its symmetrical proportions 
and the delicately graduated ornamentation of its pillars. Being one of 
the noblest creations of the Renaissance period, this edifice was naturally 
attributed to Bramante. Documents, however, name Cola di Matteuccio 
da Caprarola (1508) as the architect , and Baldassare Peruzzi as his ad- 
viser. The progress of the building was remarkably slow, and it was 
not completed till 1604. — Todi was the birthplace of Jacopone da Todi 
(d. 1306), author of the 'Stabat mater dolorosa'. 

From Todi to Narni 28 M., by the villages of Rosaro, Castel Todino, and 
San. Gemine. About V-j-i M. from the last, on the ancient , now abandoned 
Via Flaminia , are the interesting ruins of the once prosperous Carsulae. 
From San Gemine (71 = M. from Narni) two roads descend gradually to 
the beautiful valley of the Nera, one leading S.E. to Terni (see p. 77), and 
the other S. to Narni (p. 80). 

8. From Florence by (Arezzo) Terontola and Chiusi 
to Rome. 

196 JI. Railway. This i3 the most direct route from Florence to Rome. 
Express in 8 hrs. , fares 33 fr. 5, 26 fr. 40 c. ; ordinary train in ll 3 /< hrs., 
fares 34 fr. 50, 23 fr. 70, 16 fr. 55 c; no change of carriages. — The re- 
cently completed line from Terontola to Chiusi now connects the two rail- 
ways of E. Tuscany, and greatly facilitates a visit to the interesting towns 
of this district. 

From Florence to Terontola, 76 M., see pp. 37-45. The main 
line to Rome diverges to the right (S.) from the branch line to Pe- 
rugia, Assisi , and Foligno, and at first skirts the Trasimene Lake 
(comp. p. 45). 

82 M. Castiglione del Lago, with 10,600 inhab. (incl. suburbs), 
lying to the left on a promontory extending into the lake, possesses 
an old palazzo of the Duchi della Cornia. 

On the right rise the hills which separate the valley of theChiana 
from the sea. 

87 M. Panicale , a small place with unimportant frescoes in its 
churches by Perugino and his school. The line takes a W. direction 
and joins the line from Siena in the valley of the Chiana (R. 4). 

94 M. Chiusi. — Carriage with one horse to the town, lying to the 
right on a hill ('/» hr.), 1 fr. 

Lion c'Oeo, a mediocre inn, hardly to be recommended to ladies, 
bargaining necessary. — ,:: Trattoria Giul. Giometti, Via Porsenna, the land- 
lord of which also provides rooms. The landlord of the Lion d'Oro keeps 
a collection of Etruscan antiquities for sale at exorbitant prices. Tra- 
vellers are cautioned against making purchases of the kind anywhere in 
Chiusi, as 'antiquities' from Etruscan tombs are largely manufactured here. 

A ticket of admission (1 fr.) to the Etruscan Tombs (see below) is ob- 
tained at the Municipio ; the keys are kept by the custodian, who should 
be consulted as to the time required (3-4 fr. per day). The services of 
any other attendant should be declined. 

Chiusi , the ancient Clusium, one of the twelve Etruscan capi- 
tals, frequently mentioned in the wars against Rome, and as the 
headquarters of Porsenna, was fearfully devastated by malaria in 
the middle ages but under the auspices of the grand-dukes of the 
House of Lorraine the Val di Chiana was gradually drained, and 

CITTA DELLA PIEVE. 8. Route. 57 

the town recovered from these disasters. It now numbers 4600 
inhab. The walls are mediaeval; a few relics of those of the Etruscan 
period may be distinguished near the cathedral, outside the Porta 
delle Torri. A walk thence round the town to the Porta Romana 
affords pleasing views of the S. portion of the Chiana Valley, Citta 
della Pieve , the mountains of Cetona, to the N. the lakes of Chiusi 
and Montepulciano, and the latter town itself. 

Under the town extends a labyrinth of subterranean passages, 
the precise object of which is unknown (inaccessible); they are 
believed to have belonged to an elaborate system of drainage, as 
the ancient Etruscans are known to have excelled in works of this 
kind, and were indeed, in this respect, far in advance of many 
modern nations. 

The interesting *Museo Etrusco, founded a few years ago, 
contains a valuable collection of objects found in the Etruscan 
tombs around Chiusi, such as vases (including several curious po- 
lychromic urns), dishes, bronzes, mirrors, sarcophagi, and especially 
cinerary urns, most of them of terracotta, and a few of alabaster and 

The Cathedral of S. Mustiola consists almost entirely of frag- 
ments of ancient buildings ; the eighteen columns of unequal 
thickness in the interior, and the tomb of S. Mustiola are derived 
from a similar source. The sacristy contains a mass-book illumin- 
ated with admirable miniatures of the 15th cent., chiefly by ar- 
tists of the Sienese school. The walls of the arcades in the cathedral 
square bear numerous Etruscan and Roman inscriptions. 

The great attraction of Chiusi are the Etruscan Tombs (tickets 
of admission and guide, see above), situated in isolated hills at 
some distance from the town. The most important are the following : 
to the N.E. the Deposito del Granduca, 2 M. ; near it, the *Deposito 
della Scimia, with mural paintings representing gladiatorial com- 
bat*. The Deposito delPoggio Gajelli, which is supposed, but without 
authority, to be the Mausoleum of Porsenna mentioned by Pliny and 
Varro, is 3 M. distant and much dilapidated. To the N.W., the 
Deposito delle Monache, 2 M. ; then, to the S.E., the Deposito del 
Colle, with mural paintings, 1 M. from the town. 

Near <S. Caterina, on the way to the station, are small cata- 
combs, dating from the early Christian period, and near them a Ro- 
man tomb. 

A diligence runs from the Chiusi station in 1 hr. to the (5 M.) loftily 
situated town of Citta della Pieve (1011 ft.), with 6000 inhab., the birth- 
place of Pietro Vannucci (1446-1524), surnamed Perugino after Perugia, which 
was the chief scene of his labours (comp. p. 47). The town possesses sev- 
eral of his pictures, but they are works of his later period, hastily 
painted and chiefly done by his pupils, as the master apparently deemed 
his native place not capable of appreciating works of a more elaborate 
kind. — The oratory dei Disciplinati , or *S. Maria dei Bianchi, contains 
an Adoration of the Magi, one of the largest pictures by Perugino; two 
letters of the artist from Perugia (1504) are shown with regard to the 
price of this fresco, reducing it from 200 to 75 ducats. — In the Cathedral 

58 Route 8. OKVIETO. From Florence 

(interior modernised) is the Baptism of Christ (first chapel to the left), 
and in the choir a Madonna with SS. Peter, Paul, Gervasius, and Prota- 
sius , 1513. The picture of St. Antony with St. Paulus Eremita and St. 
JIarcellus, now (since 1860) in S. Agostino, belonged originally to the church 
of S. Antonio. All these pictures are by Perugino. — Outside the gate, 
which leads to Orvieto, is the Church of S. Maria dei Sent, containing 
remains of a Crucifixion by Perugino, dating from 1517. 

Before the construction of the Terontola and Chiusi line, the road 
leading from Citta della Pieve in an E. direction to Perugia (31 M.) was 
much frequented. 

About 7'/2 II. to the S.W. of Chiusi, reached by carriage in l>/ 4 hr., 
and at the same distance to the \V. from Citta della Pieve, lies the small 
town of Cetona, commanded by a mediaeval castle. The Palazzo Terroii 
contains a small collection of antiquities found in the neighbourhood (vis- 
itors generally admitted on presenting their cards), such as handsome 
polychromic and richly gilded virns ; an ''elephant's tooth with archaic 
reliefs from the Odyssey, etc. — At the back of the palace are pictur- 
esque pleasure-grounds. 

The Railway descends through the Ohiana valley. 104'/2 M. 
Stat. Ficulle, 2^2 M- from the village which lies on a hill to the 
right. Near Orvieto the Chiana falls into the Paglia, a turbulent 
tributary of the Tiber, which causes great damage in rainy seasons. 
The formation here consists of tertiary sandstone, while at Orvieto 
the volcanic district begins, of which the central point is the lake 
of Bolsena (p. 65). 

138 M. Stat. Orvieto, at the base of the hill occupied by the 
town, to which a winding road ascends ; omnibus in40min. (return- 
ing in 20 min.), lfr., box 20 c. A shorter footpath leads in 15 min. 
to the Fortezza (p. 61). 

Orvieto. — Albergo Belle Aeti, in the Corso Cavour, the halting- 
place of the omnibus, well spoken of, but enquiry as to charges advisable; 
B. 2-2'/2, D. 3 fr. and upwards, pension 6 fr. — Aquila Biakca, Via 
Garibaldi, behind the Palazzo Comunale, unpretending. — Caffe Benedetti, 
in the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele. 

The Wine of Orvieto is esteemed both here and at Rome. 

Photographs sold by Armoni near the Cathedral. 

Orvieto is a small town and episcopal residence , situated on an 
isolated tufa rock, 735 ft. above the Paglia (1165 ft. above the sea- 
level), the TJrlibentum of Procopius , called TJrbs Vetus in the 8th 
cent. , whence its name. In the middle ages it was the principal 
stronghold of the Guelphs , and often served the popes as a place 
of refuge. 

From the E. entrance to the town, which we reach in coming 
from the station , and where the old castle mentioned below is 
situated, runs the Corso, the principal street of Orvieto. Two me- 
diaeval towers rise in this street ; opposite the first of these is the 
Via del Duomo, which leads us straight to the far-famed — 

**Cathedral(Pl. 1), a magnificent example of the Italian Gothic 
style, and one of the most interesting buildings in Italy, founded in 
consequence of the 'Miracle of Bolsena' (comp. p. 65). The first stone 

to Rome. 


Route. 59 

was solemnly laid by Pope Nicholas IV. on 13th Nov. 1290, and the 
edifice begun under the supervision and according to the plans of 
Lorenzo Maitani of Siena. The work progressed so rapidly that 

in 1309 Bishop Guido di Farnese was able to read the first mass in 
the church. It consists of a nave and aisles , with transept and 
rectangular choir. It is 114'/2 yds. long and 36 yds. wide, and like 
the cathedrals of Florence and Siena is constructed of alternate 
courses of black and white marble. This cathedral, like those in 
other towns, once constituted a great arena for the display of artistic 
skill. The guardians of the building were unwearied in providing 
for its ornamentation , and like the curators of modern museums 
who are zealous in their endeavours to secure works by the best 
artists, they did all in their power to obtain the services of the first 
masters of the day for the embellishment of their church. . — The 
**Facade, with its three pediments, 44yds. wide and 160 ft. high, 
is gorgeously enriched with sculptures and mosaics , and is said to 
be the largest and most gorgeous 'polychromic' monument in existence. 
The excellent "Bas-Re:.iefs on the lower parts of the pillars, which in 
many respects are characteristic of the transitional style preceding the 
Renaissance, are by Giovanni Pisano (?) , Andrea, and other pupils of 
Xiccolo Pisano , and represent scenes from the Old and New Testament : 
i>t pillar to the left, from the Creation down to Tubalcain; 2nd, Abra- 
ham, genealogy of the Virgin; 3rd, History of Christ and Mary; 4th, Last 
Judgment with Paradise and Hell ; above are the bronze emblems of the 
four Evangelists , by Lor. Maitani. Above the principal portal , a Ma- 
donna under a canopy, in bronze, by Andrea Pisano. On the margin of 

60 Route 8. ORVIETO. From Florence 

the large square panel, in the centre of which is a rose window, are 
small marble statues of prophets, and above, of the twelve apostles, exe- 
cuted by Sienese sculptors. 

Above the doors and in the three pointed pediments are 'Mosaics on 
a golden ground, of various periods (14th-19th cent.) : Annunciation, Nup- 
tials of the Virgin, Baptism of Christ, Coronation of the Madonna; the 
latter, the principal picture, is the highest. 

The "Interior is constructed, as at Siena, of alternate layers of 
dark and light -coloured stone (black basalt and greyish - yellow limestone 
from quarries in the vicinity). On each side are seven columns, separat- 
ing the nave , which is 131 ft. in height, from the lower aisles. Above 
the round arched arcades is a gallery adorned with rich carving. The win- 
dows are pointed, and the upper parts filled with stained glass. The frame- 
work of the roof is visible and was formerly richly ornamented. 

At the sides of the principal entrance , to the right, St. Sebastian by 
Scalza, to the left , St. Rocco. In the Left Aisle , -'Madonna and St. Ca- 
tharine, a fresco by Gentile da Fabriano. Before this stands a marble 'font, 
the lower part by Luca di Giovanni (1390), the upper by Sano di Matteo 
(1407). — In the Nave, in front of the columns, the statues of the Twelve 
Apostles, by ilosca, Scalza, Toti, Giovanni da Bologna, and other masters. 
On either side of the high altar the Annunziata and Archangel, by Mocchi.— 
In the Choik, frescoes from the life of the Virgin by Ugolino d'llario and 
Pietro di Puccio. The beautifully inlaid stalls in the choir are by artists 
of Siena, of the 14th and 15th cent. ; altars on either side with reliefs in 
marble: on the left, Visitation of Mary, executed by Moschino when 15 years 
of age , from designs by Sammicheli of Verona ; to the right , Adoration of 
the Magi, by Mosca. 

In the Left Transept : the "Chapel of the Madonna di S. Bkizio 
(Cappella Nuova), with a miraculous image of the Virgin and a Pieta, by 
Ippoliio Scalza. This chapel occupies an important page in the annals 
of Italian art. The superintendent of the cathedral mosaics having heard 
that the 'famous painter and monk' Fra Angelico da Fiesole was not en- 
gaged during the summer months in Borne (p. 296), invited him to 
Orvieto , and secured his services for the decoration of the chapel. In 
1447 Fra Angelico accordingly worked here, but for three months only, 
during which time he executed the panels of the diagonally divided 
ceiling above the altar, representing Christ in the glory as Judge, and 
the Prophets. Nothing more was done till 1499 , when the work was 
continued and completed by Luca Signorelli. These "'Mural Paintings 
are those which chiefly arrest our attention. The first fresco to the left 
of the entrance shows the overthrow of Antichrist, who is represented 
in the fore-ground, preaching; the two devout figures, in the corner to the 
left, are said to be portraits of Signorelli and Fra Angelico. The wall on 
the side by which we enter has been skilfully covered with represen- 
tations of the Fall of the Condemned, and the Last Judgment. — Next in 
order are the Resurrection of the Dead and the Punishment of the Condem- 
ned; then, on the wall of the altar, Ascent into Heaven, and Descent into 
Hell, and lastly, adjoining the first picture, Paradise. — Below these pic- 
tures runs a series of scenes from Dante's Divine Comedy, and mytholo- 
gical subjects. On the ceiling: Apostles, 'signa judicium indicantia', pa- 
triarchs and doctors, virgins and martyrs. — These paintings are the most 
important work produced during the 15th cent. In the mastery of form, 
in the boldness of motion and of foreshortening, and in the acquaintance 
with the nude , Signorelli is by ho means unworthy of competition with 
Michael Angelo, who, according to Vasari, borrowed several motives from 
these works for his Last Judgment in the Sixtine Chapel. — On the right 
wall, in a niche behind the Pieta of Scalza, is an Entombment of Christ 
by Signorelli. 

Opposite, in the Left Transept, is the Capff.lla del Cokpoeale, where, 
behind the principal altar , is a marble canopy enriched with mosaic, 
containing a silver reliquary , in which is preserved the blood-stained 
chalice-cloth (corporale) connected with the Miracle of Bolsena. The reli- 
quary, executed bv Uaolino di Yieri of Siena in 1338, and resembling in form 

to Rome. ORVIETO. 8. Route. 61 

the facade of the cathedral , is about 4>/a ft. broad , 2 ft. high , and 
440 lbs. in weight. The Passion and the 'Miracle' are represented on it 
in brilliant enamel, but it is only shown on Corpus Christi and on Easter 
day. Modernised frescoes representing the 'Miracle of Bolsena' by Ugo-^ 
lino. The altar on the left is adorned with a Madonna by Filippo Memmi.' 

Opposite the cathedral, No. 3, is the *Opera del Duomo (PI. 2), 
containing several works of art worthy of inspection (if closed, apply 
to the sacristan of the cathedral). 

In a room on the first story are preserved: "Designs on parchment 
for the facade of the cathedral, and for a pulpit , which was never com- 
pleted ; a beautifully carved and inlaid reading-desk ; a precious "Reli- 
quary by Ugolino da Siena; a Madonna by Simone Martini; a "St. Magda- 
lene by L. Signorelli, 1504; two specimen frescoes by Signorelli, represent- 
ing himself and a certain Niccolo; a "Madonna, a statue by Giov. Pisano, 
partly coloured; and a number of Etruscan terracottas. 

The collection of Etruscan antiquities, belonging to Conte Faina, 
opposite the cathedral, contains numerous objects derived from re- 
cent excavations. 

The Corso leads to the Piazza Maggiore, now VittorioEmanuele, 
with the church of S. Andrea (PI. 3), of early origin, probably built 
on the site of an ancient temple, and the Palazzo Comunale (PI. 4), 
dating from the end of the 13th cent, and remodelled in the middle 
of the 16th cent, (pictures in the interior of the 14th and 15th cent.). 

S. Giovinale (PI. 5), at the N.W. angle of the town, a basilica 
with open roof, contains fragments of old frescoes (1312 and 1399). 
In the S. transept of S. Domenico (PI. 6) is the monument of Car- 
dinal di Brago, by Arnolfo, 1282. 

The Fortress, constructed by Cardinal Albornoz in 1364, and sit- 
uated at the N.E. entrance of the town (p. 58), has been converted 
into a public garden with an amphitheatre for public performances ; 
a fine view is obtained here of the valley of the Tiber and the Dm- 
brian mountains. — The custodian of the garden keeps the key of 
the famous adjacent fountain , II Pozzo di S. Patrizio, which was 
begun by Sangallo in 1527, and completed by Mosca in 1540. It is 
partly hewn in the tufa rock, partly built of masonry, and is 203 ft. 
deep, and 43 ft. wide. Two separate spiral staircases wind round 
the shaft ; the traveller may descend by one, and ascend by the other 
(fee 1/2-I fr.). 

On the X.W. slope of the hill on which the town stands, below the 
ancient town-wall , an extensive "Necropoli Etrusca (comp. Plan , p. 59) 
h;is recently been discovered. Some of the tombs, which are arranged in 
groups and rows , were found intact. Their facades , as elsewhere , are 
constructed of three large stones, two of which, placed nearly upright, 
are roofed by the third. Adjoining the entrance is inscribed the name 
of the deceased in the ancient Etruscan character. The inner ch mber 
is square in form, and covered with the primitive kind of vaulting in 
which the stones are laid horizontally and each overlaps the one below 
it. Almost all the cinerary urns found in the tombs are black in colour 
and embellished with patterns impressed on them. — Since 1863 a num- 
ber of similar tombs have been discovered 2VsM. to the S.W. of Orvieto, 
near the suppressed Capuchin monastery (comp. Plan). Two of these 
contain paintings. The route to them is somewhat rough. The custodian 
must be enquired for in the town. 

62 Route <j. ORTE. From Florence 

The line to Orte and Rome now traverses the wooded valley of 
the Tiber, whose broad, stony bed bears traces of numerous inun- 
dations. Two tunnels are passed. On the height , to the left, lies 
Baschi. 127 M. Castiglione ; the river is crossed ; 131 M. Alviano. 
137 M. Attigliano, 130 M. Bassano, on a hill to the right. 

The small Lake of Bassano, formerly Lacus Vadimonis, now much di- 
minished in extent, was famous in ancient history for the great victories 
the Romans gained here over the Etruscans, B. C. 309 and 283. Pliny 
the Younger (Ep. viii. 20) has described the lake with its 'floating is- 
lands'. — About 3 M. farther to the W. is Bomarzo, picturesquely situated 
on a precipitous rock, not far from the ancient Polimartium , where ex- 
tensive excavations have been made. 

The train passes through several tunnels , and afterwards skirts 
the right bank of the Tiber , till it approaches Orte which becomes 
visible on the height to the left. It then traverses a longer tunnel 
and reaches the station of Orte , where the railway from Foligno 
(Perugia and Ancona) unites with the main line (R. 10). 

145 M. Orte, loftily situated about 2 M. to the N., the ancient 
Horta, presents no object of interest beyond its situation. — Dili- 
gence from Orte to Viterbo, see p. 64. 

The train continues w descend the valley of the Tiber on the 
right bank, affording pleasant glimpses of both banks. To the right, 
the lofty and indented ridge of Mount Soracte (p. 63) becomes vi- 
sible. On the left, on the other side of the river, lie S. Vito and Otri- 
coli, the latter a small place 6 M. distant from Orte, near the site 
of the ancient Otriculum , where numerous antiquities , including 
the celebrated Bust of Jupiter in the Vatican, have been excavated. 
150 M. Gallese. Farther on, high above the left bank, lies the small 
town of Magliano. 

153 M. Borghetto, with a ruined castle on the height to the 
right. The Tiber is crossed here by the handsome Ponte Felice, con- 
structed by Augustus, and restored in 1589 by SixtusV., over which 
most of the traffic between Rome and the N.E. provinces formerly 

About 5 M. to the S.E. of Borghetto (carriages at the station) lies 
Civita Castellana , picturesquely situated 502 ft. above the sea (Posla, 
Speranza, in the market-place). This was the site of Falerii, or Falerium 
Veins, the town of the Falisei, captured by Camillus in B.C. 396. A lofty 
bridge, erected in 1712, and recently restored after having been damaged by 
an earthquake, carries the road into the town across a ravine, 120 ft. in 
depth. The Cathedral of 8. Maria dates from 1210. The Citadel, erected 
by Alexander VI. in 1500 from a design by Sangallo , and enlarged by 
Julius II. and Leo X., was last employed as a state-prison. Civita Castel- 
lana contains nothing to interest the traveller except its picturesque situa- 
tion. The deep ravines by which it is enclosed testify to vast volcanic 
convulsions. They contain a few fragments of ancient walls and numerous 
Etruscan tombs hewn in the rock, especially near the citadel. 

Interesting excursion to the ruins of Falerii (pronounced Falleri), 3 M. 
distant. Near the citadel the Ponte del Terreno is crossed to the left, where tombs 
honeycomb the rocks on all sides , this being the more direct route to Fa- 
lerium Novum or Colonia Junonia, founded by the Romans about 240, situated 
in the plain, 3 M. to the N. of Civita Castellana. Etruscan and Roman tombs 
are here seen side by side. The town was nearly in the form of a triangle, 
l'/j M. in circumference ; the well preserved walls are protected by strong 

to Rome. SORACTE. 8. Route. 63 

square towers and penetrated by gates , one of which on the \V. (Porta di 
Oiove) is still in good condition. Another gate towards the S. E., the Porta 
del Bove, is also worthy of a visit ; near it is the theatre of Roman construction, 
the piscina and what is regarded as the forum, at the back of the theatre. 

At the Porta di Giove, within the walls, is the "Abbadia di S. Maria 
of the 12th cent. In the nave, antique columns ; in 1829 the roof fell in, 
but the damage has been repaired. The adjoining building contains in- 
scriptions, statues , etc. , the result of excavations made here. An amphi- 
theatre has also been recently discovered. 

Civita Castellana is the best starting point for the Soracte; there and 
back about 7 hrs. — A good road (one-horse carriage 6-7 fr.) leads to (l l h M.) 
Rignano (Posta), the birthplace of Cesare and Lucrezia Borgia, the chil- 
dren of Cardinal Roderigo Borgia (afterwards Pope Alexander VI.), and 
boasting of a few Roman antiquities. Here we may obtain horses an 1 
donkeys (or a light conveyance to carry us half-way up the mountain), 
to S. Oreste ; guides are superfluous. — Pedestrians may leave the carriage 
about 2 M. to the N. of Rignano and make the ascent in l'/z hr. 

-Soracte, mentioned by Horace (Carm. i. 9: Vides id alia stet nire 
candidum Soracte) and Virgil (Mn. vii, 785: Summi deum sancti custos So- 
ractis Apollo), is now called Monte di S. Oreste, the word Soracte having 
been erroneously written S. Oracte , and thence corrupted to S. Oreste. 
It is a limestone-ridge , descending precipitously on both sides, extending 
3-4 M. from K.W. to S. E., and culminating in several peaks of different 
heights. On the central and highest summit (2260 ft.) stands the church 
of /S. Silvestro. On the slope which gradually descends towards the S. E. 
is situated the village of S. Oreste. Leaving the miserable village to the 
right, the path ascends gradually to the left, and in '/* nr - reaches the 
monastery of S. Silvestro (2119 ft.), founded in 746 by Charleman, son of 
Charles Martel and brother of Pepin. The summit, with the church and 
a small disused monastery, may now be reached in a few minutes. In 
ancient times a celebrated Temple of Apollo occupied this site. The view, 
uninterrupted in every direction, embraces : E. the valley of the Tiber, the 
Sabina, in the background several snow-clad peaks of the Central Apennines, 
among them the Leonessa; S. the Volscian and Alban Jits., then the broad 
Campagna, Rome, the sea ; N. the mountains of Tolfa, the Lake of Brac- 
ciano, the Ciminian forest, the crater of Baccano, and numerous villages. 

Pedestrians, returning to Rignano, may descend by a direct path, 
which, although somewhat precipitous , is considerably shorter than that 
by S. Oreste. 

The road from Civita Castellana next leads to Nepi, 7'/2 M. — A shorter 
route (for pedestrians only) passes the interesting Castel S. Elia, a resort 
of pilgrims. 

Nepi, the ancient Etruscan Nepete or Nepet, afterwards Colonia A'e- 
pensis, is a picturesquely situated little town, and an episcopal residence, 
surrounded by mediaeval walls and towers. Venerable Cathedral; the 
Town Hall is adorned with Roman sculptures and inscriptions. It was 
anciently a place of importance, but is now in a dilapidated condition , 
chiefly owing to its destruction by the French in 1799. — From Nepi to 
Monterosi (p. 69) 5 M. 

Beyond Borghetto, to the right, Civita Castellana (see above) be- 
comes visible for a short time. The train crosses to the left bank of 
the Tiber. 161 M. Stimigliano, and 166 M. Montorso, both situated 
in the mountainous district of the Sabina, where olive-trees abound. 
173 M. Passo di Correse. The name is a corruption of Cures, the 
ancient Sabine town, where Numa Pompilius was born, the ruins of 
which are in the vicinity. A diligence runs daily from Passo di 
Correse to Rieti by Poggio Mirteto, see vol. iii. of this Handbook. 

The line continues on the left bank of the Tiber to (180 M.) 
stat. Monte Rotondo ; the town, situated to the left. 2'/o M- higher, 

64 Route 9. BOLSENA. From Orvieto 

possesses an old castle of the Orsini, now the property of the Piom- 
bino family, commanding beautiful views of the Sabine Mountains. 
The village was stormed by Garibaldi on 26th Oct. 1867; about 1M. 
to the S.E. is Mentana (p. 343), where he was defeated on 3rdNov. 
by the Papal and French troops, and forced to retreat. 

From Monte Rotondo to Rome , a journey of 3 /4 hr. — The line 
follows the direction of the ancient Via Salara (to the right , on the 
hill, once lay the ancient Antemnae , p. 343) and crosses the Anio 
(p. 343); to the left the Sabine and Alban mountains, then Rome 
with the dome of St. Peter , become visible. A wide circuit round 
the city is described , near Porta Maggiore (p. 181) the so-called 
temple of Minerva Medica (p. 180) is passed, and the central station 
entered near the Thermae of Diocletian. 

196 M. Rome, see p. 104. 

9. From Orvieto to Rome by Bolsena, Montefiascone, 
and Viterbo. 

78 M. High Eoad. To Viterbo 31 V« M - > * TOm Orvieto to Bolsena, 12 M., 
Bolsena to Montefiascone ,91., thence to Viterbo IOV2 M. ; no regular 
communication; carriage in 5>/2 hrs., 25-30 fr. 

Viterbo alone may best be visited from the railway station Okte 
(p. 62), with which it is in regular communication (distance 18'/2 M.). 
The diligence, which corresponds with the ordinary morning and evening 
trains (not the express) to Rome, takes 4 hrs. (fare 3 fr.); a party had 
better order a carriage to the station by post-card, addressed to the Im- 
presa F. Garinei in Viterbo (two-horse carriage 10-15 fr.). 

Most travellers will prefer to return from Viterbo to Orte. The drive 
from Viterbo to Rome (46y 2 M.) takes 10 hrs. (about 40 fr.). 

The high-road from Orvieto to Montefiascone traverses a some- 
what bleak district, passing at some distance from the Lake of Bol- 
sena, which is almost entirely concealed from view by the surround- 
ing crater-wall. A far more beautiful though somewhat longer route 
diverges to the W. from this road , about 872 M. from Orvieto, and 
unites at Bolsena with the old road from Siena via, Torrenieri, Radi- 
cofani, and Acquapendente to Rome (p. 17). 

About 4 31. beyond the above mentioned bifurcation, a road diverges 1 
to the left from the direct Orvieto and Montefiascone road to (3 M.) Bag- 
norea (the ancient Balneum Regis), picturesquely situated on a hill sur- 
rounded by ravines, and interesting to geologists. 

Bolsena {Hotel in the Piazza), with 2600inhab., is situated 
below the Roman Volsinii, the birthplace of Sejanus, the favourite 
of Tiberius. It was one of the twelve capitals of the Etruscan League, 
and after various vicissitudes was at length conquered and destroyed 
by the Romans. The spoil is said to have included 2000 statues. 
Its wealth has been proved by the discovery, in the vicinity, of nu- 
merous vases, trinkets, and statues. The present town contains 
inscriptions , columns , and sculptures of the Roman municipium. 
which replaced the Etruscan city. The ancient site is reached in 
a few minutes by an antique causeway of basalt. Among the ruins- 

to Rome. MONTEFIASCONE. 9. Route. 65 

is an amphitheatre, worthy of special attention, now converted into 
a vegetable-garden. Beautiful views of the lake. 

The facade of the church of S. Cristina is embellished with 
ancient relics and a sarcophagus with the triumph of Bacchus. 

The 'Miracle of Bolsena', the subject of a celebrated picture by Raphael 
in the Vatican, occurred in 1263. A Bohemian priest, who was somewhat 
sceptical as to the doctrine of transubstantiation , was convinced of its 
truth by the miraculous appearance of drops of blood on the host which he 
had just consecrated. In commemoration of this, Pope Urban IV. in- 
stituted the festival of Corpus Christi and projected the erection of the 
superb cathedral of Orvieto '(p- 58). 

The Lake of Bolsena, the ancient Lacus Vulsiniensis, 994 ft. 
above the sea-level, a circular sheet of water, 28 M. in circum- 
ference , is the vast crater of an extinct volcano, which formed the 
central point of a wide sphere of volcanic agency , extending as far 
as Orvieto. The lake abounds in fish (its eels are mentioned by 
Dante, Purg. 24, 24) ; but the banks, especially on the W. side, 
are bleak and deserted, owing to the malaria confined in the basin 
of the lake , which is not easily dispelled by the wind. The 
monotony of the surface is relieved by the two picturesque islands 
of Bisentina and the rocky Martana. On the latter Amalasuntha, 
Queen of the Goths , the only daughter of Theodoric the Great , was 
imprisoned in 534, and afterwards strangled whilst bathing, by 
order of her cousin Theodatus, whom she had elevated to the rank 
of co-regent. The church in the island of Bisentina was erected 
by the Farnese family and embellished by the Caracci. It contains 
the relics of St. Christina, a native of Bolsena. 

From Bolsena the road ascends towards the S. on the bank of 
the lake, through woods, to (7 M.) the 'Mountain of Bottles' — 

Montefiascone (Aquila Nera, outside the gate), a town with 
7400 inhab. , situated 2015 ft. above the sea -level. The un- 
completed cathedral of S. Margareta , with an octagonal dome , was 
one of the earliest works of Sammicheli. Near the gate , on the 
road to Viterbo, is *S. Flaviano, a church of 1030, restored by 
Urban IV. in 1262, in the Gothic and circular styles combined. 
The subterranean chapel contains the tomb of the Canon Johannes 
Fugger of Augsburg, with the inscription — 
Est, Est, Est. Propter nimium est, 
Johannes de Euc., D. mens, mortuus est. 

It is recorded of this ecclesiastic, that, when travelling, he directed his 
valet to precede him and to inscribe the word 'Est' on the doors of the 
hostelries where the best wine was to be had. On the door of the inn at 
Montefiascone the 'Est' was written three times , and the good canon 
relished the wine here so highly that he never got any farther. The best 
muscatel of the district is still known as Est Est , and may be procured 
for 1 fr. per 'fiaschetto'. 

The traveller should not omit to ascend into the town for the 
sake of the magnificent view : N. the lake of Bolsena as far as 
the chain of M. Amiata, E. the Umbrian Apennines, S. as far 
as the Ciminian Forest, W. as far as the sea. The extensive 
plain of ancient Etruria with its numerous villages may be sur- 

Baedekek. Italy II. 5th Edition. 5 

66 Route 9. VITERBO. From Viterbo 

veyed from this point ; and it has therefore been reasonably con- 
jectured that the celebrated Fanum Voltumnae, the most sacred 
shrine of the Etruscans, once stood here. 

From Monterlascone to Viterbo the road traverses the somewhat 
bleak and unattractive plain between the Ciminian Forest and the 
Lake of Bolsena (p. 65). Midway, near the Osteria della Fonta- 
nella, part of the ancient Via Cassia lies to the right. About 2'/ 2 M. 
farther , to the left of the road , are situated the ruins of Ferento, 
the Etruscan Ferentinum, birthplace of the Emperor Otho. In the 
11th cent, it was destroyed by the inhabitants of Viterbo on account 
of its heretical tendencies , for the Ferentines represented the 
Saviour on the cross with open eyes, instead of closed, as was 
thought more orthodox. Such at least is the account of the chro- 
niclers. Among the extensive mediaeval, Roman, and Etruscan 
remains, a Theatre of peculiar and primitive construction, with later 
additions, deserves notice. 

Close to Viterbo is situated Bulicame , a warm sulphureous 
spring, mentioned by Dante (Inf. 14, 79), still used for baths. 

Viterbo (*Angelo, R. l!/ 2 fr. ; Tre Re, both in the Piazza.— 
Photographs sold by Leonardo Primi, Vicolo della Ficunaccia), an 
episcopal residence with 20,000 inhab., surrounded by ancient Lom- 
bard walls and towers, is situated in the plain on the N. side of the 
Ciminian Forest , 1211 ft. above the sea-level. It was the central 
point of the extensive grant called the 'patrimony of St. Peter', 
made by the Countess Matilda of Tuscia to the papal see , and is 
frequently mentioned in history as a residence of the popes, and as 
the scene of the papal elections in the 13th century. Viterbo is 
termed by old Italian authors the 'city of handsome fountains and 
beautiful women', but its objects of interest need not detain the 
traveller long. 

The Cathedral of S. Lorenzo, occupying the site of a temple of 
Hercules, dates from the 12th cent. 

The Interior contains the tombs of the Popes John XXI., Alexan- 
der IV., and Clement IV., and in the sacristy a Madonna with four saints 
by Lorenzo di Viterbo. — At the high-altar (if this church, in 1279, Count 
Guido de Montfort, the partisan of Charles of Anjou, assassinated Henry, 
son of Count Richard of Cornwall , King of the Germans and brother of 
Henry III., in order thereby to avenge the death of his father who had 
fallen at the battle of Evesham in 1265 when fighting against Henry III. 
Dante mentions this deed and places the assassin in the seventh region of 
hell (Inf.. 12, 120). 

In the piazza in front of the cathedral is the spot where in July, 
1155, Pope Hadrian IV. (Nicholas Breakspeare, an Englishman) 
compelled the Emp. Frederick I., as his vassal, to hold his stirrup. 

Adjacent is the dilapidated Episcopal Palace of the 13th cent., 
in which, by order of Charles of Anjou, the Conclave elected Gre- 
gory X. pope in 1271. John XXI. in 1276, and Martin IV. in 1281. 

The church and monastery of S. Rosa contain the blackened 
mummy of that saint, who was born here in the 13th century. She 

to Rome. CASTEL D'ASSO. .9. Route. 67 

urged the people to rise against the Emp. Frederick II., and was 
expelled by the Ghibellines. 

8. Francesco, a Gothic church, contains in the N. transept a 
* Descent from the Cross by Sebastiano del Piombo (design by 
Michael Angelo) and, to the right, the *Tomb of Adrian V. (de' 
Fieschi of Genoa, elected 11th July, died 16th Aug. 1276 at Vi- 
terbo), with recumbent effigy. 

S. Maria delta Verita contains the *Marriage of the Virgin, with 
numerous portraits, al fresco by Lorenzo di Giacomo of Viterbo 
(1469). Fine monastery-court. 

In front of the *Palazzo Pubblico is a Roman sarcophagus with 
the Hunt of Meleager, bearing an inscription in memory of the 
beautiful Galiana (1138), on whose account , like Helen of old. a 
war was once kindled between Rome and Viterbo , in which the 
latter was victorious. The Court contains an elegant Fountain and 
five large Etruscan sarcophagi with figures and inscriptions. In 
the Museum are Etruscan and Roman antiquities and paintings ; 
also the 'decree of Desiderius, king of the Lombards', and the 
Tabula Cibellaria , forgeries of the notorious Annius of Viterbo, a 
Dominican monk who died at Rome in 1502. 

The Fontana Grande in the market-place, begun in 1206, and 
the fountain in the Piazza della Rocca, of 1566, ascribed to Vignola, 
are also worthy of notice. 

Excursions. About l'/a JI. to the E. of Viterbo, towards Orte, is situated 
the suppressed Dominican monaster}' of the Madonna della Querela, the 
church of which is said to have been built by Bramante , with handsome 
courts. — About l>/2 M. farther is the small town of Bagnaia , with the 
charming "Villa Lanle , built at the end of the 15th and beginning of the 
16th cent., the summer-residence of the ducal family of that name (adm. 
granted on application). 

Several expeditions through picturesque scenery, and interesting to 
antiquarians, may be made from Viterbo to the surrounding ruins of an- 
cient Etruscan Cities. The volcanic nature of the district, indicated by the 
profound ravines and fissures of the rock, and the dreary desolation which 
prevails, combined with the proximity of the graves of 2000 years' antiquity, 
impart an impressive sadness to the scene. — The farther the traveller 
deviates from the main route, the more miserable do the inns become. 

From Viterbo to Toscanella, 12V2 M., see p. 6. 

Castel d'Asso, popularly known as Castellaccio , 10 M. to the W. of 
Viterbo, may be visited on horseback or on foot (guide necessary; lights 
should not be forgotten by those who intend to explore the tombs). Pass- 
ing the Bulicame (p. 66), the road traverses a moor and leads to the valley, 
which contains a succession of Etruscan Tombs, hewn in the rock. The 
fronts of these are architecturally designed , and bear some resemblance to 
the rock-tombs of Egypt; numerous inscriptions. On the opposite hill are 
the picturesque ruins of a mediaeval castle and the scanty remains of 
an ancient village, probably the Castellum Axia of Cicero. 

The traveller may from this point proceed to Vetralla, 9 M. to the 
S.W. of Viterbo (diligence), situated near the Roman Forum Cassii. At 
Vetralla the road from Viterbo divides : that to the S.E. leads to (11 M.) 
Sutri (see p. 68) ; that to the V\". by Monte Romano to Corneto (diligence 
on certain days), see p. 5. 

From Vetralla a bridle-path, traversing a bleak moor, leads in l'/a hr. 
to the 'Xecropolis of Norchia (with guide), similar to that of Castel d'Asso, 

5 * 

68 Route 9. SUTRI. From Viterbo 

but more imposing. Two of the tombs manifest a bias to the Hellenic style. 
Adjacent are the picturesque ruins of a Lombard church. In the 9th cent, 
the village was named Circle., but the ancient name is unknown. 

A similar locality is Bieda , the ancient Blera , a miserable village, 
4'/ 2 M. from Vetralla , with rock-tombs and two ancient bridges. Scenery 
very imposing. 

From Viterbo to Rome, 4672 M. The road gradually ascends the 
wooded height of Mons Ciminius, now generally called the Monte di 
Viterbo (highest point 3460 ft. above the sea-level), once considered 
the impregnable bulwark of central Etruria, until the Consul Q. 
Fabius, B.C. 308, successfully traversed it and signally defeated the 
Etruscans. The culminating point of the pass (2850 ft. above the 
sea), on which lies the old post-station of — 

5 M. L'Imposta, commands an admirable *survey of the plain 
towards the N., and W. as far as the sea. A more imposing view is 
soon disclosed of the vast Campagna di Roma, surrounded by the 
long chain of the Umbrian and Sabine Apennines as far as Pa- 
lestrina and the Alban Mts. ; the isolated Soracte (p. 63) stands 
boldly out in the foreground ; below lies the small , round Layo di 
Vico, the Lacus Ciminius (1703 ft.), an extinct crater surrourded 
by woods , the E. bank of which is skirted by the road. To the 
N. of the lake, but inside the ancient crater, rises the beautifully 
wooded Monte Ventre (2897 ft.). According to an ancient tradition, 
a town, submerged by the lake, may still be distinguished beneath 
the surface. 

About 3 l /2 M. from lTmposta a path to the left leads through 
wood to the chateau of Caprarola (l'/2 M.J. 

The once greatly renowned, but now seldom visited "chateau of Ca- 
prarola, of pentagonal shape, surrounded by a rampart and fosse, is one of 
the most important works of Vignola, who erected it for Cardinal Alexan- 
der Farnese , nephew of Paul III. (1534-49). The saloons and other apart- 
ments are adorned with frescoes of scenes from the history of the Farnese 
family, allegories, etc., by Federigo, Ottaviano and Taddeo Zucchero, Tern- 
pesta, and Vignola. A magnificent prospect is enjoyed from the upper 
terrace of the Palazzuolo , a tasteful structure by Vignola, situated in the 

At the S.E. end of the lake, 2 M. farther, lies the miserable 
village of Vico, beyond which we soon reach — 

12' 2 M. Ronciglione, a beautifully situated little town, with a 
ruined castle on the height (1369 ft. above the sea-level), on the 
margin of the Campagna di Roma. 

About 2 1 '2 M. to the S. of Eonciglione , on the road from Vetralla 
(p. 67) , on the crest of an isolated volcanic hill , picturesquely lies 
Sutri , the ancient Etruscan Sutrium , frequently mentioned in history as 
the ally of Rome in the wars against the Etruscans, from whom it was 
wrested by Camillus , B.C. 389 (Claustra Etruriae), and converted into a 
Roman colony in 383. The deep ravine contains numerous Etruscan tombs, 
and, on the S. side, fragments of the ancient walls. Three of the five 
gates are ancient, two towards the S., and the Porta Furia on the N. side 
(said to be so named because once entered by M. Furius Camillus), now 
built up. Outside the Porta Komana at the foot of an eminence , near the 
Villa Savorelli and shaded by dense forest, is situated an admirably pre- 
served "Amphitheatre, hewn in the rock, dating from Augustus, erroneously 

to Rome. BACCANO. 9. Route. 69 

regarded by some as Etruscan (axes 55 and 44 yds. respectively). The 
rocks above contain numerous tomb-chambers, one of which has been con- 
verted into a 'church, where, according to the various local traditions, the 
early Christians used to celebrate divine service. A legend attaching to 
the Grotta cFOrlando , near the town , describes it as the birthplace of the 
celebrated paladin of Charlemagne. 

A bridle-path leads in 2 hrs. from Sutri to the Lake of Bracciano and 
Trevignano (p. 372). 

On the left, 7'/2 M. from Ronciglione, our road is joined by that 
from Borghetto, Civita Castellana and Nepi, see p. 63. About 2 M. 
farther on. near — 

22 M. Monterosi, we join the road coming from Vetralla (p. 67) 
and Sutri (5'/2 M., see above), the ancient Via Cassia, which we 
now follow to Rome. We next pass (2 I /- 2 M. from Monterosi) the 
*Sette Vene inn, and 3'/2 M. farther reach the somewhat unhealthy 
village of Baccano (Posta), situated on the brink of an ancient cra- 
ter ; in the vicinity is a mephitic pond ; to the W. lie the two small 
lakes of Stracciacappa and Martignano (Lacus Alsietinui). Traces 
of ancient drains (emissarii) are distinguished on the left side of the 
road. Immediately beyond Baccano the road ascends and traverses 
the S. extremity of the crater, whence (or better from one of the 
hills to the left, 1010 ft.) in favourable weather a beautiful pano- 
rama of the environs of Rome is enjoyed ; of the city itself, how- 
ever, nothing is seen but the dome of St. Peter's, peeping forth 
above the ridge of Monte Mario. 

Passing the site of the ancient Veji. on the left (see p. 370), we 
next reach — 

36^2 M. La Storta (668 ft.) , the last of the old post-stations 
before Rome (see p. 370). — M l / 2 M. Ponte Molle, see p. 344. — 
461/2 M. Porta del Popolo at Borne, see p. 104. 

10. From Perugia to Foligno and Orte (Rome). 

76 JI. Railway in 4-4'/j hrs.; fares 13 fr. 40, 9 fr. 20, 6 fr. 40 c. - 
The most interesting points are Assist, Spoleto , and Terni. — From Pe- 
kcgia to Rome, 128 M., in 7'/ 2 hrs.; fares 22 fr. 80, 15 fr. 75, 11 fr. 50 c. 
The quick trains from Florence to Rome no longer go via Perugia (comp. 
p. 37); but travellers from Perugia to Rome may join the express from 
Bologna and Ancona at Foligno (increased fares). 

Perugia, see p. 46. The train skirts the heights on which 
Perugia is situated, and descends, passing through several tunnels. 
To the left, just before it crosses the high road, we obtain a glimpse 
of the tomb of the Volumnii (p. 54). 

6 l /% M. Ponte S. Giovanni. The train crosses the Tiber, the 
ancient frontier between Etniria and Umbria , and the Chiascio. 
12 '/ 2 M. Bastia. 

lSYa M. Stat. Assisi. The town is picturesquely situated on a 
hill to the left. 

Before ascending to Assisi the traveller should visit the magnifi- 
cent church of *S. Maria dbgli Angeli, about l / t M. to the W. of 

70 Route 10. 


From Perugia 

the station, erected by Vignola on the site of the original oratory of 
St. Francis. The nave and choir were re-erected after the earthquake 
of 1831, whereas the dome had escaped injury. 

The Interior contains, below the dome, the Oratory of the saint (called 
PoHiuncula), on the facade of which is the 'Vision of St. Francis in 1221, 
'Mary with a choir of angels 1 , a fresco by Fr. Overbeck, 1829. — The Cappella 
delle Rose contains five frescoes from the life of the saint by Tiberio 
d'Assisi, 1518. — Farther on, to the right, is the hut in which St. Fran- 
cis expired, 4th Oct. 1226, with inscription, and frescoes by Lo 8pagna(T), 
representing the followers of the saint. The other parts are modern. 

A beautiful path leads from S. Maria degli Angeli to Assisi in 
3 / 4 hr. The services of the guides who importune travellers at 
S. Maria degli Angeli and at Assisi are quite superfluous. 

Assisi (*Albergo del Subasio , with a fine view, adjoining the 
monastery of S. Francesco, convenient for a hasty visit; *Leone. 
near the Piazza; good photographs from Giotto's frescoes sold by 
P. Lunghi, in the Piazza near S. Francesco), a small town and 
episcopal see, the ancient Umbrian Assisium, where in B.C. 46 the 
elegiac poet Propertius, and in 1698 the opera-writer Pietro Meta- 
stasio (properly Trapassi , d. at Vienna in 1782) were born, stands 
in a singularly picturesque situation. 

It is indebted for its reputation to Si. Francis, who was born here in 
1182. He was the son of the merchant Pietro Eernardone, and spent his 
youth in frivp'i'v it lfnirth. whilst eneaeed in a campaign against Perugia, 

to Foligno. ASSISI. 10. Route. 71 

he was taken prisoner and attacked by a dangerous illness. Sobered by 
adversity, he soon afterwards (1208) founded the monastic order of Francis- 
cans, which speedily found adherents in all the countries of Europe, and 
was sanctioned in 1210 by Innocent III., and in 1223 by Honorius III. Po- 
verty and self-abnegation formed the essential chaiacteristics of the order, 
which under different designations (Seraphic Brethren, Minorites, Observan- 
tes, and Capuchins, who arose in 1526.) was soon widely diffused. St. Francis 
is said to have been favoured with visions, the most important of which 
was that of 1224, when Christ impressed on him the marks of his wounds 
(stigmata). From the 'apparition of the crucified seraph' the saint is also 
known as Paler Seraphicus. 

St. Francis died on 4th Oct., 1226, and in 1228 was canonised by Gre- 
gory IX., who appointed the day of his death to be kept sacred to his mem- 
ory. He wrote several works, especially letters which display talent, and 
was one of the most remarkable characters of the middle ages. Dante 
(Paradiso 11, 50) says of him that he rose like a sun and illumined every- 
thing with his rays. 

Having reached the town, we proceed to the left to the former 
**Monastery of the Fraxciscaxs, which, erected in the first half 
of the 13th cent, upon massive substructions on the brow of the 
hill , has long attracted our attention. The monastery, which after 
its suppression in 1866 was for several years uninhabited , has 
recently been converted into a school for the sons of teachers. 
Besides several frescoes of the 16th and 17th cent, in the refec- 
tories, the *choir-stalls by Domenico da S. Severino, recently brought 
from the upper church, dating from 1450, and adorned with ad- 
mirable carving and inlaid figures of saints, are particularly worthy 
of attention. From the external passage a magnificent *view of the 
luxuriant valley is enjoyed. 

The two Churches, erected one above the other, are objects 
of far greater interest. A third, the Crypt, with the tomb of the 
saint, was added in 1818, when his remains were re-discovered. 
The lower church was erected in 1228-32, the upper in 1253, 
and consecrated by Innocent IV. The Northern Gothic style, intro- 
duced by the German master Jacob, appears here in Italy for the 
first time, though not without incipient traces of Italian modifications. 
The architect of the tower was the monk Fra Filippo da Campello. 

The 'Lower Church, used for divine service, is always accessible; en- 
trance by a side-door on the terrace, in front of which is a vestibule of 
1487. The interior is low and sombre. To the right a tomb, above it a vase 
of porphyry, said to be that of John de Brienne , King of Jerusalem , who 
entered the order of St. Francis in 1237; or that of Hecuba of Lusignan, 
Queen of Cyprus (d. 1243). Opposite the entrance is the chapel of the Cru- 

To the right in the Nave , the chapel of St. Louis , with frescoes by 
Adone Doni (1560). On the vaulted ceiling prophets and sibyls, by Andrea 
del lagegno of Assisi. The chapel of S. Antonio m Padua, with frescoes by 
Pace da Faenza (14th cent.), is modernised and partly whitewashed. — The 
Cappella S. Maddalena is adorned with frescoes, representing scenes from 
the life of the saint and of Maria ^gyptiaca, which were formerly attri- 
buted to Buffalmacco (about 1320). It is", however, certain that they were 
executed by a pupil of Giotto, a Florentine artist, who did not scruple to 
paint copies here of his master's pictures at Padua. — The Cappella S. 
Caterina, or del Ckocefisso, contains inferior compositions of the latter 
half of the 14th cent. 

The S. Transept contains on its E. and \V. walls three series of 

72 Route 10. ASSISI. From Perugia 

,! Scenes from the life of Jesus , the "Resuscitation of a child of the Spini 
family, and over the doorway a Portrait of Christ, all by Giotto (probably 
at an advanced age). The master may have been assisted in these works 
by his pupils , but the style seems to indicate that they were chiefly 
painted by his own hand. 

The High Altae occupies the spot where the remains of St. Fran- 
cis once reposed. Above it are four triangular spaces on the groined 
vaulting, containing the famous "Frescoes of Giotto, illustrative 
of the vows of the mendicant order : poverty , chastity, and obed- 
ience; the fourth painting is an apotheosis of St. Francis. The first pic- 
ture represents the nuptials of St. Francis with poverty in rags. In the 
next, a monk, a nun, and a lay brother are represented taking the vow 
of chastity; the foreground is enlivened by penitents, scourgers, and vota- 
ries of pleasure. Chastity herself is guarded in a tower by purity and 
bravery. Obedience is symbolised by the laying of a yoke on a monk. 
Each scene , moreover, is replete with allegorical allusions (chiefly from 
Dante), most of which will be readily understood by those, who are versed 
in the fanciful combinations of the period. 

At the end of the S. Transept is the Cappella del Sacramento, with 
frescoes from the life of St. Nicholas, generally attributed to Giottino, but 
more probably executed by Agnolo da Siena, in the first half of the 14th 
cent. On the entrance-wall : Resuscitation of a child killed by a fall from 
a house. 

The N. Transept contains Scenes from the Passion, of the Sienese 
School , formerly attributed to Cavallini and Puccio Capanna , a pupil of 
Giotto, perhaps by Pietro Lorenzetti; these paintings are in a very damag- 
ed condition. — To the right of the entrance to the Sacristy, in which 
the treasures and the relics belonging to the church were formerly pre- 
served , is a Madonna with St. Catharine and other saints (1516), by Lo 
Spagna. Over the door is a portrait of St. Francis , said to have been 
painted by Giunta Pisano, soon after the death of the saint. — To the 
left of the entrance to the church is the Pulpit, adorned with a Coro- 
nation of the Virgin by Simone Martini of Siena, and further on St. Francis 
receiving the stigmata, a fresco by Giotto. — The last Chapel to the N. 
is dedicated to ''Scenes from the life of St. Martin, by Simone Martini (be- 
ginning of 14th cent.); this work, though only partially preserved, still 
remains valuable as one of the ablest productions of the Sienese school, 
and in many respects bears comparison with the style of Giotto and the 

The stained windows of the lower church are by Angeletto and Pietro 
da Gubbio and Bonino d'Assisi; those of the upper church are more than 
a century later. 

The Crtpt was constructed in the Doric stylj, harmonising little with 
the two churches, in 1818, after the remains of St. Francis had been dis- 
covered in a rude stone coflin. It is approached by a double staircase, 
and is lighted with candles when visited by strangers. 

The "tipper Church, the frescoes of which are undergoing restoration, 
has recently been converted into a museum of Early Tuscan Frescoes. 
It is entered either by the principal portal, or (by applying to the sacris- 
tan) from the lower church. The church is in the form of a Latin cross, 
with Gothic windows. The W. side possesses a splendid rose-window and 
handsome pediments. — In the N. Transept, as we enter from the lower 
church , are remains of Scenes from the Apocalypse , by Cimabue. The 
middle of the ceiling is adorned with frescoes of the four Evangelists, in 
the style of Cimabue and Jacopo Torriti , the mosaicist. — The S. Tran- 
sept contains the remains of a large Crucifixion, Transfiguration, Cruci- 
fixion of St. Peter, and Scenes from the life of Simon Magus, by Qimta 
Pisano. — In the CnoiR: Christ in a glory and Assumption and Death of 
the Virgin , both by Cimabue. — Nave. In the upper section of the 
S. wall are sixteen scenes from the Old Testament history, from the 
Creation of the world to the Recognition" of Joseph by his brethren; on 
the JT. side, sixteen scenes from the New Testament, from the Annun- 
ciation to the Descent of the Ho 1 " Ohnot hv mmii. f Cimabue, show- 

to Foligno. ASSISI. 10. Route. 73 

ing gradual improvement in execution. The lower section contains 
twenty-eight Scenes from the life of St. Francis, illustrative of the farther 
development of the early Florentine School (Filippo Rusutti , and Gaddo 
Gaddi), of the close of the 13th cent. The first and the five last of these 
frescoes are certainly by the hand of Giotto. On the ceiling of the nave 
are four Angels and four Fathers of the Church , executed in the earlier 
mosaic style. 

Quitting the upper church and emerging on the space in front 
of it , we may follow the street ascending thence in a straight 
direction, which will lead us to the Piazza. Here is situated the 
beautiful portico of a *Temple of Minerva, with six columns of 
travertine , converted into a church of S. Maria della Minerva. 
Ancient inscriptions immured in the vestibule. Adjacent to the 
church is the entrance to the ancient Forum, which corresponded 
to the present Piazza, but lay considerably lower. In the forum a 
Basement for a statue, with a long inscription (fee 1/2 fr-)- 

The Chiesa Nuova (PI. 7), at the S.E. angle of the Piazza, oc- 
cupies the site of the house in which St. Francis was born. 

The Cathedral of S. Rufino (PI. 4), in the upper part of the 
town, named after the first bishop (240), dates from the first half of 
the 12th cent., the crypt from 1028. Facade ancient ; the interior 
modern. Entrance to the right, before reaching the church (25 c). 

From the cathedral a broad , unpaved road to the right leads in 
a few minutes to the fine Gothic church of S. Chiara (PI. 2), near 
the gate, erected by Fra Filippo da Campello in 1253. but afterwards 
altered, now undergoing restoration. Beneath the high-altar are 
the remains of S. Clara, who, inspired with enthusiasm for St. 
Francis, abandoned her parents and wealth, founded the order of 
Clarissines, and died as first abbess. A handsome crypt of different 
coloured marbles has recently been constructed about her tomb. On 
the arch above the high-altar, frescoes by Oiottino; those in the 
right transept are attributed to Giotto. 

At the E. end of the town are remains of a Roman Amphitheatre 
(PI. 1). 

In a ravine of the lofty Monte Subasio (3612 ft.), at the back of Assisi, 
is situated the hermitage delle Carceri, to which St. Francis was wont to 
retire for devotional exercises. 

From Assisi to Spello a very beautiful drive of 5 M. (one- 
horse carr. 4-5 fr.). By train it is reached in 13 min. To the right 
of the road as the town is approached are the ruins of an amphitheatre 
of the imperial period, but they are not visible from the railway. 

22 M. Spello, with 4000 inhab., picturesquely situated on a 
mountain-slope, is the ancient Hispellum [Colonia Julia Hispellum). 
The gate by which the town is entered, with its three portrait-sta- 
tues, as well as the Porta Urbana, the Porta Veneris , and portions 
of the wall, are ancient. 

The ^Cathedral of S. Maria Maggiore contains some good paint- 

To the right of the entrance, an ancient cippus serves as a basin for 

74 Route 10. FOLIGNO. From Perugia 

consecrated water. To the left the Cappella del Sacramento with *fres- 
coes by Pinturicchio (1501): on the left, the Annunciation (with the name 
and portrait of the painter), opposite to us the Adoration, Christ in the 
Temple ; on the ceiling , the Sibyls. — The Choir contains a magnificent 
canopy in the early Renaissance style. On the left of the high-altar a 
'Pieta, on the right a Madonna by Perugino, 1521. — Above the altar in 
the Sackisty, a Madonna by Pinturicchio. 

S. Francesco (or Andrea), consecrated in 1228 by Gregory IX., 
contains in the right transept an altar-piece, Madonna and saints, 
by Pinturicchio (1508), with a letter by 6. Baglione, addressed to 
the painter. 

Among other antiquities the 'House of Propertius' is shown, 
although it is certain that the poet was not born here (p. 70). In 
the Pal. Comunale and on the church-wall of S. Lorenzo are Roman 
inscriptions. The upper part of the town commands an extensive 
view of the plain, with Foligno and Assisi. Numerous ruins oc- 
casioned by the earthquake of 1831 are still observed. 

The train crosses the Topino and reaches — 

25 M. Foligno, the junction of the Ancona line (R. 14). 

Halt of i/i hr. ; good Refreshment-Room. — One-horse carriage to the 
town (>,'•> M. from the station) 40 c. — Inns: *Posta, \ close to the gate; 
Lkon d'Oeo i Teaitokia Falcone , all three in the main-street , the Via 
della Fiera. 

Foligno, near the ancient Fulginium, an industrial town with 
10,000 (incl. suburbs 21,000) inhab., and an episcopal residence, 
is situated in a fertile district. In 1281 it was destroyed by Perugia, 
and in 1439 annexed to the States of the Church. The earth- 
quake of 1831 occasioned serious damage ; others in 1839, 1853, 
and 1854 were less destructive. 

At the entrance to the town , a marble statue was erected in 
1872 to the painter Niccolb del Liberatore, surnamed VAlunno, the 
chief master of the school of Foligno (p. 47). 

The Via della Fiera leads straight to the Market-place , where 
the Cathedral of S. Feliciano is situated , erected in the 12th cent, 
(of which the Romanesque facade of the transept is still extant), 
but entirely remodelled in the 16th cent. The handsome dome is 
attributed, but without authority, to Bramante. — The Palazzo del 
Governo, in the same square, contains frescoes by Ottaviano Nelliin 
an old chapel. 

Following the Via Montogli to the left, and then the Via S. Niccolo, 
a side-street to the right, we reach the church of S. Niccolb. The 
2nd Chapel to the right here contains an altar-piece with numerous 
figures , the centre being formed by an Adoration of the Infant 
Christ by Niccolb Alunno. The chapel to the right of the high-altar 
is adorned with a Coronation of the Virgin with a predella by the 
same master. 

The church of 8. Anna, or delle Contesse, formerly contained the 
celebrated Madonna di Foligno by Raphael, now in the Vatican. — 
S. Maria infra Portas contains frescoes by Nic. Alunno, and La 

to Foligno, SPOLETO. 10. Route. 75 

Numiatella a fresco of the Baptism of Christ by Pietro Perugino. — 
In the Capp. Betlehemme, Via de' Monasteri, there is a small public 

About 4 31. to the E. of Foligno, on the slope of the hills, is situated 
the Abbadia di Sassovivo, with cloisters built in 1229, resembling those of 
S. Paolo Fuori at Rome (p. 253). 

About 5 31. to the W. of Foligno is Bevagna, on the Clitumnus, the 
ancient Mevania of the TJmbri , celebrated for its admirable pastures, with 
remains of an amphitheatre and other antiquities. The churches of <S. Sil- 
vtstro and S. Michele, dating from the latter part of the 12th cent., though 
not entirely preserved, present a picturesque appearance. 

From Bevagna (or from Foligno direct 7 M.) the traveller may visit 
the lofty Mcntefalco, a small town with several churches containing fine 
paintings. S. Francesco contains frescoes by Benozzo Gozzoli (1452). The 
choir contains the legend of St. Francis ; and the chapel of St. Jerome a 
Madonna enthroned, and scenes from the life of the saint. In the other 
chapels are good frescoes by Tiberio d'Assisi and Lorenzo da Viterbo. The 
church of S. Fortunato (>/4 M. from the town, on the road to Trevi) contains 
interesting frescoes by Benozzo (1449). Charming views of the plain from 
the height. 

The Railway traverses the luxuriant, well- watered valley of 
the Clitumnus, whose flocks are extolled byVirgil, to — 

133 M. Trevi. The small town , the ancient Trebia, lies pic- 
turesquely on the slope to the left. The church of the *Madonna 
delle Lagrime contains the Adoration of the Magi , one of Peru- 
yino's latest frescoes , and a Descent from the Cross by Lo Spagna. 
The church of S. Martino , outside the gate, contains a Madonna 
in fresco by Tiberio d'Assisi, and a Coronation of the Virgin by 
Lo Spagna. 

The small village of Le Vene, on the Clitumnus, is next passed. 
Near it, to the left, we obtain a glimpse of a small ancient *Temple, 
usually regarded as that of Clitumnus mentioned by Pliny (Epist. 
S, 8), but probably not earlier than Constantine the Great, as the 
Christian emblems, the vine and the cross, on the facade testify. 
The temple, now a church of S. Sulvatote, lies with its back to- 
wards the road, about 2y 2 M. from Trevi. Near Le Vene the 
abundant and clear Source of the Clitumnus , beautifully described 
by Pliny , wells forth from the limestone-rock. On the height to 
the left is the village of Campello. On the way to Spoleto, to the 
left, in the village of S. Giacomo, is a church with frescoes by 
Lo Spagna, of 1526; beautiful road through richly cultivated land. 

41 M. Spoleto. The town is »/< 31. distant from the station ; one 
horse carriage x ji fr. 

La Posta, in the lower part of the town, near the railwav-gate. — 
Albergo & Rest, del Teatro Nuovo, in the upper part of the town, near 
the theatre, well spoken of. — Trattoria delta Ferrovia, to the right of 
the town gate. 

Spoleto, the ancient Spoletium, said to have been an episcopal 
residence as early as A.D. 50, now an archiepiscopal see with 20,700 
inhab. (incl. surrounding villages), is a busy town, beautifully 
situated, and containing some interesting objects of art. 

In B. C. 242 a Roman colony was established here, and in 217 the town 
vigorously repelled the attack of Hannibal when on his march to Picenum 
after the battle of the Trasimene Lake, as Livy relates (22, 9). It subse 

76 Route 10. SPOLETO. From Perugia 

quently became a Roman municipium , suffered severely during the civil 
wars of Sulla and Marius, and again at the hands of the Goths, after the 
fall of the W. Empire. The Lombards founded a duchy here (as in Bene- 
vento) in 570, the first holders of which were Faroald and Ariolf. After 
the fall of the Carlovingians, Guido of Spoleto even attained the dignity of 
Emperor, as well as his son Lambert , who perished while hunting in 898. 
Innocent III. and Gregory IV. incorporated Spoleto with the States of the 
Church about 1220. The Castle of Spoleto, erected by Theodoric the Great, 
restored by Narses, and strengthened with four towers by Cardinal Albornoz, 
now a prison , fell into the hands of the Piedmontese on 18th Sept., 1860, 
after a gallant defence by Major O'Reilly, an Irishman. 

The town is built on the slope of a hill, the summit of which 
is occupied by the old castle of La Rocca ; the church-spire most 
to the left when seen from the station is that of the cathedral. — 
Entering by the town-gate and following the main street which 
traverses the lower part of the town, we reach (5 min.) a gateway 
of the Roman period, called the Porta d'Annibale, or Porta della 
Fuga, in allusion to the above-mentioned occurrence. 

We may now continue to follow the Strada Umberto , which 
ascends the hill in a wide curve, or we may take one of the direct 
but steep side-streets. Inclining towards the left, near the top, we 
come to the — 

*Cathedbal of S. Maria Assunta, erected by Duke Theodela- 
pius in 617, but frequently restored. In front of the facade (13th 
cent.) is a Renaissance portico , consisting of five arches with 
antique columns , a frieze with griffins and arabesques, and at each 
extremity a stone pulpit ; above, a large mosaic by Solsernus (1207) 
of Christ with Mary and John. 

To the right of the vestibule is a Baptistery, containing frescoes in 
the style of Qiulio Romano; the travertine font, with sculptures from the 
life of Christ, is of the 16th cent. 

The Interior of the cathedral was restored in 1644 , and has been 
recently whitewashed. — The Choir contains "frescoes by Fra Filippo 
Lippi, completed after his death by Fra Diamante in 1470, Annunciation, 
Birth of Christ, and Death of Mary; in the semicircle her Coron- 
ation and Assumption (unfortunately damaged). At the entrance to the 
chapel, on the left of the choir, to the left, is the Tomb of Fit. Lippi, 
who died here in 1469 of poison administered by the family of Spinetta 
Buti, a noble Florentine. Although a monk, he had succeeded in gaining 
the affections of this lady and abducting her from a convent. The monu- 
ment was erected by Lorenzo de' Medici; the epitaph is by Poliziano. 
Opposite is the monument of an Orsini. — The Winter-Choir, in the left 
aisle, contains good carving from the 15th cent. , and a Madonna by Lo 
Spagna. — In the Chapel to the right of the entrance are fragments of 
frescoes by Pinlvricchio. 

In the Piazza delDuomo, in front of the cathedral, probably 
stood the palace of the Lombard Dukes. — On leaving the ca- 
thedral we proceed in a straight direction , slightly ascending, to 
the Palazzo Pubblico , containing several inscriptions and a small 
picture gallery, in which a Madonna with saints, by Lo Spagna, 
deserves notice. 

The other churches are of inferior interest. 5. Domenieo con- 
tains a copy of Raphael's Transfiguration, attributed to Giulio Ro- 

to Rome. TERNI. 10. Route. 77 

mano. 5. Pietro, outside the Boman gate, is a Lombard edifice ; 
facade adorned with sculptures. 

Some of the churches contain relics of ancient temples ; thus in 
that del Crocefisso, outside the town, near the cemetery (now under 
repair), fragments of a temple of Concordia (?) ; columns, etc. in 
<S. Andrea and S. Giuliano ; remnants of a theatre ; a ruin styled 
'Palace of Theodoric', etc. None of these, however, claim special 

Travellers should not omil to extend their walk beyond the ca- 
thedral and the Palazzo Pubblico as follows. Continuing to ascend, 
after a few minutes we cross the Piazza Brignone in a diagonal 
direction, where a memorial slab commemorates the capture of the 
fortress in 1860. Passing the fountain, we leave the upper part of 
the Piazza by a street to the right, which passes immediately below 
the lower entrance of the fortress of La Rocca, now a prison. A 
little farther on, near a gate which here forms the entrance to the 
town, we perceive, to the left, polygonal foundations, being remains 
of the ancient castle-wall. Outside the wall is a profound ravine, 
spanned by the imposing aqueduct *Ponte delle Torri, built of brick, 
which is used as a viaduct, uniting the town with Monte Luco. It 
rests on ten arches , and is 290 ft. in height, and 231 yds. in 
length. Its construction is attributed to Theodelapius, third duke 
of Spoleto (604). A window midway affords a view. To the left on 
the height is perceived the monastery of S. Giuliano ; below is S. 
Pietro (see above), above which stands the former Capuchin mon- 
astery, shaded by beautiful trees. Beyond the bridge we turn to 
the left, generally following the direction of the aqueduct. After 
10-15 min. a more unbroken *prospect is obtained, embracing the 
fortress and town, and the spacious valley. 

The ascent of Monte Luco, Vfa hr. , is somewhat fatiguing. Towards 
the left is a lofty cross, whence an unimpeded panorama is obtained to the 
N. and E., of the valley of the Clitumnus with Trevi, Foligno, Spello, 
and Assisi; then Perugia and the Central Apennines near Citta di Castello 
and Gubbio. In the other directions the view is intercepted by the 
mountains in the vicinity. Towards the E. these are overtopped by the 
rocky peak of the Sibilla, snow-clad until late in the summer. — Return- 
ing to the right we pass the former Capuchin monastery of S. Maria delle 
Grazie, an ancient resort of pilgrims. 

The Railway ascends during 1 hr. on the slopes of Monte 
Somma (4038 ft.) to the culminating point of the line (2231 ft.), 
passes through a long tunnel, and reaches — 

59 M. Tend. — The town is 3 jt M. from the station; one-horse car- 
riage f fr. 20 c. A seat in a carriage as far as the hotel, 40 c, at night 
50 c. ; each box 20 c. 

:; 1nghilterea , near the piazza, R. 3 fr. ; *Europa, in the piazza. — 
Italia, well spoken of. 

Terni , situated in the fertile valley of the Nera, with 15,000 
inhab. (incl. the surrounding villages) and several manufactories, 
is the ancient Interamna, where, it is believed, the historian Ta- 
citus and the emperors Tacitus and Florianus were born. Remains 

78 Route 10. 


From Perugia 

of an amphitheatre (erroneously styled a ' Temple of the Sun') in 
the grounds of the episcopal palace, Roman inscriptions in the Pa- 
lazzo Pubblico, palaces of the Umbrian nobility, etc. are objects of 
interest. Pleasant walk on the ramparts, whence the beautiful 
Nera Valley is surveyed : to the left Collescipoli, to the right Cesi, 
opposite the spectator Narni. 

t CMlomelri., 

The "Waterfalls of Terni may be reached on foot in 1^2 hr.; 
the whole excursion, including stay, requires about 4 hrs. 

Carriage for 1 person 5, 2 pers. 7, 3 pers. 9 fr. , etc., according 
to tariff; or at the hotels 7, 10 and 15 fr. respectively, besides which 
a fee of 1-1 1/2 fr- is expected. — Guide (quite unnecessary) 3 fr. — 
The traveller should be abundantly provided with copper-coins. At 
the different points of view contributions are levied by the custodians 
(3-4 soldi); flowers and fossils from the Velino are offered for sale, also 
for 3-4 soldi ; besides which the patience is sorely tried by the impor- 
tunities of a host of beggars and guides. 

TheTe are two carriage-roads from Terni to the waterfalls. The 
New Road (4y 2 M.), following the right bank of the Nera, leaves 
the town near the Porta Spoletina, and, flanked with rows of pop- 
lars, intersects the plain in a straight direction. On the right rises 
the large new government manufactory of weapons, the machinery 
of which is to be driven by the water of the Nera. We now ap- 
proach the stream, the valley of which contracts. On each side 
tower lofty rocks, to which the luxuriant vegetation of the slopes 
forms a beautiful contrast. — The Old Road is reached from the 
piazza at Terni by passing the Albergo Europa and descending the 
Strada Garibaldi. We at first follow the Rieti and Aquila road (see 
Baedeker's 8. Italy), which crosses the Nera just outside the gate, 
traversing gardens and olive-plantations ; after 1 M. (near a small 
chapel on the right), a broad road to the left descends into the 

to Foligno. TERM. 10. Route. 79 

valley of the Nera, while the high-road continues to ascend gradu- 
ally to the right. The former descends in windings past the village 
of Papigno , picturesquely situated on an isolated rock, ( 3 / 4 M.) 
crosses the Nera, and on the right bank , near the villa of Count 
Castelli-Graziani, reaches the new road mentioned above (1-1 V4 M. 
to the falls). 

The celebrated falls of the Velino (which here empties itself into 
the Nera"), called the **Cascate delle Mar more, are about 650 ft. 
in height, and have few rivals in Europe in point of beauty and vo- 
lume of water. The rivulet is precipitated from the height in three 
leaps of about 65, 330, and 190 ft. respectively, the water falling 
perpendicularly at some places, and at others dashing furiously over 
rocks. The spray of the falls is seen from a considerable distance. 

The Velino is so strongly impregnated with lime that its deposit con- 
tinually raises its bed ; and in consequence of this the plain of Rieti 
(1397 ft.) is frequently exposed to the danger of inundation. In ancient 
times Marcus Curius Dentatus endeavoured to counteract the evil by the 
construction of a tunnel (B. C. 271), which, although altered, is to this 
day in use. The rising of the bed of the river, however, rendered new 
measures necessary from time to time. Two other channels were after- 
wards excavated, the Cava Beatina or Gregoriana in 1417, and the Cam 
Paolina by Paul III. in 1546; these, however, proving unserviceable, Cle- 
ment VIII. re-opened the original 'emissarius' of Dentatus in 1598. In 
17S7 a new cutting was required, and another has at the present day 
become necessary. The regulation of the Velino-fall has long formed the 
subject of vehement discussions between Eieti and Terni , as the unre- 
strained descent of the water in rainy seasons threatens the valley of Terni 
with inundation. 

The finest views of the falls are commanded by the new road 
itself. Or, before reaching the falls, we may ascend a path to the 
left, leading in 10 min. to a small summer-house, affording the 
finest view of the upper and central falls, which are exactly opposite 
to us. — We now return to the road, and retracing our steps to the 
first path on the left , cross the Nera by a natural bridge, below 
which the water has hollowed its own channel. (Footpaths, following 
the course of the Nera and passing two small waterfalls, lead in 30 
min. to Papigno.) Where the path divides, the gradual ascent to 
the left is. to be selected. The surrounding rocks (in which there 
is a quarry) have been formed by the incrustations of the Velino. 
The channel on the right (Cava Paolina) is full in winter only. In 
12-15 min. we come to a point, where the division of the cascade is 
surveyed; the central fall, in the spray of which beautiful rainbows 
are occasionally formed, may be approached more nearly. A farther 
steep ascent of 10-15 min. leads to a small pavilion of stone on a 
projecting rock, affording a beautiful view of the principal fall and 
the valley of the Nera. We next ascend a flight of steps (4 min.), 
and turning to the left, reach another point of view in the garden 
of the small cottage situated here (20 c). — Following the same 
path for a few minutes more, we turn to the right and come to a 
small house; passing through its garden (10-15 c). and between 
several houses, we reach in 10 min. the road to Rieti and Aquila 

80 Route 10. NARNI. 

(see above), not far from a good osteria (No. 153). The road back to 
Terni (4 M.) commands a fine view. 

If time permit, the excursion may be extended from the upper 
fall to the beautiful *Lake of Piedilugo, 3 M. further. Following the 
above mentioned road , we cross the Velino, reach the lake in 
i / 2 hr., skirt its indentations, and arrive at the village of Piedilugo, 
with its ruined castle, in J /2 nr - more. Boats may be hired at the 
inn ; the opposite bank , where a fine echo may be awakened, is 
generally visited by water. 

Cesi, loftily situated, 5 M. to the N.W. of Terni, to the right of the 
road to Gemine and Todi (p. 56) , possesses remains of ancient polygonal 
walls and interesting subterranean grottoes of considerable extent, 
from which a current of cool air in summer, and of warm in winter 

The Railway intersects the rich valley of the Nera. To the 
right on the hill lies Cesi (see above), to the left, Collescipoli. 

67 M. Narni (Angelo, tolerable), the ancient Umbrian Narnia 
(originally Nequinum), birthplace of the Emperor Nerva, Pope John 
XIII. (965-72), and of Erasmus of Narni, surnamed Gattamelata, 
the well-known 'condottiere' of the 15th century. It is picturesquely 
situated 8/4 M. from the station on a lofty rock (1191 ft.) on the 
Nar, now Nera (whence its name), at the point where the river 
forces its way through a narrow ravine to the Tiber. The old castle 
is now a prison. — The Cathedral, erected in the 13th cent., with 
a vestibule of 1497, and dedicated to St. Juvenalis the first bishop 
(369), is architecturally interesting. — The Town Hall contains 
the Coronation of Mary by Lo Spagna (formerly in the monastery of 
the Zoccolanti, and for a long time attributed to Raphael), one of 
that master's finest paintings, but lately spoiled by retouching. 

From Narni to Perugia by Todi, see p. 56. 

From Narni a road leads to the N.W. to the (6 M.) ancient and beau- 
tifully situated Umbrian mountain-town of Amelia, Lat. Ameria (inn outside 
the gate) , mentioned by Cicero in his oration Pro Roscio Amerino, with 
admirably preserved walls in the Cyclopean style and other antiquities 
(1388 ft.) 

The train turns towards the narrowing, valley of the Nera, and 
passes close to the *Bridge of Augustus (on the left), which spanned 
the river immediately below Narni in three huge arches , and he- 
longed to the Via Flaminia (p. 84) , leading to Bevagna (p. 75)- 
The arch next to the left bank, 60 ft. in height, alone is preserved,, 
while of the two others the buttresses only remain. 

The train continues to follow the valley of the Nera, with its 
beautiful plantations of evergreen oaks, passes through two tunnels,, 
and then (not far from the influx of the Nera) crosses the Tiber, 
which 1860-70 formed the boundary between the Kingdom of Italy 
and the Papal States. — Near — 

76 M. Orte, the train reaches the main line from Chiusi to Rome, 
(see p. 62). 


11. From Bologna to Rimini, Falconara (Rome), 
and Ancona. 

127 M. Railway in 5-8 hrs.; fares 23 fr. 10, 16 fr. 15, 11 fr. 55 e. — 
Beautiful views of the sea between Rimini and Cattolica, and beyond Pe- 
saro. A seat on the left should therefore be secured. — From Bologna to 
Rome, 300 M. , express in Wfa-lb hrs. (via Florence in 13 hrs.); fares 
56 fr. 75, 39 fr. 50 c. This train diverges to the S.W. at Falconara, the 
last station before Ancona. 

The towns on the coast of the Adriatic are far inferior in attraction 
to those in the W. part of the peninsula (Tuscany and Umbria); but 
without a visit to them the traveller's acquaintance with Italy would be 
but imperfect. The views of the Adriatic to the E., and of the Apennines 
to the W. are often charming, and the situation of some of the towns, 
especially Ancona , is strikingly beautiful. Rimini , an ancient Roman 
colony and frontier fortress, possesses several fine monuments of antiquity, 
and its church of S. Francesco is an admirable work of the Renaissance 
period. Roman triumphal arches are also preserved at Ancona and Fano; 
and Loreto can boast of valuable sculptures in the Renaissance style 
(p. 98). Urbino, too, the birthplace of Raphael, lies within a short distance 
of this route. Many of the towns now possess picture galleries , formed 
from works taken from the suppressed monasteries, but generally of sec- 
ond-rate importance. 

Bologna, see vol. I. of this Handbook. The line runs paralle 
with the high-road in the direction of the ancient Via JEmilia, which 
extended from Placentia to Ariminum, and as far as Forli traverses 
fertile plains in nearly a straight direction ; in the distance to the 
right are the spurs of the Apennines. 4'/2 M. S. Lazzaro fin sum- 
mer only); 7 M. Mirandola, lO 1 ^ M. Quaderna, and 15 M. Castel 
S. Pietro, on the Sillaro , with a castle erected by the Bolognese in 
the 13th cent. 

22 M. Imola (S. Marco), on the Santerno, the Roman Forum 
Cornelii, an ancient town with 28,400 inhab. (incl. the surround- 
ing villages) and seat of a bishop since 422, annexed to the States 
of the Church in 1509, was the birthplace of St. Petrus Chrysolo- 
gus, archbishop of Ravenna (d. 449), whose tomb is in the cathedral 
of S. Cassiano, where the remains of the saint of that name also 
repose. The painter Innocenzo da Imola (Francucci, b. 1506) and 
the anatomist Vassalva were also natives of Imola. 

The line crosses the Santerno and reaches (26 M.) Castel Bo- 
lognese , an ancient stronghold of the Bolognese, constructed in 
1380. Branch-line hence to Ravenna, see Baedeker s N. Italy. — 
We then cross the river Senio, the ancient Sinnus, to — 

31 M. Faenza (Corona, in the Piazza Maggiore ; Tre Mori), a 
pleasant town with 14,280 inhab. (with the suburbs 36,300), on the 
Amone (ancient Anemo), the Faventia of the Boii. In the middle 
ages it was witness of numerous feuds, and in 1509 it was annexed 
by Pope Julius II. to the States of the Church. The town was cele- 
brated in the 15th cent, for its pottery, the manufacture of which 
has recently been revived ('faience'), and contains considerable silk 
and weaving factories. Faenza was the birthplace of Torricelli, the 

BjEdekeb. Italy II. 5th Edition. 6 

82 Route 11. FORLI. From Bologna 

inventor of the barometer in 1643, to whose memory a monument 
near the church of S. Francesco has recently been erected. 

The cathedral of S. Costanzo, named after Constantius, the first 
bishop of Faventia in 313, contains a Holy Family by Innocenzo da 
Imola, and bas-reliefs by Benedetto da Majano, 1472. 

In the Piazza Maggiore, which is surrounded by trees, are situat- 
ed the Palazzo Municipale and the Torre dell' Orologio; the foun- 
tain in the centre of the square , embellished with bronzes , dates 
from the 17th cent. 

The Library contains 26,000 vols, and a statue of John the 
Baptist by Donatello. Here , too , is a Pinacoteca , with numerous 
works of native artists, such as Bertucci ; a Madonna by Guido 
Keni, etc. 

In the Commenda (in the Borgo) is a handsome fresco, Madonna 
and saints, by Girolamo da Treviso (1533). 

Beyond Faenza the train intersects the plain in a straight direc- 
tion. It crosses the Amone, then the Montone, which, united with 
with the Ronco, falls into the Adriatic not far from Ravenna. 

40 M. Forli (Posta) , the ancient Forum Livii , founded by M. 
Livius Salinator after the defeat of Hasdrubal , is a well-built pro- 
vincial capital with 15,300 inhab. (including suburbs 38,480). 

Forli, where in 410 the marriage of Alhaulf , king of the Visigoths, 
with Galla Placidia , sister of the Emp. Honorius was solemnised, was 
long an independent state in which the &uelphs retained their ascendancy 
down to 1315. The Ordelaffi then usurped the supreme power, and at length, 
in 150-1, Pope Julius II. annexed the city to the States of the Church. — 
Forli was the birthplace of the poet Cornelius Gallus (d. B.C. 27), of the 
historian Ftavio Biondo (15th cent.), and of the talented painter Melozzo 
da Forli (end of 15th cent.) , who was closely allied to Piero della Fran- 
cesca, and afterwards engaged ;it Rome. 

The principal piazza is enclosed by handsome palaces. Here, 
too, is situated the church of — 

S. Mercuriale (so named after the first bishop of Forli), which 
possesses a painting by Innocenzo da Imola, sculptures of 1536, and 
several good pictures by Marco Palmezzano , a native of Forli and 
pupil of Melozzo. Lofty campanile. 

We next proceed to the * Cathedral of S. Croce, containing the 
Chapel of the Madonna del Fuoco, the dome of which is adorned 
with frescoes by Carlo Cignani of Bologna (1686-1706), represent- 
ing the Assumption of the Virgin, a work in which he was engaged 
during 20 years. The painter is buried in the chapel. A reliquary 
of the 14th cent., and the sculptures of the principal door of the 
15th cent, are also worthy of notice. 

S. Girolamo contains a Madonna with angels by Guido Reni, and 
in the first chapel on the right *frescoes by Melozzo and Palmezzano. 

The *Pinacoteca in the Ginnasio Comunale in the Piazza S. Pel- 
legrino contains good pictures by Melozzo (including a fresco by 
the master, called the 'Pestapepe', originally a shop sign-board, re- 

to Ancona. CESENA. 11. Route. 83 

presenting a youth vigorously plying a pestle and mortar), Palmez- 
zano, Rondinelli, Cignani, FraAngelico, Lor. di Credi, Francesco 
Francia (Adoration of the Child), and others. 

The monument of Morgagni , the anatomist (d. 1771), was in- 
augurated in 1875. 

The Citadel, constructed in 1361 by Cardinal Albornoz, and en- 
larged by the Ordelaffl and Riarii, is now used as a prison. 

A diligence route leads from Forli through the Apennines by Rocca 
S. Casciano and £. Benedetto to Florence. 

The line to Rimini crosses the Ronco and passes (45 M.) Forlim- 
popoli, the ancient Forum Popilii ; to the right, on the hill, Ber- 
tinoro, with its productive vineyards. It then passes Polenta and 
crosses the Savio (the ancient Sapis). 

52 M. Cesena (Leon d'Oro, R. 2 1 / 2 &• ; Cappello), with 10,000 
inhab. (incl. villages 35,000), surrounded by beautiful meadows 
and hills, and boasting of numerous palaces. 

Caesena is one of the most ancient episcopal sees in Italy, where St. 
Philemon is said to have held the office as early as the year 92. During 
the middle ages it was at first an independent state, then became subject 
to the Ghibelline family of Montefeltro , and shortly afterwards to the 
Malatestas, who where partizans of the Guelphs. This rapid change of 
rulers is alluded to by Dante, Inf. xxvii, 52: 

Cost com' ella sie 1 tra il piano e il monte, 
Tra tirannia si vive e stato franco. 

On 1st Feb., 1377, the town was cruelly sacked by Cardinal Eobert 
of Geneva, and subsequently by Cesare Borgia, after which it was incor- 
porated with the States of the Church. 

In the Piazza is the handsome Palazzo Pubblico with a statue 
of Pius VI., who was born here in 1717, as well as his successor 
Pius VII. in 1742. In the picture-gallery a Presentation in the 
temple, by Francesco Francia. — The Cathedral contains two marble 
altars of the 15th and 16th cent. — The Library, founded in 1452 
by Domenico Malatesta Novello, contains 4000 MSS., many of them 
executed by order of the founder , and afterwards employed by the 
learned Aldus Manutius in the preparation of his celebrated editions 
of the classics. 

On an eminence, 8/|M. distant, stands the handsome church 
of *S. Maria del Monte, a work of Bramante. Productive sulphur- 
mines in the vicinity, towards the S. 

The line crosses the stream Pisciatello, the upper part of which, 
called Urgone , is identical with the Rubicon of the ancients, the 
boundary between Italy proper and the province of Gallia Cisalpina, 
and memorable for its passage by Caesar at the beginning of the 
civil war between him and Pompey, B.C. 49. 

The most recent investigations tend to show that the Rubicon has 
entirely quitted its ancient course. It appears originally to have fallen 
into the Fiumicino, farther S., while ,at the present day its upper part 
(Urgone) unites with the Pisciatello. Most of the towns and villages of 
this district have in turn laid claim to the distinction of possessing the 
Rubicon within their territory. Nor did they rest satisfied with a mere 
literary feud in order to gain the object of their ambition. An action in- 
volving this question was instituted at Rome , and in 1756 the 'Rota' de- 


84 Route 11. RIMINI. From Bologna 

cided in favour of the claim of the Vso (see below), beyond the small 
town of Savignano, and near S. Arcangelo (birthplace of pope Clement XIV. 
Ganganelli in 1705). 

On the road between Cesena and Savignano stands a column bearing 
a decree of the Roman senate , threatening to punish those who should 
without authority trespass beyond the Rubicon. Montesquieu regarded this 
as genuine, but it is an obvious imposition and not the only one connect- 
ed with the interminable dispute on the subject of the Rubicon. 

691/2 M. Rimini. — Aquila d'Oko in the Corso. — Trattoria cT Eu- 
ropa, in the Piazza Cavour; Caffe delta Speranza, in the Piazza Giulio 
Cesare. — Railway Restaurant, good wine of the country. 

Carriage from the station to the Piazza, with one horse 1 fr., with two 
horses 1 fr. 20 c. ; from the Piazza to the bathing-place 80 c. or 1 fr. 40 c. 

Rimini, beautifully situated on the Adriatic at the mouth of the 
Ansa and Marecchia, with 10,000 inhab. (incl. surrounding villages 
34,000), and extensive fisheries and silk manufactories, has of 
late come into notice as a sea-bathing place. Handsome public rooms 
with a cai'e and Testaurant, and numerous lodging-houses have been 
erected on the pleasant promenade along the sea. 

Rimini, the ancient Ariminum, a town of the Umbrians, became a Ro- 
man colony in B. C. 269 , and formed the frontier fortress of Italy in the 
direction of Gaul , and the termination of the Via Flaminia from Rome, 
which was constructed in 220 , and afterwards extended and embellished 
by Julius Csesar and Augustus. During the Exarchate , Rimini was the 
most northern of the Pentapolis Maritirna, or 'Five Maritime Cities', which 
were under the jurisdiction of one president. The other four were Pesaro, 
Fano, Sinigag'ia, and Ancona. In 260, Ariminum became an episcopal see, 
and in 350 a council against Arianism was held here. The town after- 
wards belonged to the Lombards. In 1200 it was given by Otho IV. to 
the Malatestas , who were at first vicegerents of the emperor, but subse- 
quently hereditary princes. In 1503 they surrendered the town to the 
Venetians, from whom it was finally wrested by the Pope. Insurrections 
broke out here in 1845 and 1853. — It was from the history of the Mala- 
testas that Dante derived the episode of 'Francesca da Rimini' in the 5th 
canto of the Inferno. 

A broad road leads from the station to the gate, beyond which it 
is called the Via Principe Umberto. After about 4 min. the Via al 
Tempio Malatestiano diverges to the left, and leads to the princi- 
pal church of — 

*S. Francesco (Duomo, Tempio dei Malatesta), built in the 
14th cent, in the Italian Gothic style, but magnificently remodelled 
in 1447-50 by Sigismundo Malatesta from designs by Leo Battista 
Alberti in the early Renaissance style. It is one of the principal 
■works of the master, but unfortunately the lower part only of the 
facade has been completed. On the coping round the churchare the 
arms of the Malatesta and other families allied with them (the ele- 
phant and rose being the armorial bearings of Sigismundo and his 
wife Isotta). The seven vaults on the S. side contain sarcophagi 
of the poets , orators, philosophers and warriors whom Sigismundo 
Malatesta (d. 1468), the illustrious enemy of Pope Pius II., enter- 
tained at his court. 

The Interior, which is destitute of aisles, has an open roof and a 
series of spacious lateral chapels. The massive pilasters with their rich 
ornamentations were designed by Alberti. To the right of the entrance is 

to Ancona. RIMINI. 11. Route. 85 

the monument of Sigismund. Between the first and second chapel on the 
right is the entrance of the Chapel of Relics (Santuario , shown by the 
sacristan), containing a "fresco by Piero della Francesco ('■Petri de Burgo 
opus H5V) , representing Sigismund Malatesta kneeling before his patron 
St. Sigismund, king of Hungary. In the Cappella di S. Michele, the 2nd 
to the right, is the tomb of Isotta (d. 1450), the wife of Sigismund. — The 
first chapel to the left, restored in 1863, was destined by Sigismund Mala- 
testa for the reception of his ancestors and descendants, as the inscription 
on the sarcophagus on the left testifies. 

From the small piazza in front of the church, the Via Patara 
leads S. to the Piazza Giulio Cbsare, the ancient forum. A stone 
Pedestal here bears an inscription of 1555, according to which 
Caesar harangued his army from it after the passage of the Rubi- 
con (?). Near it is a chapel, built on the spot where St. Anthony 
once preached, and another on the canal where the saint is said to 
have preached to the fishes because the people refused to hear him. 
— The Coaso d'Augusto, which intersects this piazza, leads to the 
left to the Porta Romana, and to the right to the Piazza Cavour and 
the bridge of Augustus. 

The *Porta Romana is a triumphal arch of travertine , of 
simple design, erected to Augustus in B.C. 27 out of gratitude for 
the restoration of the Via Flaminia , as the inscription records 
(which, however, has been inaccurately restored ; the letters to the 
right outside the gate also belong to it). Above are medallion figures, 
on the outside those of Jupiter and Minerva , on the inside those 
of Neptune and Venus. — The scanty remains of an Amphiteatre (to 
which the Via dell' Anfiteatro, the second side-street of the Corso 
from the Porta Romana, leads) do not merit a visit. 

The Palazzo del Comune, in the Piazza Cavour, contains a small 
picture-gallery comprising an *altar-piece by Domenico del Ohirlan- 
dajo, and a Pieta by Giovanni Bellini (about 1470). — In front of 
it rises a bronze Statue of Pope Paul V. (inscription on the pedestal 
obliterated). Beyond the Teatro Vittorio Emanuele, erected in 1857, 
is the ancient Palace of the Malatestas , now a prison , and in a 
very dilapidated condition. Their arms are still to be seen over the 
entrance. The townwall, to the right of the palace, commands a fine 
view of the mountains. 

The Library, in the Via Gambalunga to the E. of the Piazza 
Cavour, founded in 1617 by the jurist Gambalunga, contains 
23,000 vols, and several MSS. An arcade in a court to the left, 
now half built up , contains Roman inscriptions and sculptures, 
among which are a female figure in relief, with thin, close-fitting 
drapery ; a fine female head, etc. 

At the end of the Corso is the five-arched *Ponte d'Augusto, 
the highest of the bridges by which the Mareechia (the ancient 
Ariminus) is crossed at Rimini, and one of the finest ancient struc- 
tures of the kind. It leads to the Borgo S. Giuliano, where the Via 
/Emilia united with the ViaFlaminia which led to Rome. Here, too, 
is situated the church of — 

86 Route 11. PESAKO. From Bologna 

S. Giuliano, containing the Martyrdom of St. Julian, an altar- 
piece by Paolo Veronese , and an old picture by Lattanzio dtlla 
Marca ( 1357), the Life of the saint. 

In the Castello di S. Leo, 18 M. to the W. of Rimini, the notorious im- 
postor Caglioslro (Giuseppe Balsamo) died in confinement in 1794. From 
S. Leo a bridle-path, much frequented by fishermen, leads by Camaldoli and 
Vallombrosa to Florence. 

About 12 31. from Rimini is situated the ancient republic of San Ma- 
rino, the smallest in the world (8000 inhab.), said to have been founded 
in an inaccessible wilderness by St. Marinus at the time of the persecutions 
of the Christians under Diocletian. This diminutive state braved all the 
storms of mediaeval warfare, and even the ambition of Napoleon. It retained 
its ancient constitution till 1847 , when its senate was converted into a 
chamber of deputies. The precipitous rock in a bleak district on which 
the town (Albergo Bigi) is situated is reached by one road only from Rimini. 
The village of Borgo at the base is the residence of the wealthier inhabitants. 
The celebrated epigraphist and numismatist Bartolommeo Borghesi, born at 
Savignano in 1781, was from 1821 until his death in 1860, a resident at 
S. JIarino, where he arranged and described his admirable collections, and 
received visits from foreign savants. 

Beyond Rimini the line skirts the coast, passes (75 ] /2 M.) 
Riccione, crosses the streams Marano and Conca (the Crustumius 
Rapax of Lucan), and reaches (81 M.) La Cattolica, so called from 
having been the residence of the Roman Catholic bishops during the 
Council of Rimini in 359. A chain of hills descends here to the 
sea ; the train ascends for some distance, and then passes through 
them by means of a long tunnel. It crosses the Tavollo and passes 
the Villa Vittoria , situated on the left, on the road to Rimini, the 
residence of Queen Caroline of England when Princess of Wales. 
We then cross the Foglia, the ancient Isaurus or Pisaurus, to — 

90 1 o M. Fesaro. — Albergo Zongo, in a narrow street, indifferent, 
starting-point of the diligence to Urbino at 9 a.m. — Caffi delta Piazza, in 
the piazza, next door to the Urbino diligence office, p. 87). — Carriage from 
the station to the town, one-horse 80 c. , two-horse 1 fr. ; one-horse carr. 
to Urbino about 12 fr. 

Pesaro, with 10,500 inhab. (with suburbs 19,700), the ancient 
Pisaurum, is the capital of the unite 1 provinces of Pesaro and Ur- 
bino, and formerly belonged to the Pentapolis Maritima. 

Of the provinces of the former States of the Church situated on the 
Adriatic, the four southern are called the Marches {'Le Marche*), viz. Pesaro- 
Urbino, Ancona, Macerata, and Ascoli, comprising an area of 3750 Sq. M. 
with 915.500 inhab. In the Roman period the S. part as far as Ancona 
was called Picenum , whereas the N. part belonged to Umbria. — Pesaro, 
a Romyan colony as early as B.C. 184, was destroyed by Totilas, and rebuilt 
by Belisarius. It was subsequently ruled over by the Malatesta family, 
then ba the Sforza, and later by the Rovere, dukes of Urbino, under whom, 
c liefly through the intluence of Lvcrezi/i d'Mste, it became a great centre 
of art and literature , and was visited by Bernardo and Torquato Tasso. 
In 1631 the town was annexed to the States of the Church. — The figs of 
Pesaro are excellent. 

Pesaro was the birthplace of the celebrated composer Gioacchino 
Rossini (b. 1789, d. at Paris 1868), the 'swan of Pesaro', to whom 
a bronze statue (on the right as the station is quitted) was erected 
in 1864 by his admiring friends, Baron Salamanca of Madrid and 
G. Delahante of Paris. 

to Ancona. URBINO. 11. Route. 87 

The route from the station to the town leads to the right, past 
the back of Rossini's monument , and enters the gate from which 
the old diligence road issues. To the left is the Teatro Rossini, and 
in a straight direction the Piazza, in which rises the handsome aid 
massive Prefettura, the ancient palace of the dukes of Urbino. The 
great hall, which is about 44 yds. long and upwards of 16yds. wide, 
still contains a coffered wooden ceiling with its original painting. — 
Opposite to it is a facade , erected in 1848, with statues of Rossini 
and Perticari in marble , behind whichi s the former church of S. 
Domenico, with a handsome portal of the 15th cent. 

The Biblioteca Olivieri contains 13,000 vols, and 600 MSS., 
amongst which are various reminiscences of the golden age of Pesaro 
under the dukes, letters and notes by Tasso, etc. In the entrance, 
the court, and the staircase are a few sculptures and inscriptions (on 
the staircase is an interesting Greek inscription on the fluting of a 
Doric column). Here, too, is preserved an admirable Majolica Col- 
lection, chiefly from the famous manufactory of Urbino. 

The Foglia is crossed by a bridge of Roman origin. 

None of the churches possess much merit. <S. Francesco con- 
tains a *Coronation of the Virgin by Giovanni Bellini, 8. Cussiano 
a St. Barbara by Simone da Pesaro, S. Spirito a *Christ on the 
Cross by Luca Signorelli, and<S. Giovanni Evang. a Pieta. by Zoppo. 

Opposite the spacious Lunatic Asylum (Manicomio or Ospizio 
degli Incurabili) are the small Orti Giuli, where a bastion of the 
townwall commands a fine view of the Foglia and Monte S. Bartolo. 
— A memorial tablet near it records that the house once stood here 
where Bernardo and Torquato Tasso lived and wrote their poetry 
whilst at the court of the Rovere. 

Xear Pesaro is Monte S. Bartolo, where the Roman dramatist L. Attius 
is said to have heen horn and to be interred. Beyond it lies VImperiale, 
once a favourite villa of the dukes, erected by Leonora Gonzaga, praised 
by Bernardo Tasso, and adorned with frescoes by Raffaello dal Colle, but 
abandoned to decay since the 18th cent. In the vicinity is the church of 
the Girolamitani , with an unfortunately damaged picture of St. Jerome by 
Giovanni Santi. One of the finest "prospects in the environs is obtained 
from an eminence behind the monastery. 

An Excursion to Urbino is most easily accomplished from 
Pesaro. Diligence daily, ascending in 5, and descending in 4 hrs.; 
departure from Pesaro at 9 a.m., from Urbino at 3Y2 P- m. (4 fr., 
comp. p. 86). The road leads through the valley of the Foglia, 
which falls into the sea at Pesaro, and then gradually ascends, pass- 
ing several unimportant villages. At the inn 'del Cappone', half- 
way, the horses are changed. Beyond Moline the road ascends in 
long windings. The diligence stops in the main street, flanked on 
the left by arcades, in which the inn and several cafe's are situated. 

Urbino (Albergo dell' Italia , tolerable) , the ancient Vrbinvm 
Hortense , celebrated as the birthplace of the greatest painter of 
all ages, Raphael Santi (b. 28th March 1483, d. at Rome, 5th April 

88 Route 11. UKBINO. From Bologna 

1520), lies on an abrupt hill, surrounded by barren mountains. The 
town, with 16,000 inhab. (incl. Tillages), boasts of a university 
with as many professors as students, and merits a visit as well for 
its picturesque situation, as for its monuments and historical as- 

In the 13th cent, the town came into the possession of the Montefeltro 
family, and under Federigo Montefeltko (1444-82) and his son Guidobaldo 
(1482-1508) attained to such prosperity as entirely to eclipse the neigh- 
bouring courts of the Malatestas at Rimini and the Sforzas at Pesaro. 
Federigo Montefeltro, who distinguished himself as a condottiere in the feuds 
of the 15th cent., married his daughter in 1474 to Giovanni della Rovere, 
a nephew of Sixtus IV., and was in consequence created Duke of Urbino. 
His court was regarded as a model among the princely courts of that period. 
It was visited for shorter or longer periods by numerous scholars and ar- 
tists , amongst whom the prince was pre-eminent for learning. His son, 
Guidobaldo , in spite of ill health and other misfortunes , zealously fol- 
lowed his example , with the able assistance of his beautiful and ta- 
lented wife Elizabeta Gonzaga. A famous description of the court of Ur- 
bino under Guidobaldo, depicting it as the most retined social school of the 
day, is given by Count Baldassar Castiglione in his 'Cortigiano', the ideal 
of a courtier. In 1497 Guidobaldo was expelled by Cesare Borgia, the son 
of Alexander VI., after whose death, however, he returned to Urbino in 
1503. He died in 1508 and bequeathed his dominions to his nephew Fran- 
cesco Maria della Rovere, the favourite of Pope Julius II. In 1626 the duchy 
was incorporated with the States of the Church , when Urban VIII. per- 
suaded the last and childless Duke Francesco Maria II. to abdicate. 

Amongst the most distinguished Artists employed at the court of Ur- 
bino, during the zenith of its splendour under Federigo and Guidobaldo, 
were Paolo Uccello, Piero della Francesco, and Melozzo da Forli. Even for- 
eign painters, like Justus van Ghent, a picture by whom is still preserved 
in the gallery (see below), were attracted to the court. The peculiar bond 
of union which existed here between the interests of science and art is 
chiefly exhibited in the library pictures or ideal portraits of scholars painted 
by Melozzo da Forli and others, but which have been removed from Urbino 
together with the library. Timoteo ViTi, or della Vite, of Ferrara 
(1467-1523), the best pupil of Francesco Francia, spent the greater part of 
his life in Urbino ; he was the first painter who exercised an influence on 
Raphael, but at a later period he himself became subject to that great 
master's magic spell. — The master, however, in whom we are now spe- 
cially interested, is Giovanni Santi of Urbino (? 1450-94), the father of 
Raphael, whose frescoes at Cagli (p. 93) and Fano (p. 91) show considerable 
power and a keen sense of the graceful. As Giovanni died when Ra- 
phael was in his 11th year, the latter can hardly have had the benefit of 
his instruction. After his father's death, Raphael remained in Urbino till 
1500, but under the tuition of what master is unknown. Another 
native of Urbino was Federigo Baeoccio (1528-1612), some of whose works 
are able , while others display the customary affectation of the post- 
Raphaelite period. 

In the centre of the town is the Pian del Mbrcato , or market- 
place, where the street in which the inn is situated terminates. — 
The Via Pucinotti ascends hence to the right in a few minutes to 
a larger, but somewhat dull piazza, in which on the right are the 
cathedral and the ducal palace. 

The Cathedral contains some interesting pictures. 

In the N. Aisle a St. Sebastian by Federigo Baroccio. In the Chapel 
to the left of the high altar, the Lord's Supper, also by Fed. Baroccio. 
High Altar-piece: St. Martin and Thomas a Beckett, with a portrait of 
Duke Guidobaldo , by Timoteo Viti. In the sacristy is a Scourging of 

to Ancona. URBINO. 11. Route. 89 

Christ by Piero della Francesca, a most elaborately executed work in the 
miniature style. — The Crypt (entered from the right corner of the small 
piazza between the cathedral and the palace) possesses a Pieta by Gioo. 
da Bologna. 

The **Ducal Palace, erected, by Luciano Laurana of Dalmatia 
in 1468 by order of Federigo Montefeltro , was completed by 
Baccio Pintelli. A desire for solidity, coupled with the unevenness 
of the ground, has given rise to the irregularity of the building, 
but at the same time has enhanced its picturesqueness. The palace 
has been much admired ever since its erection, and was regarded 
by the contemporaries of the founder as an embodiment of their ideal 
of a princely residence. According to modern standards, however, 
its dimensions are not grand, and even the court by Baccio, the en- 
trance to which is opposite the cathedral, is pleasing rather than 
imposing. The ornamentation of the apartments , the coloured 
friezes , the pillars and chimney-pieces (by Francesco di Giorgio of 
Siena and Ambrosio Baroccio, an ancestor of the painter), are all in 
the best Renaissance style. On the staircase is a statue of Duke 
Federigo, by Girol. Campagna. The celebrated library of the palace, 
founded by Federigo, and the other collections have been trans- 
ferred to Rome. The upper coiridors contain a well-arranged col- 
lection of inscriptions from Rome and the Umbrian municipia, 
established by the epigraphist Fabretti. The palazzo is now used 
as a 'Residenza Oovernativa', and contains the archives. 

Opposite the palace rises an Obelisk, facing which is the church 
of <S. Domenico , with a pleasing portal and reliefs in terracotta 
above the door. 

We pass the Palazzo Ducale and proceed in a straight direction. 
The street contracts ; the corner house to the right, opposite the 
palace, is the University, with armorial bearings over the door. 
Farther on, descending a little, we come to the entrance (standing 
back from the street to the right) of the — 

*Instituto dbllb Belle Arti nelle Marche, which contains 
gallery of pictures, recently collected from suppressed churches and 
monasteries (custodian's fee '/-i ^ r 0- 

Pkincipal Saloon. To the right and left of the dour: Lorenzo da 
San Severino, Crucifixion (repulsive). On the principal wall to the right : 
Timoteo Viti, St. Rochus ; 76. Justus van Ghent, Holy Communion, interesting 
from its numerous portraits (including those of Duke Federigo , and , to 
the right of the table, Caterino Zeno, the Persian ambassador), 1474; 79. 
Timoteo Viti, Tobias; "82. Giovanni Santi, Madonna with St. John the 
Baptist, SS. Sebastian, Jerome, Francis, and three kneeling figures of the 
donors, members of the Buffi family; 93. Timoteo Viti, Madonna and Child 
with St. Joseph; 101. Antonio Alberti of Ferrara, Madonna with twelve saints, 
on a golden ground on wood, 1439; 102. Giov. Santi, Pieta; 114, 115. Early 
Venetian School, Madonna and saints. On the principal wall to the left : 
Titian, 140. Holy Communion, 158. Resurrection. 

The Ground Floor contains casts, chiefly of ornaments from the Pa- 
lazzo Ducale , several original monuments of Dukes of Urbino from S. 
Francesco, and some fine majolicas. 

In the Contrada Raffaello , leading to the left from the 

90 Route 11. LRBINO. From Bologna 

market-place to the Fortezza, No. 275-278 on the left, is the house 
in which Raphael was born, indicated by an inscription. It was pur- 
chased in 1873 on the suggestion of Count Pompeo Gherardi, aided 
the by a donation from Mr. Morris Moore , and is now the pro- 
perty of 'R. Accademia Raffaello'. Visitors knock at the door of 
No. 278 (1/2 &.). 

The rooms are adorned with engravings from Raphael's pictures. In 
the room to the right is a Madonna with the sleeping Child, long regarded 
as an early work of Raphael , but ascertained to have been executed by 
his father Giovanni Santi. It is proposed to erect in his native town a 
monument worthy of the great master, for which purpose a committee has 
been constituted some years ago. 

A little farther up the Contrada Raffaello we turn to the right 
into the side-street of S. Lucia, which leads to the church of S. Spi- 
rito , containing a Crucifixion and Descent of the Holy Ghost, 
originally a church banner, of 1495. 

Returning to the market-place , and descending the Via Bal- 
hona, we follow the Via della Posta Vecchia, the first side-street to 
the right, and then the Via S. Giovanni, the first street to the left, 
which leads straight to the Oratorio della Confraternita di S. Gio- 
vanni. The walls of the interior are covered with scenes from the 
history of the Virgin and St. John the Baptist, by Lorenzo da S. 
Sererino and his brother, of the school of Giotto, dating from 

In the Theatre, formerly celebrated for its decorations by Giro- 
lamo Genga, the first Italian comedy was performed. This was the 
Calandra of Cardinal Bibbiena (1470-1514), the friend of Pope 
Leo X. and patron of Raphael. 

From the height of the old Fortezza (ascend the Contrada Raffa- 
ello, at the top take the Via dei Maceri to the left, and nock at 
No. 1461 ; fee 25-50 c), an interesting *survey of the barren chain 
of the Apennines is obtained. A powder magazine now stands at 
the top. 

About 1 M. to the E. of Urbino, to the left of the Pesaro road, 
are situated the conspicuous old monastery and church of S. Ber- 
nardino, with the new cemetery of Urbino. This spot commands a 
fine view of the town. The church contains the tombs of the Dukes 
Federigo and Guidobaldo, with their busts. 

Fro.m Urbino to Fossombrone (p. 93) ll'/a 31. ; no regular communi- 
cation (carriage 10 fr.). The 'Corriere del Furlo' passes through Fossom- 
brone at 11 a.m. Carriage from Urbino to Gubbio 40 fr. (comp. p 92). 
From Urbino to Vrbania , the ancient Urbinum MeUiurense , later Castel 
Durante, which was probably the birthplace of Bramante, diligence daily 
at 3 p.m., corresponding with others to S. Angelo, Citta di Castello, etc. 

The Railway prom Pesaeo to Ancona skirts the coast, oc- 
casionally approaching close to the sea , of which a pleasant view 
is afforded. 

to Ancona. FANO. 11. Route. 91 

98 M. Fano (*Albergo del Moro , R. II/2, B. 1/2 fr-)> the 
Fanwm Fortunae of antiquity, is indebted for its origin to a temple 
of Fortune, a fact commemorated by a modern statue of fortune on 
the public fountain. It afterwards prospered, and is now a pleasant 
little town, surrounded by ancient walls and a deep moat. The once 
celebrated harbour is now unimportant. As a sea-bathing place 
Fano is less expensive than Rimini. 

In the centre of the town is the Piazza, in which rises the 
Theatre , erected by Torelli ,' a native architect , and decorated by 
Bibbiena, but recently almost entirely rebuilt. A room in the build- 
ing temporarily contains a David with the head of Goliath, by Do- 
menichino (formerly in the Collegio Nolfl), which unfortunately was 
much injured by thieves in 1871. 

The S. side of the Piazza, which is enlivened by a fountain of 
flowing water, is skirted by the Corso. Following the latter to the 
right , we reach the Via dell' Atco d'Augusto , the second cross- 
street to the left. In a small piazza here rises the Cathedral op 
S . Fortuxato, the four recumbent lions in front of which formerly 
supported the pillars of the portico. 

In the Interior the chapel of S. Girolamo (the 2nd to the left) contains 
a monument of the Rainalducci family ; nearly opposite (4th to the right) 
is a chapel adorned with sixteen frescoes by Domenichino, once admirable, 
now disfigured by restoration. — In the chapel of the sacristy, a Madonna 
with saints, by L. Caracci. 

Farther on we come to the *Trhjmphal Arch op Augustus, 
which spans the street, a structure of simple design, to which a 
second story was added in the 4th cent. , when it was re-dedicated 
to Constantine. It once had three arches, as is shown by a view of 
it on the adjacent church of S. Michele. 

Adjoining the arch towards the town is the Spedale degli Esposti, 
a pleasing edifice adorned with loggie. 

Returning to the piazza, we follow the Via Boccaccio opposite the 
fountain, and then take the Via Bonaccorsi, inclining to the left, to 
the church of S. Maria Nuova, with portico. 

Interior, let chapel on the left: Giovanni Santi , Salutation; 2nd 
chapel: Pielro Pervgino, Annunciation, 1498. 3rd chapel on the right: 
Perugino, iiadonna and saints, 1487. 

S. Croce , the hospital-church , contains a *Madonna with four 
saints, by Giovanni Santi. — S. Paterniano, dedicated to the first 
bishop of Fano, a handsome structure, possesses a Betrothal of the 
Virgin, by Guercino. — <S. Pietro, an imposing and richly decorated 
church, is embellished with frescoes by Viviani ; in the chapel of the 
Gabrielli (1st on the left) an Annunciation by Guido Reni. — In 
the vestibule of S. Francesco (closed) are several monuments of 
the Malatesta of 1488. 

Pope Clement VIII. (Aldobrandini) was born at Fano in 1536. 
The first printing-press with Arabic types was established here in 
1514 at the expense of Pope Julius II. 

From Fano to Fossato by Fossombrone and the Furlo Pass, see p. 92. 

92 Route 11. SINIGAGLIA. 

Beyond Fano the train crosses the river Metaurus (see below), 
celebrated as tlie scene of Hasdrubal's defeat (B.C. 207); then the 
Cesano, near (105 M.) stat. Marotto. 

112 M. Sinigaglia (Locanda della Formica), the ancient Sena 
Oallica, with 22,000 inhab. (incl. villages), most of -whom are 
occupied in the fishing trade. The town was destroyed by Pompey 
during the Civil War between Marius and Sulla ; it was an episcopal 
see as early as the 4th cent. , but was afterwards frequently devas- 
tated by fire and sword, so that it now presents quite a modern ap- 
pearance. Pope Pius IX. (Conte Mastai-Ferretti) was born here on 
13th May, 1792, and the celebrated singer Angelica Catalani in 
1784 (d. at Paris, 1849). A fair, instituted in the 13th cent., is 
held here from 30th July to 8th Aug. annually ; it was once the most 
frequented in Italy, but has long since lost its importance. 

119^2 M. Case Bruciate. Pleasant view of the promontory of 
Ancona , rising from the sea. The train crosses the Esino and 
reaches (122 M.) stat. Falconara, where the line to Rome diverges 
(passengers in the latter direction change carriages ; see R. 14). 
The town lies on the hill to the right. 

127 M. Ancona, see R. 13. 

12. From Fano through the Furlo Pass to Fossato. 


The high-road which connects Rome with the Valley of the Po traverses 
the Umbrian plains of Terni and Spoleto, and then ascends the valley of 
the Topino and the Chiascio , until it reaches its culminating point on the 
Apennines. Descending on the E. side of that range, it follows the course 
of the Metaurus to its mouth at Fano , after which it skirts the coast and 
leads N. to Bologna and the valley of the Po. It is identical with the an- 
cient Via Flaminia, constructed in B.C. 220 by the Censor C. Flaminius 
(who afterwards fell at the Battle of the Trasimene Lake, see p. 45), in 
order to secure the possession of the district of the Po which had been at 
that time wrested from the Gauls. This road is still one of the most im- 
portant channels of local traffic in Central Italy, but since the completion 
of the Apennine Railway from Bologna to Florence, and the line recently 
opened from Ancona to Rome (R. 14), has been little frequented by tourists. 
It is , however , replete with natural attractions , and affords the traveller 
an opportunity of becoming acquainted with several towns which merit a 
visit on account of their monuments and historical associations. 

Coreiere daily from Fano to Fossato in ll'/z hrs.; dep. from Fano at 
8.30 a.m., arr. at Fossombrone 11 a.m., at Cagli 3 p.m., at Schieggia 
6.30 p.m. and at Fossato 9 p.m. — Those who desire to make the inter- 
esting circuit by Gubbio must hire a carriage at Schieggia. — The most 
attractive plan of making the whole tour is to combine it with a visit to 
Ukbiso : 1st day, from Pesaro to TJrbino ; 2nd day , one-horse carriage to 
Fossombrone (in 2 1 /* hrs., 10 fr.), corriere to Schieggia, one-horse carriage 
to Gubbio; 3rd day, by diligence or carriage to Fossato, and thence by 
train to Foligno and Rome. 

The road, the ancient Via Flaminia , quits Fano by the Arch 
of Augustus and the Porta Maggiore, and skirts the N. bank of the 
Metaurus, the fertile valley of which is well cultivated. About 1 M. 
from Fossombrone , near the church of S. Martino al Piano , was 
once situated the Roman colony of Forum Sempronii, of which but 

FOSSOMBRONE. 12. Route. 93 

scanty remains now exist. After its destruction by the Goths and 
Lombards, the modern Fossombrone sprang up. 

lb l /i M. Fossombrone (Tre Re; PavoneJ was long under the 
dominion of the Malatesta family, but under Sixtus IV. accrued to 
the States of the Church. It is now a prosperous little town with 
9000 inhab. and important silk-factories, prettily situated in the 
■valley, which here contracts, and commanded by a castle on the 
height above. Ancient inscriptions on the cathedral, in the Semi- 
nary, etc. may be inspected. — From Fossombrone to Urbino, see 
p. 90. 

The Via Flaminia about 2 M. from Fossombrone crosses the 
Metaurus, which descends from the valley near S. Angelo in Vado 
from the N., and follows the left bank of the Candigliano, which 
at this point empties itself into the Metaurus. The valley soon 
contracts; to the right rises the hill of Pietralata, occasionally 
named Monte d'Asdrubale. Here, according to the popular tradition, 
was fought the memorable battle of the Metaurus in which, B.C. 
207, Hasdrubal, whilst marching to the aid of his brother Hannibal 
with 60,000 men, was signally defeated and slain by the consuls 
Livius Salinator and Claudius Nero. This was the great event 
which decided the 2nd Punic "War in favour of Rome. 

The valley now becomes still more confined and is bounded by 
precipitous slopes. At the narrowest part, where the rocky walls 
approach so near each other as to leave space for the river only, 
is the celebrated *Furlo Pass (Furlo from forulus = passage, the 
ancient petra intercisd), a tunnel 17 ft. wide, 14ft. high, and about 
32 yds. in length. The founder of the work was the Emp. Ves- 
pasian, as the inscription preserved at the N. entrance records (Imp. 
Caesar. Augustus. Vespasianus. pont. max. trib. pot. VII. imp. 
XXVIII. cos. VIII. censor, faciund. curavit). 

A short distance beyond it stands the small church Badia del 
Furlo. At the confluence of the Candigliano and Burano, 9 M. from 
Fossombrone , is situated the village of Acqualagna. The road 
crosses the Candigliano and thenceforward follows the left bank of 
the Burano. At the foot of the hill on which Cagli is situated, an 
antique bridge, consisting of huge masses of rock, crosses a tribu- 
tary brook. 

31 M. Cagli (Posta, in the Piazza, charges according to bar- 
gain), with about 10,000 inhab., occupies the site of the ancient 
borough of Cales, or Calle. S. Domenico contains one of the most 
important works of Giovanni Santi , Raphael's father, a Madonna 
with saints, al fresco. The angel on the Tight of the Madonna is 
said to be a portrait of the young Raphael. There is also a Pieta 
with St. Jerome andBonaventura, by the same master. S. Francesco 
and S. Angelo Minore also possess several pictures. 

Travellers beyond Cagli are generally conveyed in smaller car- 
riages. About 6 M. beyond Cagli is Cantiano , with 3000 inhab. ;. 

94 Route 12. GUBBIO. From Fano 

the church delta Collegiata contains a Holy Family by Perugino. — 
The road ascends rapidly, and reaches the height of the pass, 
2400 ft. above the sea. A little before arriving at Schieggia the road 
crosses a ravine by the curious Ponte a Botte, constructed in 1805. 

43^2 M. Schieggia, an insignificant place, lies at the junction 
of theFossato andFoligno, and the Gubbio roads. On Monte Petrara, 
in the vicinity, stand the ruins of the celebrated temple of Jupiter 
Apenninus, whose worship was peculiar to the Umbrians. Several 
bronzes and inscriptions have been discovered in the environs. 
Picturesque oak-plantations in the neighbourhood. 

The main road continues to descend the green valley of the 
Chiascio, and leads by Costacciaro and Sigillo (stalactite caves) to — 

55 M. Fossato , a station on the Ancona and Rome line , see 
p. 102. 

From Schieggia to Gubbio, and thence to Fossato. 

Between Schieggia and Gubbio (about 6 M.) there is no regular 
communication ; one-horse carriage 5 fr. and a gratuity (in the reverse di- 
rection the charge is 6 fr.). — Gubbio alone is most conveniently visited 
from the Fossato station (p. 102) with which it communicates three times 
daily by diligence (2'|2 hrs. from Fossato; carriage 10 fr.). 

The hilly road between Schieggia and Gubbio ascends towards 
the S.W. The highest mountains visible are the Monte Cucci and 
the Monte cVAnsciano. After a good hour's drive we reach the sum- 
mit of Monte Calvo (2970 ft.). The road then descends rapidly in a 
ravine, bounded by precipitous rocks , at the end of which lies 
Gubbio (a drive of 25 min. from the pass) ; to the left is the ancient 
aqueduct of Gubbio. 

Gubbio {Leon d'Oro, in the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele, R. 
l 1 ^-^ fr., good wine of the country), with 5000 inhab., is situat- 
ed at the foot and on the slopes of Monte Calvo. The town presents 
an entirely mediaeval aspect, and the proximity of the Apennines im- 
parts to it a more severe character than that of most Italian towns. 
Conspicuous amongst the houses is the huge Palazzo dei Consoli, 
and high above them towers the church of S. Ubaldo. 

Gubbio is the ancient Iguvium or Eugubium, mentioned by Cicero and 
Csesar. It was destroyed by the Goths, was besieged in 1155 by the Emp. 
Frederick I., then became an independent state, afterwards belonged to the 
duchy of Urbino, and with it finally accrued to the States of the Church. 

Gubbio was the native place of Oderisi, a famous miniature painter 
(d. about 1300), who is called by Dante in his Purgatorio (xi,80) TOnor 
d'Agobbio' ; but no authentic work by his hand now exists. In the 14th 
and 15th cent, a branch of the Umbrian school flourished here, and among 
its masters, whose renown extended even beyond their native place, were 
Guido Palmekucci (1280-13457) and several members of the Nelli family, 
particularly Ottaviano Nelli (d. 1444). — Gubbio occupies a still more 
important page in the history of Artistic Handicrafts. Like Urbino, 
Pesaro, and Faenza, it was noted for the manufacture of Majolica, or earthen- 
ware vases and tiles which were covered with a white coating of colour 
before being baked. One of the most distinguished majolica painters was 
'Maestro Uiop.gk/ of Gubbio, who is said to have invented, or rather re- 
discovered and perfected, the metallic, ruby-coloured glazing for which the 
Italian majolicas are remarkable. 

to Gubbio. GUBBIO. 12. Route. 95 

At the bottom of the spacious Piazza Vittorio Emanuele stands 
the church of 8. Francesco. We ascend hence by mediaeval streets 
to the Piazza della Signokxa, situated on the slope of the hill, 
and supported by massive vaults, where the most conspicuous build- 
ing is the — 

*Palazzo dei Consoli, a huge pinnacled edifice with a tower, 
erected in 1332-46 by Oiovanello Maffei of Gubbio, surnamed 
Gattapone, and at present disused. The ground-floor contains two 
slabs with Etruscan inscriptions. Fine *view from the tower (fee 
Y-2 fr.)- — Opposite rises the — 

Palazzo Pbbtoeio, now 'Residenza Municipale', containing 
several collections recently united here (fee y.^-l fr.). 

On the first floor are the so-called Eugubian Tablets, which were dis- 
covered in 1440 near the ancient theatre. They are of bronze, and bear 
inscriptions, four in Umbrian, and three in Latin characters, which long 
baffled the investigation of the learned. They contain in the Umbrian 
language, an old Italian dialect akin to Latin, liturgical regulations and 
formulae of nearly uniform import, dating from different periods. The 
older, in the Umbrian character, are read from right to left. The later, in 
Latin letters, date from about the 2nd cent. B.C. 

The upper saloon (handsome door) contains a number of pictures, 
including several fine works, chiefly of the Umbrian school; admirable 
"wood-carving of the 15th and 16th cent.; cabinets, chairs, and a num- 
ber of ancient and modern "majolicas. 

The third side of the piazza is occupied by the modern Palazzo 
Ranghiasci-Brancaleone, the property of the Marchese of that name, 
who also possesses a valuable collection of pictures and antiquities. 

Farther up stands the *Palazzo dei Duchi, by Luciano Lau- 
rana, the architect of the palace of Urbino, the outlines of which 
are here reproduced on a smaller scale. The court, surrounded 
with a colonnade, and the highly ornate hall are chiefly noticeable. 

The Via S. Ubaldo ascends from the palazzo to the Cathedral 
of S. Mariano and Jacopo Martire, a structure of the 13th cent., 
destitute of aisles and so built against the slope of the hill that its 
back is embedded in the ground. The facade is adorned with early 
mediaeval sculptures of the Four Evangelists. Among the pictures 
in the interior (first altar on the left) is a Madonna with SS. Ubaldo 
and Sebastian, by Sinibaldo Ibi of Gubbio. 

The church of S. Maria Nitova, situated near the E. end of the 
Via delle Fonti, running above and parallel with the Corso , at the 
corner of the Via Nelli, contains an admirably preserved Madonna 
by Ottaviano Nelli, 1403. 

8. Pietro , S. Domenico , S. Agostino , and 8. Maria della Pi- 
aggiola (outside the town), also contain pictures of the same period. 

The ancient town extended farther into the plain than the mo- 
dern. Among the various ruins still extant is a Theatre, discovered 
in 1863, dating apparently from the republican era. It is only par- 
tially excavated, but partof the external row of arches is preserved, 
and the stage, looking towards the town, is distinctly traceable. (It 
is reached from the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele by passing through 

96 Route 13. ANCONA. 

the Porta Trasimeno to the right, and then through a modern gate- 
way on the left, towards a farm). 

The road to Fossato, 11 M., skirts the foot of the range of hills, 
and then passes through a defile into the level valley of the Chiascio 
in which Fossato is situated, see p. 102. 

Fkom Gubbio to Pekugia by the high road 25 M. ; by carriage in 
6 hrs., 30 fr.; bleak hill-country. The journey via Fossato and Foligno is 

13. Ancona and its Environs. Osimo. Loreto. 

Hotels. La Pace (PL a; C, 3), on the quay, R. 2>/4, D. 4, omnibus 1, 
facchino >/; fr. ; Vittoria (PI. b; C, D, 3), Strada Calamo, less expensive, 
with "trattoria; Europa, Via S. Annunziata. — Cajfe del Commercio at the 
theatre; Dorico, opp. the Exchange (p. 97). "Birreria and Caffi Glaenzer, 
with garden , Corso Vitt. Emanuele. 

Post Office (PL 20; 8-6 o'clock), Str. Calamo. — Telegraph Office, Via 
del Porto. 

Cabs. One-horse cab from station to town, incl. luggage, 1, at night 
I1/2 fr. ; two-horse I1/2 or 2 fr. — For 1 hr. l>/2-2 fr. ; each additional 1/2 
hr. 60-80 c. — Beyond the town, 2 fr. 50 or 3 fr. 60 c. for 1 hr., each 
additional V2 hr. 1 fr. 15 or 1 fr. 70 c. — Omnibus from the station to 
the town 35 c. 

Steamboats of the Austrian Lloyd (office in the Piazza S. Maria) to 
Trieste every Sunday at 3 p.m. in 20 hrs., to Brindisi (Athens) every Wed. 
at 11 p.m.; Sociela Peirano Danovaro <t Co. to Venice in 12 hrs., every 
Thursd. at 6 p.m.; to Bari, Brindisi, Gallipoli, etc., every Frid. at 4p.m., 
comp. Baedekers S. Italy. 

Ancona, the capital of a province, with 28,000 inhab. (incl. 
suburbs 45,700), of whom upwards of 6000 are Jews, and possess- 
ing an excellent harbour, is beautifully situated between the two 
promontories of Monte Ciriaco and Monte Conero or Monte Guasco. 
Since 1860 the harbour has been considerably improved by govern- 
ment, and the trade of the place has increased in consequence. The 
port is now entered by upwards of 700 steamers and 1300 sailing 
vessels annually. Silk and oil are largely manufactured here. An- 
cona is celebrated for the beauty of its women , and deserves a 
visit on account of its picturesque situation. 

Ancona is supposed to have been founded by Doric Greeks from Syra- 
cuse, and was thence named Dorica Ancon (i. e. 'elbow 1 , from the form of 
the promontory). It was afterwards a Roman colony, and the harbour was 
enlarged by Trajan. In the middle ages it repeatedly recovered from the 
ravages of the Goths and others, and in 1532 came into the possession of 
Pope Clement VII. through the instrumentality of Gonzaga. Ancona is 
also frequently mentioned as a fortress in the annals of modern warfare. 
Thus in 1796 it was surrendered to the French, in 1799 to the Austrians, 
in 1805 to the French again; in 1815 it was ceded to the pope, to whom it 
belonged till 1860. In 1832-38 the citadel was garrisoned by the French 
(under the Perier ministry), in order to keep in check the Austrians, who 
were in possession of Bologna and the surrounding provinces. In 1849 the 
town was the scene of many excesses , and on 18th June was re-captured 
by the Austrians. On 20th Sept., 1860, eleven days after the Battle of 
Castelfidardo (p. 98), it was finally occupied by the Italians. 

Following the handsome quay towards the N., in the direction 
of Monte Guasco, we reach the marble "Triumphal Arch (PI. 2; B, 1), 

"Wagner & Debes.Xeipzitr 

ANCONA. 13. Route. 97 

erected A. D. 112 by the Roman senate in honour of Trajan on the 
completion of the new quays, as the inscription records, and one 
of the finest ancient works of the kind now extant. The holes to 
which its original bronze enrichments were attached are still ob- 

The new quay constructed by Pope Clement XII., a continua- 
tion of the old , also boasts of a Triumphal Arch (PL 1 ; B, 1), de- 
signed by Vanvitelli , but far inferior to the other. Its facade is 
towards the sea and is destitute of inscription. The harbour is de- 
fended by several forts. 

The *Catb.edral of S. Ciriaco (PI. 6; C, 1), dedicated to the first 
bishop of Ancona, stands on an eminence rising above the harbour 
and commanding an extensive view of the town and the sea, oc- 
cupying the site of a temple of Venus mentioned by Catullus and 
Juvenal. It contains ten beautiful columns which once belonged 
to the ancient temple. The church, like St. Mark's at Venice, is 
in a mixed Lombard and Oriental style of architecture , and is in 
the form of a Greek cross , each of the arms being flanked with 
aisles. The octagonal dome over the centre of the cross is one of 
the oldest in Italy. The facade, which is said to have been de- 
signed by Margheritone d'Arezzo in the 13th cent., has a beautiful 
Gothic portico, the foremost columns of which rest on red lions. 

The Cetpt of the Right Transept contains the "Sarcophagus of Titus 
Gorgonius, Prretor of Ancona , with scenes from the life of Christ (the 
Nativity, Adoration, Baptism, Entry into Jerusalem, Christ before Pilate, 
Christ as Judge, Christ and the apostles with Gorgonius and his wife at 
the Saviour's feet), and other Christian antiquities (Mary and two saints, 
head of Christ of 1213, Entombment in painted terracotta, etc.). — The 
Crti-t of the Left (modernised) Transept contains the tombs of SS. Cyria- 
cus, JIarcellinus, and Liberius, in the rococo style. 

Within a house at the foot of the cathedral are scanty remains 
of a Roman amphitheatre. 

ThePalazzo Comunale (Pi. 15; C, 2) contains a few unimportant 
Roman antiquities, and several ancient and modern pictures. 

The Strada delle Scuole descends thence to the left, to the 
church of S. Francesco (PI. 9; D, 3; now a barrack), resting on a 
massive substructure, with a very rich Gothic *portal. — The street 
next leads (r.) to the Prefettura. In front of the fine Renais- 
sance archway leading into the court we turn to the right (Contr. 
della Catena) to the church of S. Maria delta Piazza (PI. 11 ; C, 3), 
with its peculiar Romanesque-Lombard *fac,ade of the 12th cent, 
and traces of a projected portico. — We now return through the 
Prefettura (with fine pointed arcades to the left in the court) to the 
Piazza Maggiore, or di S. Domenico (PI. D, 3), surrounded by lofty 
houses and adorned with a statue of Clement XI I (Corsini, 1730-40). 

The street quitting the piazza on the side opposite the statue 
leads to the *Loggia dei Mercanti (Exchange, PI. 14; C, 3), an early 
Gothic edifice with Moorish touches, byTibaldi; over the door is 
an equestrian statue. — The street to the left leads to the Piazza 

Baedeker. Italy II. 5th Edition. 7 

98 Route 13. ANCONA. Environs 

del Teatro (PL C, 3), the centre of business, beyond which rises 
the church of S. Agostino (PI. 4 ; C, 4) with a late Gothic portal 
showing a Renaissance tendency. 

From the Piazza del Teatro the new and well -paved Corso 
Vittorio Emanuele (PI. C, D, 4) ascends towards the E., inter- 
secting the new quarters of the town. At the end is the spacious 
Piazza Cavour, in the centre of which rises a colossal statue of the 
minister (PI. 21 ; E, 4), erected in 1868. 

The height above the railway station affords a pleasing survey 
of the town and harbour. 

Excursions from Ancona. 

The Province of Ancona, the ancient Picenum, is a remarkably fertile 
district, replete with beautiful scenery. The Apennines send forth a series 
of parallel spurs towards the sea, forming a number of short, but pictures- 
que valleys. The towns and villages are invariably situated conspicuously 
on the heights. To the W. the view is bounded by the Central Apen- 
nines , which here attain their greatest elevation in several continuous 
ranges, from the Montagna della Sibilla to the Gran Sasso d'ltalia (9817 ft.), 
and are covered with snow till July. Towards the E. glitters the broad 
Adriatic, on which numerous sails are visible in clear weather. 

On the coast, 10 M. to the S. of Ancona, rises the *Monte 
Conero (1763 ft.), with a venerable Camaldulensian monastery, 
commanding a superb panorama. Tha pedestrian follows a toler- 
able road traversing the coast hills nearly to (7 M.) Sirolo (2000 
inhab.), and diverges to the left by a path ascending to the top of 
the hill in % hr. A carriage (see p. 96) may be taken as far as 
the foot of the hill. 

The Ancona-Foggia Railway (to Loreto, 15 M., in 54 min., 
fares 2 fr. 70, 1 fr. 90, 1 fr. 45 c. : to Porto Civitanova, 27 M., in 
1 hr. 5 min. to 13/ 4 hr. , fares 4 fr. 85, 3 fr. 40, 2 fr. 45 c), pene- 
trates the heights enclosing Ancona by means of a tunnel. To the 
left rises the Monte Conero (see above). 

10 M. Osimo [Albergo della Corona , in the market-place ; om- 
nibus from the station to the town, 2!/ 2 M. distant, 60 a), the an- 
cient Auximum, colonised by the Romans B.C. 157, and mentioned 
by Caesar, is now a country-town with 5000 inhab. , situated on a hill 
in a naturally strong position. The greater part of the *TownWall, 
dating from the 2nd cent. B.C., is still standing. A walk round 
it is recommended for the sake of the beautiful view it affords. 
The Palazzo Pubblico in the spacious Piazza contains inscriptions 
and statues of celebrated natives of the place, dating from the im- 
perial period , but barbarously mutilated on the occasion of the 
capture of the town in the 16th cent. One of the inscriptions 
mentions Pompey , who was settled for a time in Picenum. — 
From Osimo to Loreto in li/ 2 hr. by carr. (one-horse 5 fr.). 

Proceeding hence by railway, we perceive, to the right, Castel- 
fidardo, where on 18th Sept. 1860, the papal troops under Lamo- 
riciere were totally defeated by the Italians under Cialdini. 

of Ancona. LORETO. 13. Route. 99 

15 M. Loreto (Campanella, or Posta, in the principal street; 
Pace ; omnibus to the town 60 c), situated on a hill at some dis- 
tance from the line , and affording admirable *views of the sea, 
the Apennines , and the province of Ancona, is a celebrated resort 
of pilgrims (nearly half a million annually). It consists of little 
more than a single long street, full of booths for the sale of rosa- 
ries, medals, images, etc., and is much infested by beggars. 

According to the legend, the house of the Virgin at Nazareth became 
an object of profound veneration after the year 336, when the aged 
Empress Helena, mother of Cohstantine, made a pilgrimage thither, and 
caused a basilica to be erected over it. Owing to the incursions of the 
Saracens the basilica fell to decay, and after the loss of Ptolemais the 
Casa Santa was miraculously transplanted by the hands of angels to the 
coast of Dalmatia (the precise spot being between Fiume and Tersato), in 
1291, where it remained undisturbed during three years. For some un- 
known reason, however, it was again removed by angels during the night, 
and deposited near Recanati , on the ground of a certain widow Laureta 
(whence the name Loreto). A church was erected over it, and a number 
of houses soon sprang up for the accommodation of the devout believers 
who flocked to the spot. In 1586 Pope Sixtus V. accorded to Loreto the 
privileges of a town. 

Among the numerous pilgrims who have visited this spot may be 
mentioned Tasso, who thus alludes to it : — 

'Ecco fra le tempeste, e i fieri venti 
Di questo grande e spazioso mare, 
santa Stella, il Mm splendor nCha scorto, 
CK' illustra e scalda pur Vumane mentf. 
The *Chiesa della Casa Santa has no great architectural pre- 
tensions. The handsome facade was erected under Sixtus V., a 
colossal statue of whom adorns the entrance flight of steps. Over 
the principal door is a life-size statue of the Madonna and Child, 
by Girolamo Lombardo , his sons , and his pupils ; there are also 
three superb bronze-doors, executed under Pope Paul V., 1605-21. 
The campanile , designed by Vanvitelli , is a very lofty structure in 
a richly decorated style, surmounted by an octagonal pyramid. The 
principal bell, presented by Pope Leo X. in 1516, weighs 11 tons. 
In the Inteiuok, to the left of the entrance, is a beautiful "font, cast 
in bronze by Tiburzio Verzelli and Giambattista Vitale , and adorned with 
basreliefs and figures of Faith, Hope, Charity, and Fortitude. On the al- 
tars and in the chapels of the nave are "mosaics representing St. Francis 
of Assisi, by Domenichino, and the Archangel Michael, by GuidoReni; also 
a number of valuable pictures, frescoes, and sculptures. 

In the centre of the church rises the 'Casa Santa 1 (or 'Holy House'), 
a simple brick-building, 13 l /s ft. in height, 28 ft. in length, and 12'/2 ft. 
in width, surrounded by a lofty "Marble Screen designed by Bramanle, 
and executed by Andrea Sansovino, Girolamo Lombardo, Giovanni da Bo- 
logna, Bandinelli, Tribolo, Guglielmo della Porta, etc., with bronze doors by 
Girolamo Lombardo. This handsome work was begun under Leo X., con- 
tinued under Clement VII., and completed under Paul III., and is said to 
have cost 50,000 Roman scudi, irrespective of the statues and the marble. 
The cost would have been still greater, had not many of the artists piously 
declined remuneration. The four sides are adorned with statues of pro- 
phets and sibyls, and reliefs, amongst which may be mentioned : — 

W. Side. Annunciation , by Sansovino, termed by Vasari, 'una opera 
divina' ; smaller representations by Sangallo , Gir. Lombardo, and Gugl. 
della Porta. 

S. Side. Nativity, by Sansovino; David and Goliath, Sibyls, Ado- 
ration of the Magi, by other masters. 

100 Route 13. EECANATI. 

E. Side. Arrival of the Santa Casa at Loreto , by Mccolb Tribolo; 
above it Death of the Virgin, by Domenico Aimo of Bologna. 

N. Side. Nativity of the Virgin, begun by Sansovino , continued by 
Baccio Bandinelli and Raffaele da Montelupo. Basreliefs : Nuptials of the 
Virgin, by the same masters. 

In a niche of the interior is a small image of the Virgin and Child 
in cedar, painted black, attributed to St. Luke. It is richly adorned with 
jewels , the lustre of which is enhanced by silver lamps always kept 
burning. In 1798 it was carried off to Paris by the French. 

In the N. Transept is the entrance to the "Treasury (open to the 
public on Sund. till 11.30 a.m.; at other times fee 1 fr.), which contains 
a number of valuable votive offerings and other curiosities, the gifts of 
monarchs and persons of rank. Several of the treasures disappeared at 
the time of the Peace of Tolentino (1797). 

Iii the Piazza in front of the church are situated the Jesuits' 
College and the — 

*Palazzo Apostolico, begun in 1510 from designs by Bra- 
mante. It contains a small picture-gallery [Titian , Christ and the 
woman taken in adultery; Vouet, Last Supper; Schidone, St. Clara; 
Guercino, Descent from the Cross; Ann. Caracci, Nativity of Christ, 
etc. '), and &*Collection of Majolicas (formerly in the adjacent chem- 
ist's shop), chiefly from the celebrated manufactory in Urbino. 

About 2Y2 M. from Loreto, and reached by train in 20 min., 
is — 

1772 M- Recanati, loftily situated at some distance from the 
line, and commanding several charming views. It was a fortified and 
important place in the middle ages. A charter of the municipal pri- 
vileges accorded to it by Emp. Frederick II. in 1229 is shown at the 
Palazzo Comunale. The Cathedral of S. Flaviano , with a Gothic 
porch, contains the monument of Gregory XII., of 1417. Several 
of the palaces deserve notice, especially that of the Leopardi, con- 
taining the collections of the scholar and poet Giacomo Leopardi 
Cd. 1837). 

An excursion may be made from Recanati to Macerata (p. 102), pass- 
ing the ruins of Helvia Ricina , of which, close to the Potenza, remains 
of an amphitheatre, of a bridge, etc. are visible. From Macerata an 
omnibus runs to the Civitanova station. 

The train crosses the Potenza. 23 M. Potenza Picena, named 
after a Roman colony, the ruins of which have disappeared. On the 
hill, 41/2 M- distant, lies Montesanto. 

27 M. Porto Civitanova, at the mouth of the Chienti; the town 
of Civitanova lies 1 M. inland. — Thence to Macerata, see p. 102. 

To Pescara, Foggia etc. see Baedeker's S. Italy. 

14. From Ancona to Foligno [Orte, Rome). 

80 31. Railway. Express in 4»/« hrs. ; fares 14 fr. 60, 10 fr. 26 c. — 
Ordinary train in 4»/ 4 -6'/4 hrs.; fares 13 fr. 85, 9 fr. 50, 6 fr. 60 c. — To 
Home (184 31.) in 91/2-IO1/4 hrs.; fares 35 fr. 60, 24 fr. 70 c. 

The train runs on the rails of the Bologna line, which with the 
old road skirts the coast (to the right a retrospect of the town and 
harbour), as far &± (5 M.) Falconara fp. 92). 

JESI. 14. Route. 101 

Here the train diverges to the S.W. into the valley of the 
Esino (Lat. ASsis), which it soon crosses at (10 M. ) \Chiaravalle, 
a small town with a Cistercian monastery. 

17 M. Jesi, with 18,900 inhab. (incl. villages), now one of the 
most prosperous manufacturing towns of the province, was the an- 
cient AZsis, where the Emp. Frederick II., the illustrious son of 
Henry VI. and Constantia of Sicily, and grandson of Frederick Bar- 
barossa, was born on 26th Dec. 1194. Hence Jesi bears the name 
of the 'royal city'. The cathedral is dedicated to the martyr St. 
Septimius, who was the first bishop of the place in 308. Jesi was 
also the birthplace of the composer G. Spontini (b. 1778, d. 1851 j. 

The valley gradually contracts ; the train crosses the river twice. 
— 26 M. Castel Planio. Beyond (30 M.) Serra S. Quirico , near 
Monte Rosso, the mountains approach so near each other as barely 
to leave room for the road, which here passes through a wild ra- 
vine, frequently endangered by falling rocks. The railway pene- 
trates Monte Rosso by a long tunnel, crosses the river repeatedly, 
and at length reaches the pleasant valley of Fabriano. — 37 M . 

About 7>/ 2 M. to the S. lies Matelica, a town with 4000 inhab., pos- 
sessing pictures by Palmezzano and Eusebio di S. Giorgio in the church 
of S. Francesco, and a small picture gallery in the Pal. Piersanti. From 
Matelica to Camerino (p. 103) S'/s M., to San Severino (p. 103) 11 31. 

44 1 /-2 M. Fabriano (Leond'Oro; Campana), a prosperous town 
with 17,500 inhab. (incl. suburbs), noted for its paper-manufactories, 
and situated near the sites of the ancient Tuficum and Attidium, 
which have long since been destroyed. The Town Hall contains an- 
cient inscriptions and a small collection of pictures ; the Campanile 
opposite bears an absurdly extravagant inscription with regard to 
the unity of Italy. The churches of S. Niccolb, S. Benedetto, S. 
Agostino, and S. Lucia, as well as the private houses Casa Morichi 
and Fornari, contain pictures of the school of painting which once 
nourished here. Oentile da Fabriano (? 1370-1450; see p. 47), the 
chief master of the school, is remarkable for the softness and deli- 
cacy of his style. The Marchese Possenti possesses a very valuable 
■"collection of objects in ivory. 

From Fabriano a good mountain-road (9 M.) leads by the picturesque 
La Genga to the lofty Sassoferrato , situated in a fertile valley, consisting 
of the upper and lower town, with 2000 inhab., and possessing interesting 
churches and pictures. Giambattista Salvi , surnamed Sassoferrato , was 
born here in 1605; he was especially noted for his Madonnas, and died at 
Rome in 1685. S. Pietro contains a Madonna by him. In the vicinity are the 
ruins of the ancient Sentinum, where, B. C. 296, the great decisive battle took 
place between the Romans and the allied Samnites, Gauls , Umbrians , and 
Etruscans, in which the consul Decius heroically sacrificed himself. The 
Roman supremacy over the whole of Italy was thus established. 

Beyond Fabriano the train skirts the brook Qiano , penetrates 
the central chain of the Apennines by a tunnel l'/ 4 M. in length, 
and reaches — 

102 Route U. MACERATA. From Ancona 

54 J / 2 M. Fossato (diligence to Gubbio three times daily , see 
p. 94), where it enters the broad valley of the Chiascio. To the 
left on the hill is the village of Palazzolo, to the right Pellegrino; 
farther on, to the left, Palazzo and /S. Facondino. 

58 M. Gualdo Tadino is a small town with 7000 inhab., near 
which , about 2 M. from the railway, lie the insignificant ruins 
of the ancient Tadinum. Here in 552 Narses defeated and slew 
the Ostrogothic king Totilas , and , in consequence of this victory, 
he soon afterwards took possession of Rome. The church of S. Fran- 
cesco contains an altar-piece by Niccolo da Foligno, of 1471. The 
cathedral possesses a fine rose-window ; in the sacristy pictures by 
Niccolo da Foligno. 

The train now gradually descends to (69 M.") Nocera, an epis- 
copal town , occupying the site of the ancient Nuceria, a city of 
the TJmbri. In the vicinity are mineral springs, known since 1510. 
The train then enters the narrow Val Topina, crosses the brook 
several times , passes through a tunnel , and descends by Ponte 
Centesimo to — 

80 M. Foligno; thence to Rome, see p. 74 et seq. 

High Road from (Ancona) Civitanova to Foligno (Rome). 

Before the completion of the Ancona and Rome line , the mails were 
forwarded by the Ancona and Brindisi line as far as Porto Civitanova (p. 100) 
from which they were sent by corriere to Foligno in about 10 hrs. ; but 
there is now no regular communication by this route. 

The railway is quitted at Civitanova. The road ascends the fertile 
valley of the Chienti , affording views of the rocky summits of the Central 
Apennines, which are covered with snow until late in summer. The Sibilla 
(9111 ft.) group first becomes visible. The country is well cultivated, and 
the villages are prosperous. 

16 M. Macerata (Pace; Posla), a flourishing town with about 20,000 
inhab., capital of the province of Macerata, picturesquely situated on the 
heights between the valleys of the Chienti and Potenza , possesses a uni- 
versity, an agricultural academy, etc. It was the birthplace of the erudite 
Giovanni Crescimbeni , the founder of the Roman academy of Arcadians 
(1663, d. in Rome 1728), and also of Matteo Ricci , the missionary (d. at 
Pekin, 1609). In the Cathedral a Madonna with St. Francis and St. Julian, 
ascribed to Perugino. In S. Giovanni an Assumption of the Virgin by Lan- 
franco. The Palazzo Municipale and the Pal. Compagnoni contain in- 
scriptions and antiquities from Helvia Ricina (p. 100), after the destruction 
of which the modern towns of Recanati and Macerata sprang up. Macerata 
also possesses a public Library and a triumphal arch, called the Porta Pia. 
Outside the gate, 3 /< M. from the town, is the church of the Madonna delta 
Verging, ascribed to Bramanle. 

[About 6 M. to the S.W. of Macerata (3 M. E. of Tolentino) is the 
village of Urbisaglia, the Roman Urbs Salvia, with extensive ruins, amphi- 
theatre, walls, baths, etc.] 

The road continues to traverse a fertile tract on the bank of the Chienti. 

28'/2 M. Tolentino (Corona), the ancient Tolentinum Picenum, on the 
Chienti, with 4000 inhab., possesses a remarkable Gothic gateway, and was 
formerly strongly fortified. The town-hall in the Piazza contains a few an 
tiquities. The cathedral of S. Niccolb di Tolentino is entered by a Gothic 
vestibule. In the interior, rich carving on the ceiling, and frescoes from th. 
life of St. Nicholas, by Lorenzo and Jacopo da San Severino. The chapel of 
the saint contains two paintings, the Fire at St. Mark's at Venice, and the 
Plague in Sicily, ascribed to Tintoretto and Paolo Veronese (1) respectively. 

to Rome. CAMEEINO. 14. Route. 103 

The environs are picturesque, and command fine views of the mountains. — 
The learned Francis Philelphus , one of the first scholars who studied and 
disseminated classical literature, was born here in 1388. 

[San Severino, 6 M. to the N.W. of Tolentino, in the valley of the Po- 
tenza, arose from the ruins of the ancient Septempeda. In the church del 
Casiello, frescoes by Diotisalvi d'Angeluzzo, and an altar-piece by Niccolb da 
Foligno (1468) ; in the sacristy of the Duomo Nuovo a Madonna by Pinturicchio. 
S. Lorenzo stands on the site of an ancient temple. Inscriptions and anti- 
quities in the town-hall, and at the residence of the Conte Servanzi-Collio. 

From San Severino 12'/2 M. to Camerino (diligence daily, 1 fr.), the an- 
cient C'amerinum ITmbrorum, situated on a height at the foot of the 
Apennines. This was once the capital of the Umbrian Camertes, who during 
the Samnite wars allied themselves with Rome against the Etruscans. It is 
now the chief town of the province, with 5000 inhab., a university, and a 
bishopric (founded in 252). The cathedral of S. Sovino occupies the site of 
a temple of Jupiter; in front of it stands a bronze Statue of Pope Sixtus V., 
of 1587. The painter Carlo Maratta was born here in 1625 (d. at Rome in 
1713). — From Camerino 6 M. to La Muccia, on the Roman road, see below. 

Another road leads from S. Severino to the N. by Matelica (11 31.) to 
Fabriano (25 31.), see p. 101.] 

The Roman road leads from Tolentino on the 1. bank of the Chienti, 
through a pleasant district and numerous plantations of oaks, to Belforte, 
the post-stations Valcimara and Ponte delta Trave, and (18>/2 M. from To- 
lentino) — 

47 M. La Muccia (Leone), the usual halting-place of the vetturini. The 
mountain slopes are studded with small villages on both sides. At Gelagno 
the road begins to ascend, the district becomes barren and bleak (the vet- 
turini here procure the aid of oxen). The passage of the Apennines from La 
3Iuccia to Foligno occupies about 6 hrs. by carriage. Serravalle lies in a 
narrow ravine; above it rise the ruins of an old castle. l'/2 M. farther are 
the sources of the Chienti (p. 102). The road now ascends to the grassy 
table-land of Colfiorito (Locanda di Bonelli), 2903 ft. above the sea- level, 
skirts a small lake, traverses a grove of oaks, and descends somewhat abruptly 
by Case Nuove and Pale to Foligno. Above Pale towers the lofty Sasso di 
Pale, one of the last spurs of the Apennines. In descending, the road affords 
a beautiful 'view of Foligno and the charming valley of the Clitunno. The 
road follows the course of the brook, and '/j M. from Foligno reaches the 
Via Flaminia (p. 92). 

75 M. Foligno, see p. 74. 


E M E. 

Arrival. On arriving at the railway-station (Plan I, 25) the traveller 
will find hotel-omnibuses in waiting, for the use of which a charge of 
l-l'/a fr. is made in the bill. One-horse cab , for 1-2 pers., 1 fr., each 
additional person 20 c. more; at night 1 fr. 20, and 40 c. respectively; 
two-horse carr. , for 1-4 pers., 1 fr. 70, at night 1 fr. 90 c; small ar- 
ticles of luggage free; each trunk 50 c. ; porter 25-60 c. — Police-Office 
(Questura): Via S,S. Apostoli 17 (PI. II, 16, 19). — Railway-Office, see p. 112. 

Embassies and Consulates. There are two classes of diplomatic agents 
at Rome, those accredited to the Italian government, and those accredited 
to the Papal court. The offices of two of the former class alone need here 
be mentioned : English Embassy , Sir Augustus Berkeley Paget, Via Monte 
Magnanapoli 280 ; American Embassy , George Perkins Marsh , Via della 
Fontanella di Borghese 35. — English Consulate: Alex. Macbean , con- 
sul, Corso 378. Ameeican Consulate: Mac Millan, consul, Piazza di Spagna 
26; Dumaresq, vice-consul, Piazza di Spagna 81. 

Hotels (comp. pp. vi, xxii). The best, and the most expensive, are in 
the Strangers' Quarter, between the Porta del Popolo, the Piazza di Spagna, 
and as far as the railway-station. For a prolonged stay an agreement 
should be made beforehand. Visitors are expected to dine at the table 
d'hote. French is spoken almost everywhere. 

"Costanzi (PI. I, 23, p), Via S. Nicola di Tolentino 14, R. 4-6, D. 5, B. 
li/ 2 fr.; -Quieinale (PI. I, 25, A), Via Nazionale , a large establishment 
belonging to 31. Baur of Zurich (pension 14 fr. and upwards) ; Russia (PI. I, 

18, 6), Via Babuino 9 ; Londea (PI. I, 17, c), Piazza di Spagna 13 ; Eueopa 
(PI. I, 20, rf), Piazza di Spagna 35 ; Hotel du Louvre (PI. I, 23, y), Via S. Ni- 
cola di Tolentino; Beistol (PI. I, 22, x), Piazza Barberini, expensive; Ix- 
ghilteeea (PI. I, 17, /), Via Bocca di Leone 14 ; Sernt, Via S. Sebastiano 3 ; 
Possedoxi (PI. I, 17, i 1 ), Via S. Sebastiano 10, below the Pincio ; Albergo 
di Paeigi, Via S. Sebastianello ; America (PI. I, 17, g), Via Babuino 79; 
Nuova York (PI. I, 17, u), corner of the Via Carrozza and the Via Bocca di 
Leone; "Roma (PI. I, 17, »), Corso 128, D. 6 fr. ; Allemagna (PI. I, 17, k), Via 
Condotti 88; della Citta (PI. I, 18, o), Via Babuino 196. Charges at all these 
about the same : R. from 3, D. 5-6, B. I1/2, A. 1 fr. ; pension for those who 
make a prolonged stay 10-12 fr. and upwards per diem. 

Somewhat less expensive are: Anglo-Americano (PI. 1,17, 0, Via 
Frattina 128; Stati Uniti (PI. I, 17, s), Via Borgognona 82; Molaro (PI. I, 

19, w), Via Gregorjana 56; Bellevue di Pincio, Via di Porta Pinciana 18, 
English hostess, pension 8-10 fr., well spoken of; Italia (PI. I, 23, aa), Via 
Quattro Fontane 16; Vittoeia fPl. I, 19, 0, Via Due Macelli 24; Univeeso, 
formerly Olobo (PI. I, 23, a/), Via S. Nicola di Tolentino 50, pension 10 fr. ; 
Sud (PI. I, 19, v), Via Capo le Case 56; Cavour, at the corner of the Via 
del Viminale and Via Principe Umberto, near the railway-station; La Pace 
(PI. I, 19, z), Via Sistina 8. 

Restaurants. ROME. Prelim. Information. 105 

In the interior of the city : Minerva (PI. II, 16, m), Piazza della Mi- 
nerva 69 , large and much frequented , D. 4 fr. 70 c. ; Milano (PI. I, II, 
3, 16, ac), Via Santa Cliiara 5, at the back of the Pantheon; Centualk 
(PI. 1, 16, ad), Via della Rosa. 

Hotels Garnis. The traveller of moderate requirements will find it 
less expensive to procure apartments at one of the following house9, and 
to take his meals at a cafe or restaurant: Okiente and Scandinavia (PI. I, 
19, ab), Via del Tritone 6, well spoken of; Alibeet (PI. I, 17, q), Vicolo 
d'Alibert; Cesari (PI. 1, 16, n), Via di Pietra, near S. Ignazio; Tempio 
della Pace, Via del Tempio della Pace 14, at the back of the Basilica of 
Constantine, in a sunny situation. Enquiry as to charges should always be 
made beforehand. 

Pensions. Hue. Tellenbach, Piazza di Spagna 51; Miss Smith, in the 
same Piazza 93 ; Inglese , Via Condotti 56 ; Inglese & Americana . Via 
Babuino 68 ; Francese , Via Mercede 51 ; Suez , Via S. Nicola di Tolen- 
tino 21. Arrangements for pension may also be made at most of the above 
mentioned hotels. The average charge is 10-12 fr. daily, but less for a 
prolonged stay. 

Private Apartments. The best are situated in the quarter bounded 
by the Corso and the Via del Babuino on one side , and by the Piazza di 
Spagna and the Via Due Macelli on the other side , and also in the Via 
Capo le Case, Via Sistina, Piazza Barberini, and other streets on the 
Pincio. The most expensive, and often the least sunny, are those in the 
Corso, the Piazza di Spagna, and the Via del Babuino. A northern aspect 
should be studiously avoided, and a stipulation made for stove, carpet, and 
attendance (stufa, tappeti, servizio). Rent of two well-furnished rooms in a 
good locality 100-150 fr., one room 40-70 fr. per month; for a suite of 3-5 
rooms 200-500 fr. Artists generally reside in the Via Sistina, Quattro Fon- 
tane, and that neighbourhood. In the Forum of Trajan, and the adjoining 
streets, apartments may be obtained with a sunny aspect and conveniently 
situated with regard to the old part of the town. Rooms may be procured 
in almost every street in the strangers' quarter, where notices and placards 
are frequently observed ; hut, as they are seldom removed when the rooms 
are let, the traveller must be prepared for a number of fruitless enquiries. 
Those who engage apartments in the Corso should come to an undert 
standing with regard to the windows for the Carnival. — Firewood a- 
FicchellVs, Piazza di Spagna 87, 11-12 fr. per mezzo passo. 

Rome does not yet possess a complete Directory ; but much informa- 
tion is afforded by the Guida Commerciale della Oitta di Roma, published 
by Tito Monaci, 4 fr. An unknown address may be ascertained at the 
Ufficio di Anagrafe on the Capitol, under the arches of Vignola, above 
the stairs leading to the Monte Caprino (p. 211). 

Restaurants (those of more moderate pretensions are called Traltorie). 
Handsomely fitted up and expensive: Nazzarri, Piazza di Spagna 81, 82; 
Spillmann Freres, Via Condotti 10; Spillmann Aini, Via Condotti 13 (at all 
of these D. 6 fr. and upwards). 

Second class, with good French cuisine: Marcheggiani, Via della Croce 
81 ; Renaud, Mario de' Fiori 26 ; Roch, Piazza di Spagna 27 (these establish- 
ments also supply families with dinners at their own apartments, for 2 pers. 
4-6, 3 pers. 6-8 fr.). — The Ca/6 del Parlamento, di Venezia, and the 
Birreria Morteo & Co. (Vienna beer), Corso 197, are also good restaurants. 
— Cafi di Roma (p. 106); Restaurant Manzoni, Via della Mercede (PI. I, 
16, 17) ; Lepre, Via Condotti 80. 

The Trattorie are recommended to those who have some acquain- 
tance with the language and customs of the country : Roselta, Via Rosetta 1, 
opposite the Pantheon to the left ; Falcone, Piazza di S. Eustachio 58, near 
the Pantheon (Roman cuisine) ; Posta, Via Colonna 36, near the post-office, 
B -_l'/2> D. 2>/ 2 -4 fr. ; Trattoria Piemontese, Piazza Trevi 10 (Piedmontese 
? u "'" e )i Rebecchino, Via Bocca di Leone 7; "Carlin, Via Quattro Fontane 
175 (beer). The following are unpretending : Oabbione, Via del Lavatore 40, 
by the Fontana Trevi; Corradetti, Via del Babuino 109; Tre Re, Via S. Marco 
0; Torretta, Via della Torretta 1, near the Palazzo Borghese; "Anlico An- 
geletto, Via della Valle 53; Oenio, Via Due Macelli 12, moderate. 

106 Prelim. Information. ROME. Cafes. 

Attempts at imposition may be checked by asking for a written account 
(conto seritto). The best restaurants contain a lista or bill of fare ; but the 
waiter generally enumerates the viands verbally. The following are a few 
of the average charges: Zuppa 4-6 soldi; maccaroni 10-12 s.; fritto 10-12 8.; 
pork (majale), wild boar (cinghiale), or other meat 'in umido' (in sauce), 
arrosto di bacchio (roasted lamb) , or di capretto (kid) 15-16 s. ; beefsteaks 
(bistecca), roast- beef (costata di tnanzo), cutlets (costoletta) , and arrosto 
di mongana or vitello (veal) 18-20 s.; cake or pudding (dolce, paste) 6-12 s.; 
wine 6-8 soldi per mezzo litre The waiter expects a gratuity of 2-3 s. 
or more from each person. 

The Osterie (wine-houses, comp. Introd.) may be visited by those who 
which to observe scenes in humble life. The most popular are those out- 
side the gates, on Monte Testaccio (p. 249), etc., which attract a motley 
assemblage of customers on Sundays and holidays. — Among the best houses 
of the kind are the Palombella , Via della Palombella, at the back of the 
Pantheon to the right (with a better room on the first floor), good Monte- 
fiascone 'Est-Est', Orvieto, and Aleatico ; Osteria del Ghetto (Jewish tavern), 
Via Kua 111 (PI. 11,17); Campanella, near the Theatre of Marcellus, Via 
di Monte Savelli 78, a side-street of the Via Montanara; the Osteria op- 
posite the Fontana Trevi 95; the Osteria Via della Pietra 67 (good Gen- 
zano); Cantina Limiti , Via Mercede 8. In Trastevere : Cucciarella, Via 
dell' Arco dei Tolomei 23, a cross-street on the W. side of the Lungaretta 
(coming from the Ponte S. Bartolommeo to the right, then to the left); 
BotliceUa , Via dei Vascellari 77. near the Ponte Rotto. — The ordinary 
wines of the environs of Rome (Vino dei Castelli Romani) are generally 
served in clear bottles containing one, a half, or a fifth litre (mezzo litro 
0-10 s.), and the better qualities in smaller bottles (fiaschetti). Amongst 
these last are Velletri , Genzano (8-10 s. per mezzo litro) , Orvieto (18 s.), 
Montefascone ('Est-Est', comp. p. 35; 30 s.). and Aleatico (25 s.). — Among 
the Tuscan Wine-Houses are the Cantina Toscanelli, Via della Colonna 27, 
and the Fiaschetteria del Barile , Vicolo di Monte Catini 12; Tuscan and 
Piedmontese wine also in the Via dell' Archetto. The Tuscan wine is gene- 
rally served in large bottles (fiaschi) covered with reeds, and payment is 
made according to the quantity consumed (6-10 s. per mezzo litro). 

Foreign wines are sold at the first-class restaurants (p. 105), and by 
Morin. Piazza di Spagna 42; Presenzini, Via della Croce 32; Burnel & Qul- 
chard Airti, Via Frattina 116; also by the Liquohisti : "Aragno, Corso 237, 
Piazza Sciarra, and Piazza Monte Citorio 118-120 (good Roman wine); Gia- 
cosa. Via della Maddalena 17-19; Vine. Attili, Via del Tritone 13 A. 

Beer (birra). The best is sold at the "Birreria Morteo d- Co., Corso 
196 (Vienna beer and good cuisine), see p. 105; branch-establishment at 
Trastevere, Via di Ponte Sisto 88, immediately to the right coming from 
the bridge; Birreria, Via delle Vergini 6, adjoining the Teatro Quirino, 
near the Fontana Trevi; Carlin, see p. 105. — Roman beer is brewed and 
sold by Germans: Via de' Due Macelli 74; Via di S. Giuseppe, Capo le 
Case 24; also at the cafes and by the 'liquoristi'. 

Cafes. * Caffe di Milano , Corso 121 (dear) ; 'Portamento , Corso 203 ; 
degli Specchi, in the Piazza Colonna, near the post-office ; Italia, Corso 154; 
Roma. Corso 426-33; Venezia, Piazza Venezia 130; Nazionale, corner of the 
Corso (179) and Via delle Convertite; Greco, Via Condotti 86, and Artisti, 
Via Due Macelli 91, both frequented by artists. Other cafe's in almost every 
street ; coffee generally good ; sent, if desired, to private apartments. — 'Caffe 
forte', which is usually placed before the. stranger, often differs in no re- 
spect from that usually drunk, except by being served in better porcelain, 
and charged for at double the ordinary price. Charges: coffee without milk 
(caffe nero), with little milk (ombra di latte), or much milk (molto latte) 
4-5 s. ; mischio and aura (coffee with milk and chocolate) 4-6 s. ; chocolate 
6-10 s. ; roll 1 s., cake 2 s.. bread and butter (pano al burro) 4 s., egg 
3 s. ; ices (gelato) or 'granita' (granulated ice), >/s portion (mezzo gelato) 5, 
whole portion 10 s. — Coo) beverages, Limonala and Amarena. 

Confectioners: Ronzi <£■ Singer, in the Piazza Colonna, corner of the 
Corso 349; Pesoli, Via della Stamperia 18; Ramarzotli, Via Frattina 76. — 
English Baker, Via del Babuino 100; German, Via Bocca di Leone 9, Via 

Physicians. ROME. Prelim. Information. 107 

della Croce 88; Viennese, Via del Foro Trajano 24. — Grocers: Donzelli, 
Via della Croce 11; Corso 98 A; Lome, Piazza di Spagna 76 (good tea). — 
Frcit-Shops : Gangalanti , Piazza S. Lorenzo in Lucina 19; Posidoro, Via 
dell' Angelo Custode 53. 

Tobacco (comp. Introd.) at the Regia dei Tabacchi, corner of the Corso 
and Piazza Sciarra ; foreign cigars 25 c. and upwards. 

Gratuities. As the demands made on strangers in this respect are gener- 
ally exorbitant , the following averages are given. In the galleries for 1 pers. 
10 soldi , for 2-3 pers. 15 s., for 4 pers. 1 fr. ; regular frequenters 5 soldi. 
To servants and others who open doors of houses, churches, gardens, etc., 
5 s. ; for other services (guidance, explanations, light, etc.), '/2-I f''- It is 
also usual to give a trifle (1-2 s.) to the waiters at the cafes. 

Baths at the hotels ; also Via Alibert 1, Via Belsiana 64, Via Babuino 96, 
Via Eipetta 116. Bath l>/2-2 fr., gratuity 5 s. — Hydropathic Establishments : 
Piazza Trinita de' Monti 15; Piazza del Plebiscite (PI. I, 10). 

Hairdressers: Giardini, Corso 423; Lancia, Via Condotti 11; both with 
ladies' rooms. — Perfumer, Corso 390. 

Lieux d 1 Aisance (10 c.) : Vicolo del Sdruciolo , near the Piazza Co- 
lonna; Piazza dei Cappuccini, near the Piazza Barberini ; Passeggiata di Ei- 
petta; in the colonnade of the Piazza of St. Peter on the side next the 
Porta Angelica, etc. 

Climate (comp. Introd.). The mean temperature at Rome is60°Fahr.; 
the greatest heat in summer being about 100° in the shade, and the greatest 
cold about 21°- Snow falls rarely, and does not lie long. The average 
temperature in January is 45°. in July 75°. The pleasantest season is 
from the beginning of October to the end of May. In Summer when the 
fever-laden aria cattiva prevails, all the inhabitants who can afford it 
make a point of leaving the city. The prevalent winds are the Tra- 
montana, or north wind, which generally brings clear and bracing wea- 
ther, and the Scirocco, or south wind, which is relaxing and rainy. As 
the temperature usually falls rapidly after sunset , and colds are very 
easily caught, the traveller should not dress too lightly. Invalids should 
of course consult their medical advisers before choosing rooms, but even 
persons in robust health will do well to remember the Roman proverb : 
i Dove non va il sole, va il medico'. 

Physicians. English: Ailken, Via Frattina 52; Gason, Via della Croce 
81 ; Gregor, Piazza di Spagna 3; Mackowen (American), Piazza di Spagna 54; 
Steel, Via Condotti 26, 2nd floor. — German: Erhardt, Mario de' Fiori 35 ; 
Valentiner, Via Due Macelli 94, etc. — Italian : Fedeli (foreign member of 
the Med. Soc. of London), Piazza di Spagna, Via Borgognona 44; Manassei, 
Via degli Avignonesi 38; Nardini, Pal. Doria, in the Piazza Venezia (hour 
for consultation 3-4); Panlaleoni , Eipetta 102. — Oculists: B anion e , Via 
Due Macelli 31 (hour for consultation 10-12); Bnsinelli , Via Colonna 41, 
III, Palazzo del Cinque (consultations 2-4). — Surgeons : Mazzoni (accou- 
cheur and operator), Mario de' Fiori 89. — Dentists: Curtis (American), 
Piazza di Spagna 93, 1st floor; Galassi, Piazza di Spagna 68; Castellini, 
Via della Colonna 28; Martin. Corso 389; Stehlin, Corso 101. 

Chemists: Sinirnierghi , Via Condotti 64-66 , patronised by the English 
and American embassies ; Baler d: Appolloni, Corso 496, patronised by the 
German embassy ; Borioni, Via del Babuino 98, 99, and other Italian chem- 
ists in every part of the town. 

Bankers. English: Macbean & Co., Corso 378; Maqvay, Hooker, d- Co., 
Piazza di Spagna 20; Dvmaresq d Co., Piazza di Spagna 81; Plowden d- Co., 
\ ia Mercede 50. Italian: Cerasi , Via Babuino 51; Marignoli Tomassini, 
Corso 374; Spada, Flamini, <£• Co., Pal. Torlonia, Via Condotti 20. German : 
Schmitt, Nast, <fr Co., Via della Vite 11; Wedekind, Palazzo Chigi, Piazza 
Colonna; Theoph. Linder (Swiss), Via Condotti 9; Roesler. Franz, d- Co., 
Via del Bufalo 133. — Money Changers in the Corso, Via Condotti , etc. 
(comp. Introd.). 

10S Prelim. Information. KOME. Libraries 

Booksellers. Loescher <t Co., Corso 307, Palazzo Simonetti, entered from 
Via del Collegio Romano 202; Spithcever, Piazza di Spagna 84 and 85; Monal- 
dini, Piazza di Spagna 79, 80; Piale, corner of Piazza di Spagna and Via 
del Babuino. English, as well as other books may be obtained of these 
four. Fralelli Bocca, Corso 217, largest stock of Italian books. — Religious 
works and music , Via di Propaganda Fide 6. — Maps at Maggfs, Piazza 
Sciarra, in the Corso. Old Books at FerretWs, Via della Minerva 60; a 
few also at Spithoever's. — Bookbinders. Andersen , Via Due Macelli 97 • 
Schmidt, Via Marroniti 10; Olivieri, Via Frattina 1. ' 

Libraries. The principal public and private Roman libraries, which 
however do not lend out books, are : — Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, see 
p. 311. Permessi addressed by the cardinal secretary of state to the chief 
librarian, see p. 311. Readers admitted from the middle of Nov. to the 
middle of June, 8-11 o'clock, but there are numerous holidays on which 
the library is closed. — Biblioteca Alessandrina in the Sapienza (p. 192)- 
enter by principal portal, ascend stairs to the left, and traverse the gallery. 
Open daily except Sundays: from Oct. to March 8-2 and 5-9; from April 
to Sept. 7-10. — Biblioteca Angelica (p. 191), open to the public daily 8-2, 
except Thursdays and holidays, and in Oct. — Biblioteca Barberina (p. 167), 
open to the public on Thursd. 9-2 ; closed from the middle of Sept. to 
the end of Oct. — Biblioteca Casanatense (p. 195), open to the public daily, 
10-4, except on Thursdays and holidays. — Biblioteca Ghigiana (p. 147), 
admission by permesso , obtainable through the traveller's embassy, 
Thursd. 9-12; closed in summer. — Biblioteca Corsiniana (p. 317), open to 
the public daily for four hours before Ave Maria, except Sund. and Wed. ; 
closed from 1st Aug. to 4th Nov. — Biblioteca Vallicelliana , in the mon- 
astery of the Chiesa Nuova (p. 200), open daily, 9-1, except on Mondays, 
Sundays, and holidays. — Biblioteca Vittorio Emanuele (p. 149), open daily, 9-3. 

Reading Rooms. English, at PiaWs, MonaldinCs, Loescher's (see above). 
Circolo Filologico, Via del Collegio Romano, well stocked with newspapers 
and periodicals, subscription 7 fr. per month. 

Newspapers, very numerous, 5-10 c. per number: Opinione, 10 c. ; Diritto, 
10 c. ; Liberta, 5 c. ; Italic (in French, containing a list of the sights of the 
day) , 10 c. ; Fanfulla (similar to the Paris Figaro), 5 c. ; Capitate, radical, 
5 c. ; Osservatore Romano and Voce della Verita, both clerical. 

Teachers of Italian (2-3 fr. per lesson) may be heard of at the book- 

Music. Teachers of music and singing may be heard of at Mme. 
Bretschneider's , Corso 437, or at the music-shops mentioned below. M. 
Ravnkilde , a Dane, is a well known composer and teacher of the piano, 
Ripetta 39. — Pianos at Spithcever's, in the monastery of S. Carlo al Corso 
(437) , where Mine. Bretschneider , the manager, presides over a large 
musical circulating library; Stabilimento Musicale, Via Frattina 121; Mar- 
chisio, Via Frattina 135; Franchi <£• Co., Corso 387; Henry Herz, Via dei 
Greci 40. Italian music library: Ricordi , Corso 392; others, Corso 140 
and 283. — Strings at Serafinfs, Via della Valle 46. 

Studios. Sculptors : Achtermann , Piazza de' Cappuccini 1 ; Amid, 
Via Flaminici 18 E; Ball (English), Via S. Vitale 4; C. and R. Cauer, Via 
della Frezza 59; Dausch, Via S. Giacomo 18; d'Epinay (French), Via Sis- 
tina57; Galletti, Via Laurina 31 ; Oalli, Piazza del Plebiscito 89 ; Gerhard, 
Passeggiata di Ripetta 33; Handley (English), Via Margutta 53; Hasselriis, 
Via Torino 60, 61; Ives (English), Via Margutta 53; Jos. Kopf, Vicolo degli 
Incurabili 9; Malthim , Via dell' Olmata 4; Mayer, Corso 504; Mutter (of 
Coburg), Pass, di Ripetta 16; Piehl, Via S. Basilio44; Rogers (American), 
Via Margutta 53; F. Schulze, Via Purificazione 14; Story, Via S. Nicola di 
Tolentino 1 ; Voss, Piazza Barberini 14; E. Wolff, Quattro Fontane 151 ; 
Valentine Wood (English), Villa Campana, Via S. Giovanni. 

Painters: Alvarez, Fuori Porta del Popolo 18 E; Brandt, Via di Ri- 
petta 39; Colsman (American), Via Margutta 33; Consoni, Palazzo Campanari, 
Ripetta 246; Corrodi (water-colours), Via dell' Angelo Custode 30; H. Corrodi, 
Via degli Incurabili 8; Eichler, Palazzo Venezia ; Flor, Via Margutta 42; 

Studios. Shops. ROME. Prelim. Information. 109 

Graf, Via Gregoriana 13, IV; Grtswold (English), Via S. Basilio 46; Htm- 
schild, Vicolo S. Nicola di Tolentino 7 ; Kaiser, Palazzo Venezia; Lemalle, 
of the French Academy ; Lenepveu, director of the French Academy (p. 142) ; 
Lindemann-Frommel (landscape) , Via del Babuino 39 ; Ludwig , Via Sis- 
tina 72; Martens, Via delle Quattro Fontane 88; Merson, of the French 
Academy ; Gustav Midler (of Coburg), Via dei Pontefici 51 ; R. Mailer (water- 
colours) , Via Sistina 126; Nerly (landscapes and sea-pieces), Passeggiata 
di Eipetta 16; Philippet (Belgian), Via dell' Olmo 57; Podesti , Palazzo 
Doria , Piazza Navona 13 ; Poing d'Exter (American) , Via dei Greci 36 ; 
Riedel, Via Margutta 55 ; Romako, Via S. Nicola di Tolentino 7; Rossi, Via 
S. Nicola di Tolentino 3 ; Schlbsser, Via Sistina 72 ; Schobelt , Via della 
Purificazione 28; Schiceinfurth , Via del Babuino 39; Scifoni, Fuori Porta 
del Popolo 18 E, I; Seitz, Via S. Nicola di Tolentino 72; L. Seitz, Piazza 
de' Cappuccini 85; Tessy, Via degli Incurabili 8; Treeman, Via Margutta 
83 B; Vannutelli, Via di Monserrato 125; Vedder (English), Via Capo le 
Case 68; Vertunni (landscape), Via Margutta 53 B, studio I, A; Welscfi, 
Vicolo S. Nicola di Tolentino 7; R. Werner, Via Sistina 72; Wittmer, 
Via delle Quattro Fontane 17 ; Zielke, Via de' Marroniti 4. 

International Association of Artists, Vicolo d'Alibert 2. 

Shops. Antiquities: Alessandro Castellani, Via di Poli 88; Augvsto 
Castellani, Piazza di Trevi 86; L. Depoletti , Via del Leoncino 14; Marti- 
netti, Via Bonella 74; Giacomini , Via Bonella 42, 43, 47, Foro Romano 7 
(also works in marble and carved furniture). 

Articles de Voyage : Nardini, Via Frattina 150 ; also a good shop at 
Via delle Muratte 91. 

Cameos : Saulini, Via del Babuino 96 ; Siotto , Piazza di Spagna 97 ; 
Moratli, Via del Babuino 118; Pianella, Via S. Giuseppe, Capo le Case 
17 ; Raimondo d" Estrada, Via Sistina 26. 

Casts: Marsili, Via Due Macelli 86; Leopoldo and Alessandro Mal- 
pieri, Corso 54 and 51 ; Fedeli, Via Laurina43, for Renaissance ornaments. 

Clothing. For Gentlemen : Guastalla e Todros, Corso 335 (large shop) ; 
Fratelli Bocconi, Corso 318 (moderate). See also Tailors. — Ladies' Dress 
and Millinery: Clarisse <k Co., Corso 522; Borsini-Dupres, Corso 172; R. 
Massoni, Corso 306; Compagnie Lyonnaise, Corso 473; Madame Boudrot, Via 
Frattina 138. Less pretending: Picarelli , Corso 316; Quattrini, Via Frat- 
tina 93 (also strawhat-warehouse). 

Colours and Drawing -Materials: Virieux, Via Babuino 120; Cor- 
teselli, Via Sistina 150; Dovizielli, Via Babuino 136. 

Copies of Ancient Bronzes and Marbles : Guttkorn tt Hopfgarten, 
Piazza di Spagna 33 ; Chiapparelli, Via Babuino 92 ; smaller works, Rohrich, 
Via Sistina 105 ; Rainaldi, Via Babuino 51 A. 

Dressmakers: Angelina Giubergia, Corso 28 (good, but expensive); 
Cosianza Federigo, Piazza Barberini 43 (for moderate requirements). 

Drapers : Guastalla , Corso 335 ; Todros , Corso 418 ; Schostal &• Hart- 
lein, Corso 161. 

Engravings at the Regia Calcografia, formerly the Stamperia Camerale 
(moderate prices), Via della Stamperia 6 (p. 144); Maggi, Corso 329. 

Gloves: Chanal , Corso 143; also at Piazza S. Lorenzo in Lucina 39; 
Via della Vite 10; Via Frattina 15; Via di Pietra 76. 

Goldsmiths: ~ Castellani , Piazza di Trevi 86, who also possesses an 
interesting collection of ancient golden ornaments, and executes imitations 
from Greek, Etruscan, and Byzantine models ; Marchesini , corner of the 
Corso and Via Condotti; Bellezza, Piazza S. Carlo, in the Corso; Ansorge, 
Piazza di Spagna 72 ; Fasoli, Via Babuino , and many others , chiefly in 
the Via Condotti, the Corso, and the Via Babuino. 

Haberdashery : Borgia, Via dei Prefetti ; Nataletti and Ville de Lyon 
in the same street ; Massoni, Corso 372 ; Bronner, Corso 165 ; Friedrich, Via 
Frattina 33. 

Hatters: Bessi, Corso 395; Giardani, Via Due Macelli 115 ; Miller, Via 
Condotti 16. 

Lamps, etc. : Favcillon, Via di Propaganda 25. 

110 Prelim. Information. ROME. Theatres. 

Marble-Cutters: Placidi, Via Sistina 7oC; Saleri\, Via Sistiua 75A. 

Mosaics : Gallandt, Piazza di Spagna 7 ; Barberi, Piazza di Spagna 99 ; 
Corradini , Piazza di Spagna 92 ; Roccheggiani , Via Condotti 14. Mosaics 
and cameos, at moderate prices, in the Stabilimento, Piazza Borghese 106. 

Opticians: Hirsch, Corso402; Ansiglioni, Corso'_150; Suscipi, Corso 182. 

Photographs : large collection at Loescher's (p. 84) , who also keeps 
photographs by Behles (Mario de' Fiori 28) ; Spithoever (p. 107) ; Monaldini 
(p. 107) ; Cuccioni, Piazza di Spagna 43 ; Rux^ Via Felice 114 ; Maggi, Piazza 
Sciarra, in the Corso ; Verzaschi, Corso ±35; Alinari &• Cook, Corso 90; 
American Photographic Studio, Via Babuino 29 ; Mind, Piazza di Spagna 28. 
— Depot of Braun's photographs : Aubert , Via Condotti 22. 

Photographs from drawings, Christian antiquities, ornaments, etc. : Si- 
melli, Via Bocca di Leone 11. For artistic purposes (reproducing sketches, 
pictures, etc.): Mang, Via Sistina 113, first floor. — Portraits: Alessandri, 
Corso 12; Le Lieure, Piazza Mignanelli 23; Falcetti, Piazza di Spagna 9; 
Schemboche, Via Gregoriana 20; Suscipi, Via Condotti 48; delta Valle, 
Via della Croce 67. — Cheap photographs at Bencinfs, Via Ripetta 185. 

Roman Pearls : Rey, Via Babuino 122 ; Barlolini, Via Frattina 67. 

Roman Shawls : Bianchi , Piazza della Minerva 82 (also other Roman 
silk wares); Amadori, Via Condotti 72 and Corso 221, at the corner of the 
Via Frattina and Mario de' Fiori; Arvotti, Via Condotti 4. 

Shoemakers: Briigner, Piazza Barberini 60; Jesi, Corso 128; Rubini, 
Corso 223. 

Small Wares, etc.: Cagiati, Corso 167, 169; Janetti, Via Condotti 18; 
A. Cagiati, Corso 250. 

Stationers: Ricci, Corso 214, Piazza Colonna; Antone Hi, Corso 229, 
Piazza Sciarra; Brenta, Via del Plebiscito 104, near Palazzo Venezia. 

Tailors: Schr aider , Piazza di Spagna 29; L. Evert, Piazza Borghese 
77; Mons, Capo le Case 43; Segre, Piazza di Trevi86; Brassini, Corso 137. 

Umbrellas : Gilardini, Corso 185. 

Watchmakers: Conti, Piazza di Spagna 53; Kolbauer, Via Due Ma- 
celli 108. 

Weapons (permesso necessary, see Introd.) : Toni, Corso 41 ; Spadini, 
Via Due Macelli 66. 

Works of Art , ancient and modern , are liable to export duty. — 
Goods Agents: Dietzy, Piazza Colonna 370 A; Roesler, Franz <fc Co., Via 
del Bufalo 133; Caldani, Piazza di Pietra 41. — Packer ('Incassatore') : 
Ferroni, Via de' Zuchelli 28. 

Theatres. The largest is the Teatro Apollo (PI. I, 10 ; for operas, al- 
ways combined with ballet), near the Ponte S. Angelo, seats 8 and 4 fr. 
— Teatro Argentina (PI. II, 13, 16), Via di Tor Argentina, not far from 
S. Andrea della Valle, for comic operas; Teatro Valle (PI. II, 13, IS), 
near the Sapienza , for dramas , seat 3 fr. — Besides these there are the 
smaller theatres : Teatro Capranica (PI. I, 16), Piazza Capranica , not far 
from the Pantheon and the Piazza Colonna, for comedies, 2 fr. — Teatro 
Metastasio (PI. I, 13, 15), near the Via Scrofa in the Via di Pallacorda, 
for vaudevilles; performances at 6.45 and 9.30 p.m., seat 1 fr. 25 c. — 
Teatko Quirino (PI. II, 16, 19), near the Via delle Muratte and Fontana 
Trevi, for operettas and ballet, daily at 5.30 and 9 p.m., adm. 1 fr. ; Val- 
letto , near the Teatro Valle , for operettas and comedies , daily at 5 and 
9 p.m., adm. 60 c. 

The companies usually change three times a year, one performing in 
autumn and winter till Christmas, another till Lent, and a third after Lent. 
Boxes are generally let permanently, and visits paid and received there. 
Ladies frequent the boxes only, gentlemen the pit (platea). Particulars 
about admission, etc. are published in the hand-bills. 

Open-air Theatres (performances begin about 5 o'clock on summer 
afternoons) : at the Mausoleum of Augustus (p. 185) , Via de' Pontefici, 
near the Ripetta; Arena Nazionale , Via S. Vitale (dramas, comedies); 
Politeama, at Trastevere, near the Ponte Sisto (operas). 

Cabs. Omnibuses. 

ROME. Prelim. Information. 111 

Marionette Theatre: Teatko Nazionale (formerly Prandi), Piazza della 
Consolazione 97 (PI. II, 20), seat 75 c. (sometimes closed I. 

Ball Playing: Skeeistebio, at the corner of the Via Quattro Fontane 
and Via Venti Settembre (in summer only) ; equestrian performances, 
and sometimes operettas and dramas, at the same place. 

Cabs ( Vetture Pubbliche) are to be 

found in all the principal piazzas. 



Each vehicle should contain a tariff in 

one horse. 

two horses. 

Italian and French. 

In the town : 

By day 

At night 

By day 

At night 

Single drive (corsa ordinaria) . . 


1 — 

1 70 

1 90 

To or from the station .... 

1 - 

1 20 

1 70 

1 90 

To or from the gates (except the 

Porta del Popolo, Pia, Angelica, 

and CavaDeggeri , for which an 

ordinary corsa only is charged). 

1 - 

1 20 

1 90 

2 - 

1 70 

2 20 

2 50 

3 - 

Each additional '/< nr 





Outside the Porta del Popolo, Pia, An- 

gelica, and Cavalleggeri , within a 

distance of 2 M. (3 Kil.) per hour . 

2 20 

2 70 

3 — 

3 40 

Outside the other gates, and for longer drives than those above 
mentioned, there is no tariff, but the above fares afford an idea of what 
may reasonably be demanded. On the afternoons of the eight days of the 
Carnival the two -horse vehicles are exempted from the restrictions of 
the tariff. 

The one-horse cabs carry 1-2 persons at the above fares, and those 
with two horses 1-4 pers. For an ordinary drive each additional person 
pays 20 c, or at night 40 c. 

The day service is from 5 a.m. to one hour after Ave Maria. 

Omnibuses. The Piazza di Venezia (PI. II, 26), the central omnibus 
station, is the starting-point of the following lines (fare 15 c.) : — 

1. Through the Corso (but after 3 p.m. through the side-streets to the 
E. : the Piazza S.S. Apostoli , Via dell' Umilta, Piazza di Trevi, Via Due 
Macelli, Via dell' Angelo Custode, Piazza di Spagna, Via Babuino) to the 
Piazza del Popolo (PI. I, 18). 

2. Through the Corso (after 3 p.m. through the above-mentioned side- 
streets) as far as the Via delle Muratte; then through this street to the 
Piazza Trevi, Via dell' Angelo Custode, Via del Tritone, and Piazza Baebe- 
eini ; next through the Via S. Nicola di Tolentino to the Piazza delle 
Teeme, and to the Station (PI. I, 25) ; fare 20 c. 

3. Through the Ripresa dei Barberi, Via di Foro Trajano, Foro Tra- 
jano, Via Alessandrina , Via Croce Bianca, to the Piazza dei Cakeetti 
(PI. II, 20,23); then through the Via del Colosseo and Via di S. Giovanni 
in Laterano, to the Piazza S. Giovanni in Latebano (PI. II, 30, 33); 
fare 20 c. 

4. Through the above-mentioned streets as far as the Via Croce Bianca ; 
then through Via della Madonna dei Monti, Via Leonina, and Via Urbana, 
to the Quadeivio di S. Maeia Maggioee (p. 170; PI. 11,22,25). 

5. Through the Via del Plebiscito, Piazza Oesii, Via dei Cesarini, Via 
di Monte della Farina, Piazza S. Carlo Calinari, Via Giubbonari, Via del 
Monte di Pieta, and Via dei Pettinari , to the Ponte Sisto (PI. II, 14) ; 
then through the Piazza di Ponte Sisto , Vicolo del Cinque , Via della 
Paglia, Piazza di S. Maria in Trastevere, and Piazza S. Calisto , to the 
Via di S. Feancesco a Ripa (PI. Ill, 15). — (The omnibuses of this line 
return by the same route as far as S. Maria in Trastevere ; then traverse the 
Piazza S. Apollnnia, Via del Moro, and Piazza di Ponte Sisto, and follow 
the above route to the Piazza S. Carlo Catinari, and run alternatelv through 

1 1 2 Prelim. Information. ROME. Post Office. 

the short connecting streets to the Via Botteghe Oscure, Via S. Marco, Via 
degli Astalli, Via del Plebiscito, and Piazza Venezia.) 

6. Through the Via del Plebiscito, Piazza Gesii , Via de' Cesarini , Via 
del Sudario, Piazza Valle, Via dei Massimi, Piazza S. Pantaleo (correspon- 
dence with the Piazza del Popolo, see below), Via di S. Pantaleo, Piazza del 
Pasquino, Via del Governo Vecchio, and Piazza dell' Okologio (PI. II, 10) ; 
then through the Via dei Banchi Nuovi, Ponte S. Angelo, and Borgo Vecchio, 
to the Piazza S. Pieteo (PI. I, 4, 7). — (The omnibuses of this line return 
through the Borgo Nuovo, by the Ponte S. Angelo, etc., the Via Banchi 
Vecchi, Vicolo Sforza-Cesarini , and Piazza dell' Orologio; then through 
the Via Pasquino to the Piazza Agonale or Kavona, Via dei Canestrari, 
Piazza and Via della Valle, Via di Monterone, Via della Pigna, Via del 
Gesii, etc.) 

Besides these lines omnibuses run from the Piazza del Popolo to 
S. Pantaleo (near the Palazzo Braschi , PI. II, 13); and from S. Lorenzo 
in Lucina (PI. I, 16; p. 146), 1.: through the Piazza Borghese, Via del 
Clementino, Piazza Nicosia, etc., and the Ponte di S. Angelo, to the Piazza 
di S. Pietko (PI. I, p. 275); 2.: through the Via Frattina, Via Due Ma- 
celli, Piazza Barberini. etc. to the Piazza dell' Indipendenza (PI. I, 28). 

An omnibus also starts from the Piazza Campitelli (PI. II, 17) half- 
hourly every afternoon for S. Paolo Fuori le Mura (p. 251; 6 s.). — On fine 
afternoons another omnibus runs every half-hour after 2 p.m. between the 
Porta del Popolo and the Ponte Molle (stopping outside the gate, 6 s.), 
and sometimes from the Piazza delle Terme to S. Agnese Fuori le Mura. 

Vetturini run daily to the following places among the Alban and 
Sabine mountains : — 

To Albano and Ariccia from Via di Grottapinta 37 (at the back of 
the church of S. Andrea della Valle, PI. II, 13) at 2 p.m.; from Piazza 
della Pigna 53 (at the back of the Piazza della Minerva, PI. II, 16) also 
at 2 p.m. 

To Frascati and Monte Porzio from Via delle Botteghe Oscure 46 
(PI. II, 17). 

To Tivoli at 4 a.m. and 2. 30 p.m., daily, from Piazza di Monte 
Citorio 124 ; office in the neighbouring Vicolo della Guardiola 15 (PI. 1, 16). 

To Subiaco from the same piazza at 4 p.m.; tickets at the same office. 

Carriages (two-horse about 30 fr. per day, fee 3-5 fr. ; the hotels charge 
40-50 fr. per day), Vicolo del Gallinaccio 6 ; Via di S. Claudio 94 ; Via Bocca 
di Leone 86; Piazza della Pigna 12; Via in Arcione 67; Via della Campana 
17 b ; Via della Scrofa 57 ; Vicolo del Vantaggio 5 ; Via della Vite 50, etc. 

Saddle Horses (pleasant for excursions in the Campagna, 10 fr. per 
half-day, ostler 1 fr.) : Jarret , Piazza del Popolo 3 ; Cairoli , Vicolo degli 

Railways. Time-tables (orario, 50 c.) and every information may he 
obtained at the office, Piazza di Monte Citorio 12 (PI. I, 16), and also at 
the booksellers' shops. Intending passengers should be at the station in 
good time. 

Steamboats. The small Rivek-Steamees which ply on the Tiber (to 
Fiumicino) run in summer only , and then very irregularly owing to the 
frequent change in the height of the water. Enquiry may be made at 
the quay from which they start on the Eipa Grande (PL III, 15, 18), or 
at the office, Via di S. Pantaleo 66. — Sea- going Steameks, see Introd. 

Post and Telegraph Offices (comp. Introd.). General Post Office, Piazza. 
Colonna (PI. I, 16; p. 147), open from 8 a.m. to 10 p.m. — Telegraph 
Office, day and night, Piazza di Monte Citorio 127 (PI. I. 16; p. 148). 

English Churches. Episcopal, and adjoining it Presbyterian, both out- 
vsidethe Porta del Popolo (p. 139); Episcopal also in the Piazza di S.. 
Siles tro (p. 147). 

Church Festivals. ROME. Prelim. Information. 113 

Church-Festivals. Since the annexation of Rome to the kingdom of 
Italy on 20th Sept. 1870 the Pope has not quitted the Vatican , and the 
great ecclesiastical festivals have consequently lost most of their former 
attractions. The public ceremonies at which the Pope formerly officiated 
in person, such as those of the Holy Week, the benedictions, and the 
public processions including that of the Fete de Dieu, have been discon- 
tinued. The Pope still officiates on high festivals in the Sistine Chapel, 
but visitors are not admitted without an introduction from very high 
quarters. The illumination of St. Peter's and the Girandola, or fireworks, 
with which the festivals of Easter and St. Peter and St. Paul used to be 
celebrated, have also been discontinued. 

The following enumeration of the various festivals, as they were 
celebrated pkiok to 20th Sept. 1870, will still be found useful in many 
respects. Details are contained in the Oerarchia Cattolica , and the Diario 
di Roma, published annually. The best work on the ceremonies of the 
Holy Week and their signification is the Manuaie delle cerimonie che hanno 
luogo nella settimana santa e nelV ottava di pasqua al Vaticano (1 fr., also 
a French edition), obtainable at the bookshops mentioned at p. 107). Ad- 
mission to the Sistine Chapel, as well as to St. Peter's, on great occasions 
(to the reserved part), is accorded only to gentlemen in uniform or evening- 
dress, to ladies in black dresses, and black veils or black caps. Gentlemen 
stand; seats are reserved for ladies. 

The Pope used to officiate in person three times annually, on Christmas- 
day, Easter-day, and the Festival of St. Peter and St. Paul (29th June); and 
four times annually he imparted his benediction, on Holy Thursday and Easter- 
day from the balcony of St. Peter's , on Ascension-day from the Lateran, 
and on 15th Aug., the anniversary of the 'Assumption of the Virgin', from 
S. Maria Maggiore. The most imposing ceremonies were those of the Holy 
Week, from Palm Sunday to Easter-day, the most important of which took 
place in the Sistine Chapel , accompanied by the music ('lamentations', etc.) 
of Palestrina and other old masters , on which occasions the papal band 
(cappella papale) performed. 

The following were the principal festivals: 
January 1. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 10 a.m. 

— 5. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 3 p. m. 

— 6. Epiphany. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 10 a.m.; at 4 p.m. 

procession in Araceli. 

— 17. S. Antonio Abbate (PI. II, 25, near S. Maria Maggiore) , bene- 

diction of domestic animals. 

— 18. Anniversary of foundation of the chair of St. Peter , Cap. Pa- 

pale in St. Peter's, 10 a. m. 
February 1. Illumination of the lower church of S. Clemente (p. 259). 

— 2. Candlemas. Cap. Papale in St. Peter's, 9 a. m. 

On Ash- Wednesday and every Sunday during Lent, Cappella Papale in the 
Sistine at 10 a. m. The Lent sermons in Gesii (PI. II, 16), S. Maria 
sopra Minerva (PI. II, 16), and other churches are celebrated. 

March. Every Friday at 12 the Pope repaired to St. Peter's to pray during 
the confession. 

— 7. St. Thomas Aquinas, in S. Maria sopra Minerva (PI. II, 16). 

— 9. S. Francesca Romana (in the Forum). 

— 16. Festival in the chapel of the Palazzo Massimi (PI. II, 17) in 

commemoration of a resuscitation by S. Filippo Neri. 

— 25. Annunciation. Cap. Papale in S. Maria sopra Minerva (PI. II, 16). 

Holt Week. 

P*lm-Sunday. Cappella Papale in St. Peter's ,9 a.m. Consecration of 
palms and procession ; then mass. At 2 p. m. confession in the 
Lateran (PI. II, 30). 

Wednesday. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 3 p.m. Tenebrse and Mi- 

Boly Thursday. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 10 a.m. Towards noon 
the benediction 'Urbi' from the loggia of St. Peter's. Then 
washing of feet in St. Peter's , immediately after a dinner to 

Baedekeb. Italy II. 5th Edition. 8 

114 Church Festivals. ROME. Prelim. Information. 

twelve pilgrims in the loggia of St. Peter's. Cappella Papale 
in the Sistine ,3 p.m. Tenebrse and Miserere. 

Good Friday. Cappella Papale in the Sistine , 9 a. m. (music by Pales- 
trina). At 3 p. m. Tenebrse and Miserere. 

Saturday. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 9 a.m. (Missa di Papa Mar- 
cello, by Palestrina). Baptism of converted infidels and Jews 
in the Lateran. 

Easier- Sunday. Cappella Papale in St. Peter's, 9 a.m. The Pope ap- 
peared in the church at 10 o'clock and read mass. The eleva- 
vation of the host (about 11) was accompanied by the blast of 
trumpets from the dome. The Pope was then carried in proces- 
sion from the church, and about noon imparted the great bene- 
diction 'Urbi et Orbi' from the loggia of St. Peter's. After 
sunset, illumination of the dome of St. Peter's ; 1 hr. later 
torches were substituted for the lamps ('il cambiamento'). 

Easter- Monday. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 9 a. m. 

Easter- Tuesday. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 9 a. m. 

Saturday in A'bis. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 9 a. m. 

April 25. Procession of the clergy from S. Marco (PI. II, 16) to St. Peter's 
at 7. 30 a. m. 

May 26. S. Filippo Meri. Cappella Papale in the Chiesa Nuova, 10 a. m. 

Ascension. Cappella Papale in the Lateran. Great benediction from the 

Whitsunday. Cappella Papale in the Sistine , 10 a. m. 

Trinity. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 10 a. m. 

Corpus Domini (Fete de Dieu). Procession of the Pope and clergy round 
the piazza of St. Peter's, 8 a. m. 

June 1, 17, 21. Cappella Papale in the Sistine in commemoration of Gre- 
gory XVI., and the accession and coronation of Pius IX. 

— 24. John the Baptist. Cappella Papale in the Lateran, 10 a. m. 

— 28. Eve of St. Peter and St. Paul. Cappella Papale in St. Peter's, 

6 p. m. 

— 29. Dav of St. Peter and St. Paul. — Forenoon, Cappella Papale in 

St. Peter's. 
July 14. S. Bonaventura, in S. S. Apostoli. 

— 31. S. Ignazio, in Gesii. 

Aug. 1. St. Peter in Vinculis, in S. Pietro in Vincoli (PI. II, 23). 

— 5. S. Maria della Ueve, in S. Maria Maggiore (PI. II, 25). 

— 15. Assumption of the Virgin. Cappella Papale in S. Maria Mag- 

giore (PI. II, 25), 9 a. m. ; great benediction from the loggia. 
Sept. 8. Nativitv of the Virgin. Cappella Papale in S. Maria del Popolo 
(PI. I, 18), 10 a. m. 

— 14. Elevation of the Cross, in S. Marcello (PI. II, 16). 
Oct. 7. S. Marco, in the church of that saint (PI. II, 16). 

— 18. S. Luca, in the church of that saint (PI. II, 20). 

Nov. 1. All Saints' Day , Cappella Papale in the Sistine , 10 a. m. and 
3 p. m. 

— 2. All Souls' Day. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 10 a. m. 

— 3. Requiem for former Popes. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 

10 a. m. 

— 4. S. Carlo Borromeo. Cappella Papale in S. Carlo, 10 a. m. 

— 5. Requiem for deceased cardinals in the Sistine. 

— 7. Requiem for deceased singers of the Cappella Papale in the 

Chiesa Nuova (PI. II, 10). 

On the four Sundays of Advent, Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 

10 a. m. 

— 22. St. Cecilia. Cappella Papale in S. Cecilia in Trastevere (p. 323). 

Illumination of the Catacombs of Calixtus (p. 329). 

— 23. Illumination of the lower church of S. Clemente (p. 259). 

Dec. 8. Conception. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 3 p. m. Proces- 
sion from Araceli (PI. II, 20). 

— 24. Christmas Eve. Cappella Papale in the Sistine , 8 p. m. To 

Popular Festivals. ROME. Prelim. Information. 115 

wards midnight, solemnities in Aracceli, about j} a. m. in S. 
Maria Maggiore (PI. II, 25). 
Dec. 25. Christmas Day. Cappella Papale in St. Peter's, 9 a. m.; eleva- 
tion of the host announced by trumpets in the dome. 

— 26. St. Stephen's Day. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 10 a. m. 

— 27. St. John the Evangelist. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 10 a. m. 

— 31. Cappella Papale in the Sistine; after which, about 4 p. ni., 

grand Te Deum in Gesii (PI. II, 16). 

Popular Festivals (which have lost much of their former interest) : — 

Epiphany (6th Jan. ), celebrated in the evening in the Piazza Navona, 
since 1873 (formerly near S. Eustachio), array of booths and prodigious din 
of toy-trumpets. 

The Carnival, which has of late regained a little of its former splen- 
dour, extends from the second Saturday before Ash-Wednesday to Shrove- 
Tuesday, and consists in a daily procession in the Corso, accompanied by 
the throwing of bouquets and comfits , excepting on Sundays and Fri- 
days, when a 'gala corso' generally takes place, and concluding with a horse- 
race. The last evening is the Moccoli (taper) evening, the tapers being 
lighted immediately after sunset. A window in the Corso is the best point 
of view. The most animated scene is between the Piazza Colonna and S. 
Carlo. Balconies there are in great request and dear (as high as 600 fr.) ; 
single places are let on the balconies fitted up for the occasion. 

The October Festival , once famous, but now comparatively insigni- 
ficant, takes place during the vintage-season, and consists in singing, dan- 
cing, and carousals at the osterie outside the gates (e. g. on the Testaccio). 

The Festa dello Statuto, or Festival of the Constitution, introduced 
in consequence of the annexation of Rome, takes place on the first Sunday 
in June. In the forenoon a military parade is held in the Campo di 
Maccao (p. 174). In the evening a Girandola, i. e. an illumination and ex- 
hibition of fire-works at the Castello di S. Angelo. — On the anniversary 
of the Foundation of Rome (21st April), it has of late been usual to illu- 
minate the Colosseum and the Forum with Bengal fire. 

The opening of Parliament is also inaugurated with festivities. 

Street Scenes. The top of the Scala di Spagna (PI. I, 20) and the 
Via Sistina are the favourite haunts of artists' models, chiefly Neapolitans, 
whose costumes are a well-known subject of photographs and pictures. 

The Campagnoli, whose figures form one of the most singular appari- 
tions in the streets of Rome, are less frequently seen than formerly. They 
pass a great part of their lives on horseback, while tending their herds of 
oxen and horses. Their equipment usually consists of a low felt-hat, wide, 
grey mantle, leathern leggings, and spurs; and they carry a 'pungolo', or 
iron - pointed goad, for driving their cattle. The peasants of remote moun- 
tain-districts, wearing sandals (whence termed ciocciari), and with swathed 
feet and ankles, also present a grotesque appearance. — The favourite haunts 
of the country - people are in front of the Pantheon (PI. II, 16; especially 
on Sundays), the Piazza Montanara (PI. II, 17) below the Capitol , and in 
the market-place of the Campo de' Fiori (p. 201). 

The Garrison of Rome consists of 2 regiments of Granatieri , or Gre- 
nadier Guards ; 6 regiments of Infantry (with dark blue coats , grey trou- 
sers, white leather belts , and caps) ; 1 regiment of Bersaglieri or riflemen 
(with dark blue coats and red facings , large plumed caps worn on one 
side, forming an elite corps like the Austrian Kaiserj ager) ; 1 regiment 
of Cavalry (dark blue coats , and light grey trousers) ; 1 brigade of Field 
Artillery (dark blue coats and yellow collars) ; and 1 brigade of Engi- 
neers. To these we may add the Carabinieri, or gensdarmes , who wear 
black uniforms with red facings and cocked hats. 

116 Prelim. Information. ROME. Collections, Villas, etc. 

Collections, Villas, etc. 

Those within angular brackets in the following list are temporarily 
closed. Intending visitors should make enquiry as to the possibility of access. 
Fees, comp. p. 107. 

*Albani, Villa (p. 163), antiquities and pictures, Tuesdays, except 
in wet weather, in winter from 10, in summer from 11 to 
dusk ; admittance by permesso , obtainable at the office in the 
Palazzo Torlonia, Piazza Venezia 135, to the left on the ground- 
floor, on presenting a visiting card (or at the consulate). Closed 
in June, July, and August. 

Barberini, Palazzo (p. 166), picture-gallery and antiquities : daily, 
12-5, except Sundays and Thursdays; Thursdays 2-5; closed at 
dusk in winter. Library on Thursdays, 9-2 (closed from the 
middle of Sept. to the end of Oct.). 

Bartholdy, Casa (p. 143), a room with frescoes by Cornelius, Over- 
beck, and others ; hours vary ; apply to porter. 

*Borghese, Palazzo (p. 186), picture-gallery: Mondays, Wednes- 
days, and Fridays, 9-3 o'clock. 

*Borghese, Villa (p. 158), garden: daily, after 12 o'clock, except 
Mondays, Wed. and Frid.; statues in the casino on Saturdays, 
in winter 1-4, in summer 4-7. 

* Capitoline Museum (p. 214), daily, 10-3, except on public holi- 

days; admission 50 c; on Sundays gratis. 
Castello di S. Angelo (p. 273) , daily by permesso, obtainable at 

the Commando di Divisione Territoriale di Roma, Via del Burro 

(a street connecting the Piazza di Pietra and the Piazza S. Igna- 

zio ; PI. I, II, 16) No. 147, second floor. 
Catacombs of St. Calixtus (p. 329), daily, see p. 325. Each visitor 

should be provided with a candle (cerino). 
Colonna, Palazzo (p. 154), picture-gallery: daily, 11-3, except 

Sundays and holidays. 

* Conservatori, Palace of (-p. 211), bronzes and pictures ; times of 

admission same as for the Capitoline Museum (see above) ; Sale 
dei Conservatori shown by permesso only, see p. 214. 

Corsini, Palazzo (p. 316), picture-gallery: Mondays, Thursdays, 
and Saturdays, 9-3, except on holidays, and the 1st and 15th 
of every month ; but daily during the Easter fortnight. 

*Doria, Palazzo (p. 151), picture-gallery: Tues. and Frid. 10-2. 

\Farnese, Palazzo (p. 201), frescoes by Ann. Caracci; closed for the 

*Farnesina, Villa (p. 315), on the 1st and 15th of each month, 
10-3 : generally closed from 15th June to 1st Nov. (enquiry as 
to this may be made at the hotels or the booksellers' shops). 

* Forum Romanum (p. 219): daily from 9 till dusk. 
Kircheriano , Museo (p. 149), antiquities, daily 9-3 ; on Sundays 

gratis ; on other days adm. 1 fr. 

Collections, Villas, etc. ROME. Prelim. Inform 117 

* Lateran, Collections of the (p. 267), daily, 9-3 o'clock. 
S. Luca, Academy of(j>. 234), daily, 9-3. 

*Ludovisi, Villa (p. 162), collection of ancient sculptures, on Thurs- 
days from 10 till dusk, by permesso (for 6 persons), which may 
be procured at the traveller's consulate. 

[Massimo, Villa (p. 271), frescoes: closed, and no prospect at 
present of its being re-opened.] 

[Massimi alle Colonne, Palazzo (p. 199); the discus-thrower is 
now in the Pal. Lancelotti , p. 189.] 

Medici, Villa (p. 142), collection of casts: daily, 8-12, and 
afternoon till dusk, except Saturdays. 

* Palatine, Excavations on the (p. 236): daily, admission 1 fr. ; 

on Sundays gratis from 9 till dusk ; in June, July, and August 
from 6.30 to 10.30, and from 3 till dusk. 
* Pamfili, Villa Doria (p. 320), garden (and a few statues in the 
Casino) : Mondays and Fridays, after 1 o'clock ; two-horse car- 
riages also admitted. 

St. Peter's Dome (p. 283), on Thursdays, 8-10 a. m. 

Quirinale ,' Palazzo del (p. 168), the residence of the King and the 
Crown-prince, daily, but part of it only is shown. 

Rospigliosi , Casino (p. 169) , picture-gallery : Wednesdays and 
Saturdays 9-4. 

[Sciarra- Colonna, Palazzo, seep. 148.] 

Spada alia Reaola , Palazzo (p. 202), antiquities and picture- 
gallery : usually Mondays . Wednesdays , and Saturdays 10-3 ; 
closed in the height of summer. 

Thermae of Caracalla (p. 253), daily from 9 till dusk ; adm. 1 fr.; 
on Sundays gratis. 

Thermae of Titus (p. 232), at the same time. 

* Vatican Collections and Library (p. 285) accessible daily, except 

Sundays, gratis, by permesso. This may either be obtained 
through a consul, or by direct application at the Segretaria of 
the Maggiordomo (9-1 o'clock) in the Cortile di S. Damaso 
(p. 285). Intending visitors apply to the Swiss guard (no gra- 
tuity) at the Portone di Bronzo, opposite the chief entrance to 
the Vatican (p. 285) , and are conducted by him to the office, 
where they write their names in the permesso. The hotel- 
keepers also procure permessi for their guests at a charge of 
l 1 /) fr- each. On leaving the Vatican the visitor should not 
omit to procure at once another permesso in the way above 
mentioned (in the forenoon only), or apply to the custodian for 
its renewal (VW fr-)- 

Besides the permessi for artists and scientific men mentioned below, 
there were in 1876 two kinds of ordinary permessi: 1. For Raphael's 
Stanze and Loggie, the Picture Gallery, and the Sistine Chapel, daily 
8-11 and 2-4 o'clock , available for 5 persons. 2. Also for the Museum of 
Statuary, Tuesdays , Wednesdays, Fridays, and Saturdays, 8-11 and 2-4, 
for 5 persons. On Mondays and Thursdays special permes9i are required 

118 Prelim. Information. ROME. -Diary. 

for the Museum of Statuary, which are issued for the hours 8-11 only, and 
are also procurable at the office of the Maggiordomo, or through the custo- 

The Vatican Library is open on the same days and at the same hours 
as the Museum of Statuary, no permesso being required (entrance from 
the Museo Chiaramonti, p. 302). 

[By an Order of Jan. 1817, the forenoon hours for visiting the Museum 
of Statuary and the Library are prolonged till 12 o'clock (the afternoon 
hours remain as before).] 

Wolkonsky, Villa (p. 271) : Wednesdays and Saturdays, from 
an early hour till dusk. Permesso for 6 persons obtained through 
a consul or banker. 

Those who are desirous of studying, drawing, or copying in Roman 
museums or private collections must procure a Permesso, for which appli- 
cation must be made through the traveller's ambassador or consul. For the 
Papal Museums the necessary permission is granted by Monsignor Ricci 
(maggiordomo of the pope) at his office (see above) , the written appli- 
cation having been left there a day or two previously (separate permessi re- 
quired for the museums of the Vatican and Lateran , the Vatican picture- 
gallery, and Raphael's Loggie). In the case of Private Galleries, application 
must be made to the proprietor (in French, if the applicant prefer), stating 
at the same time precisely which picture it is intended to copy , as well 
as the size and description of the copy. In some collections copies of the 
original size must not be made. Respecting this and similar regulations, 
information should be previously obtained from the custodian. The follo- 
wing form of application to the Monsgr. Maggiordomo, may be also ad- 
dressed to a principe or marchese, the 'Revma' being in this case omitted. 

Eccellenza Revma, 

11 soltoscritto che si traltiene a Roma con lo scopo di proseguire in guesta 
capitate i suoi studj artislici (storici, etc.), si prende la liberta di rivolgersi 
con questa a Vra Eccellenza Revma pregando La perche voglia accordargli il 
grazioso permesso di far degli studj (dei disegni, delle notizie, etc.) nel Museo 
(nella Galleria) Vaticano. ^ 

Sperando di essere favorito da Vra Eccellenza Revma e pregando La di 
gradire anticipaiamente i piu sinceri suoi ringraziamenti, ha Vonore di pro- 
testarsi col piu profondo rispetlo „, 

di Vra Eccellenza Revma 
Roma li . . . . _ Ummo Obbiho Servitore 

A Sua Eccellenza Revma N. If. 

Monsignor Ricci-Paracciani 

Maggiordomo di Sua Santita. 


(To be compared with the preceding alphabetical list). 

Daily: Capitoline Museum (p. 214) and Palace of the Con- 
servatori (p. 211), 10-3; on Sundays gratis, on other days ad- 
mission 50 c. — Forum Romanum (p. 219), from 9 till dusk. —Ex- 
cavations on the Palatine (p. 236), from 9 till dusk, on Sundays 
gratis, on other days admission 1 fr. — Museo Kircheriano (p. 149), 
9-3, on Sundays gratis, on other days admission 1 fr. —Catacombs 
of St. Calixtus (p. 329), S. Agnese (p. 300), etc. 

Daily, except Sunday: Vatican Collections and Library, 8-11 
and 2-4 (Museum of Statuary closed on Monday and Thursday after- 
noons). — Collections of the Lateran (p. 267) 9-3. — Academy of S. 
Luca (p. 234) 9-3. — Galleria Colonna (p. 154) 11-3. — Galleria 
Barberini (p. 166) 12-5, on Thursdays 2-5. 

Duration of Visit. ROME. Prelim. Information. 119 

Sundays: Villa Borghese (p. 158), in the afternoon. 

Mondays: Galleria Borghese (p. 186) 9-3. — Galleria Corsini 
(p. 316) 9-3. — Villa Pamflli (p. 320) from 1 till dusk. 

Tuesdays: Galleria Doria (p. 151) 10-2. —Villa Albani(p. 163), 
and Villa Borghese (p. 158), in the afternoon. 

Wednesdays : Casino Rospigliosi (p. 169) 9-4. — Galleria Bor- 
ghese (p. 186) 9-3. — Villa Wolkonsky (p. 271) and Villa Borghese 
(p. 158), in the afternoon. 

Thursdays : Dome of St. Peter's (p. 283) 8-10. — Galleria Cor- 
sini (p. 316) 9-3. — Barberini Library (p. 167) 9-2. — Villa 
Ludovisi (p. 162), from 10 till dusk. — Villa Borghese (p. 158), 
in the afternoon. 

Fridays: Galleria Borghese (p. 186) 9-3. — Galleria Doria 
(p. 151) 10-2. — Villa Pamflli (p. 320) from 1 till dusk. 

Saturdays: Casino Rospigliosi (p. 169) 9-4. — Galleria Spada 
(p. 202) 10-3. — Galleria Corsini (p. 316) 9-3. — Antiquities in 
the Casino of the Villa Borghese (p. 159), in the afternoon. — 
Villa Wolkonsky (p. 271). 

Duration of Visit. In order to become thoroughly acquainted 
with the matchless attractions of Rome the traveller should if 
possible devote a whole winter to exploring them ; and even when 
time is limited, he should make a stay of 10-14 days at least, if 
he is desirous of forming an approximate idea of the charms of 
the place. 

Principal Attractions, where time is limited. 

Chuuches : St. Peter's (p. 276), S. Giovanni in Laterano (p. 265), S. Maria 
Maggiore (p. 175), S. Lorenzo Fuori le Mura (p. 179), S. Paolo Fuori le 
Mura (p. 251) , Sistine Chapel (p. 287) , S. Agostino (p. 190) , S. Clemente 
(p. 259), S. Croce in Gerusalemme (p. 182), S. Maria degli Angeli (p. 173), 
S. Maria in Aracoeli (p. 208). S. Maria sopra Minerva (p. 194), S. Maria della 
Pace (p. 197), S. Maria del Popolo (p. 140), S. Maria in Trastevere (p. 323), 
S. Onofrio (p. 314), S. Pietro in Vincoli (p. 183), S. Prassede (p. 177), S. 
Trinita de' Monti (p. 142). 

Palaces : Palazzo della Cancelleria (p. 200) , Farnese (p. 201), Giraud 
(p. 274), di Venezia (p. 155). 

Ruins : Forum (p. 219), Colosseum (p. 229), Imperial Palaces (p. 236), 
Cloaca Maxima (p. 245), Thermae of Titus and Caracalla (pp. 232, 253), 
Pantheon (p. 192), Theatre of Marcellus (p. 206), Forum of Trajan (p. 235), 
the so-called Temple of Antoninus Pius (p. 148), Pyramid of Cestius 
(p. 248). — Catacombs of St. Calixtus (p. 316). 

Collections of Statues in the Vatican (p. 299l, Capitol (p. 211), La- 
teran (p. 267), Villa Ludovisi (p. 162), Albani (p. 163), Borghese (p. 158), 
Palazzo Spada (p. 202). 

Pictuees|: Raphael's Loggie and Stanze (p. 290), the Farnesina (p. 315), 
galleries of the Vatican (p. 297) and Capitol (p. 243), of the Palazzi Borghese 
(p. 186), Barberini (p. 166), Colonna (p. 154), and Doria (p. 151). 

Pkomenades: Monte Pincio (p. 141), where a military hand plays on 
Sundays and Thursdays 2 hours before sunset (music in the Piazza Co- 
lonna in the height of summer only), on which occasions the fashionable 
world, both native and foreign , is largely represented. — Also the Villa 
Borghese, the most popular of the Roman villas, see p. 158. Then the 
Villa Boria-Pamfili (p. 320), and the Via Appia (p. 336). 

Points of View on the left bank : The Pincia (PI. 1, 18 ; p. 141), 

120 Orientation. ROME. History. 

Basilica of Constantine (PI. II, 20), Palatine (PI. II , 21), the space in front 
of the Lateran (PI. II , 30) , Monte Testaccio (PI. Ill , 13) ; on the right 
bank: 'S. Pietro in Montorio (PL II, 12), S. Onofrio (PI. II, 7), the gar- 
den of the Palazzo Corsini (PI. II, 11). 

Orientation. An idea of the topography of Rome is best ob- 
tained by visiting the principal points of view, and at the same 
time reading the following description of them. The accompany- 
ing panorama will also materially aid the traveller in ascertain- 
ing his bearings. The first afternoon at Rome should therefore be 
spent in visiting S. Pietro in Montorio, the ascent of which should 
be made at least half-an-hour before sunset. 

Preliminary Drive. The traveller should engage a cab for 
2-3 hrs. (tariff, p. Ill) and drive down the Corso as far as the Piazza 
di Venezia, through the Via di Marforio to the Forum, past the Co- 
losseum, through the Via di S. Giovanni in Laterano to the Piazza 
in front of the church, commanding a fine view of the Alban Mts.; 
then through the Via Merulana , passing S. Maria Maggiore, 
through the Via di S. Maria Maggiore, Via di S. Lorenzo in Pane- 
perna, Via Magnanapoli, across the Forum of Trajan, through the 
Via di S. Marco, Via delle Botteghe Oscure, across the Piazza Mat- 
tel, with its handsome fountain, through the Via de' Falegnami, 
Piazza S. Carlo, Via de' Pettinari, by Ponte Sisto to Trastevere, 
through the Longara to the Piazza di S. Pietro; then through 
the Borgo Nuovo, across the Piazza del Plebiscito, past the Castle 
of S. Angelo , over the Ponte S. Angelo, and through the Via 
Tordinone, etc. in a straight direction back to the Corso. 

History of the City of Rome f. 

Difficult as it undoubtedly is to trace the career of the Eternal 
City throughout upwards of two thousand years, and to mark and 

f Works on the history and topography of Rome, especially of the an- 
cient city, are extremely numerous. On the revival of science many scho- 
lars devoted themselves with the utmost zeal to antiquarian research; thus 
Poggio (1440), Flavio Biondo, and Lucio Fauno. The most important of the ear- 
lier works is that of Nardini (-Roma antica', 1660 ; 4th ed. by Nibby, 1818), 
The following are the most eminent Roman writers on the subject of the 
present century : C. Fea , 'Nuova Descrizione di Roma Antica e Moderna', 
1820; Ganina, 'Indicazione Topografica', 3rd ed. 1841; also Mbby, 'Roma 
nell' anno 1838', 3 vols. , 1843. — The most exhaustive German work on 
the subject, and one which has generally formed the basis of all subsequent 
investigations, is that begun under Niebuhr's auspices, and contributed to 
by Plainer, Bunsen , Gerhard, Ebstell, and Ulrichs (3 vols., Tubingen 1830 
-42). Subsequent discoveries have been made by W. A. Becker ('Topo- 
graphic', Leipzig, 1843), L. Preller, and other learned archaeologists. The 
article on 'Ancient Rome' in Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geo- 
graphy by T. Dyer (also published separately, 1864) affords a clear and in- 
telligent view of the subject; but this description also must now be re- 
garded as incomplete in consequence of the extensive discoveries which 
have been made since it was written. One of the most recent works on 
the subject is Jordan's 'Topographie der Stadt Rom im Alterthum' (Ber- 
lin, 1871). — Mediaeval Rome has been treated of far less frequently. The 
standard work on the subject is that of Gregorov ius (8 vols., Stuttgart, 1858 

Origin of Rome. ROME. History. 121 

appreciate the manifold vicissitudes which it has undergone, the 
traveller will naturally desire to form some acquaintance with 
the history of the ancient centre of Western civilisation, the city of 
the Republic and Empire, on the ruins of which the seat of a vast 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction was afterwards founded , and now the 
capital of an important and steadily progressing modern state. 
Wherever we tread , our thoughts are involuntarily diverted from 
the enjoyment of the present to the contemplation of the past ; and 
the most careless of pleasure-seekers will find it difficult to with- 
stand the peculiar influence of the place. The following sketch is 
merely designed to put the traveller in the way of making farther 
researches for himself, and deals exclusively with those leading and 
general facts with which he ought to be acquainted before proceed- 
ing to explore the city in detail. 

As the more remote history of Italy is involved in much ob- 
scurity, so also the origin of the city of Rome is to a great extent a 
matter of mere conjecture. It was not till a comparatively late 
period that the well known legend of Romulus and Remus was 
framed, and the year B. C. 753 fixed as the date of the foundation. 
In all probability, however , Rome may lay claim to far greater an- 
tiquity. We are led to this conclusion, not only by a number of 
ancient traditions , but also by the recent discovery in Latium of 
relics of the flint-period , an epoch far removed from any written 
records. The Palatine was regarded by the ancients as the nucleus 
of the city, around which new quarters grouped themselves by slow 
degrees ; and it was here that Romulus is said to have founded his 
city, the RomaQuadrata, of which Tacitus (Ann. 12, 24) states the 
supposed extent. Modern excavations have brought to light portions 
of the wall , gateways , and streets which belonged to the most an- 
cient settlement (see pp. 236, 237). After the town of Romulus had 
sprung up on the Palatine, a second, inhabited bySabines, was built 
on the Quirinal , and the two were subsequently united into one 
community. Whilst each retained its peculiar temples and sanctu- 
aries, the Forum , situated between them , and commanded by the 
castle and the temple of Jupiter on the Capitol , formed the com- 
mon focus and place of assembly of the entire state, and the Forum 
and Capitol maintained this importance down to the latest period of 
ancient Rome. The rapid growth of the city is mainly to be attri- 
buted to its situation , the most central in the peninsula , alike 
adapted for a great commercial town , and for the capital of a vast 
empire. The advantages of its position were thoroughly appreciated 
by the ancients themselves , and are thus enumerated by Livy 
(5, 54): 'flumen opportunum, quo ex mediterraneis locis fruges 

— 7'2), which terminates with the year 1535, the later volumes being the 
more valuable part of the work. Another important work is that of 
Reumont (3 vols. , Berlin, 1867), who treats of the subject from an eccle- 
siastical point of view. 

122 History. ROME. The Kings. 

devehantur , quo niaritirni commeatus aocipiantur, mare vicinum 
ad commoditates nee expositum nimia propinquitate ad pericula 
classium externarum , legionum Italia medium , ad incrementum 
urbis natum unice locum'. The Tiber was navigable for sea-going 
ships as far as Rome, whilst its tributaries, such as the Anio, Nera, 
Chiana, and Topino, contained sufficient water for the river vessels 
which maintained a busy traffic between Rome and the interior of 
the peninsula. The state of these rivers has, however, in the course 
of ages undergone a complete revolution, chiefly owing to the grad- 
ual levelling of the forests on the mountains , and at the present 
day the lower part only of the Tiber, below Orte, is navigable. 

"Whilst the origin of the capital of the world is traditionally re- 
ferred to Romulus, its extension is attributed with something more 
of certainty to ServiusTullius. Around the twin settlements on the 
Palatine and Quirinal, extensive suburbs on the Esquiline and 
Caelius , as well as on the lower ground between the hills, had 
sprung up ; for not only were numerous strangers induced to settle 
permanently at Rome on account of its commercial advantages, but 
the inhabitants of conquered Latin towns were frequently trans- 
planted thither. Out of these heterogeneous elements a new civic 
community was organised towards the close of the period of the 
kings , and its constitution commemorated by the erection of the 
Servian Wall, considerable remains of which are still extant. This 
structure , which was strengthened by a moat externally and a 
rampart within , is of great solidity. It enclosed the Aventine 
(p. 247), the Caelius, Esquiline, Viminal, Quirinal (p. 160), and 
Capitol (p. 208) , and is computed to have been about 7 M. in cir- 
cumference. "Whilst care was taken thus to protect the city ex- 
ternally, the kings were not less solicitous to embellish the interior 
with handsome buildings. To this period belongs the Circus in the 
valley between the Palatine and the Aventine (p. 247), and above 
all the Cloaca Maxima (p. 245), which was destined to drain the 
swampy site of the Forum, and is still admired for its massive con- 
struction. This energetic and brilliant development of the city 
under the kings of the Tarquinian family in the 6th cent. B. C. 
came to a close with the expulsion of the last king Tarquinius Su- 
perbus (509). 

During the first century of the Republic the united efforts of 
the citizens were directed to the task of establishing themselves 
more securely in the enjoyment of their new acquisitions; and in 
this they succeeded , although not without serious difficulty. It 
was a hard and bitter period of probation that the nation had to 
undergo in the first period of its new liberty, and it was not till the 
decline of the Etruscan power that Rome began to breathe freely 
again. After protracted struggles she succeeded in conquering and 
destroying her formidable rival Fe«(396), a victory by which the 
Roman supremacy was established over the south of Etruria as far 

History. ROME. The Republic. 123 

as the Ciruinian Forest. Shortly afterwards (390) the city, with the 
exception of the Capitol, was taken and entirely destroyed by the 
Gauls. Although this catastrophe occasioned only a transient loss 
of the prestige of Rome, it produced a marked effect on the external 
features of the city. The work of re-erection was undertaken with 
great precipitation ; the new streets were narrow and crooked, the 
houses poor and unattractive , and down to the time of Augustus, 
Rome was far from being a handsome city. Her steadily increasing 
power, however, could net fail in some degree to influence her ar- 
chitecture. During the contests for the supremacy over Italy , the 
first aqueduct and the first high road were constructed at Rome by 
Appius Claudius in 312 (Aqua and Via Appia , p. 336); in 272 a 
second aqueduct (Anio Vetus) was erected. Down to the period of 
the Punic wars Rome had not extended beyond the walls of Servius 
Tullius ; but, after the overthrow of Carthage had constituted her 
mistress of the world, the city rapidly increased. The wall was al- 
most everywhere demolished to make room for new buildings , so 
that even in the time of Augustus it was no longer an easy matter 
to determine its former position , and new quarters now sprang up 
on all sides. Speculation in houses was extensively carried on, and 
it was by this means that the Triumvir Crassus, among others, 
amassed his fortune ; for rents were high, and the houses of a slight 
and inexpensive construction. These insulae , or blocks of houses 
erected for hire, contrasted strikingly with the domus, or palaces of 
the wealthy , which were fitted up with the utmost magnificence 
and luxury. Thus, for example, the tribune Clodius, the well- 
known opponent of Cicero , purchased his house for the sum of 
14,800,600 sesterces (i. e. about 130,525 J.). During the last cen- 
tury B.C. the city began to assume an aspect more worthy of its 
proud dignity as capital of the civilised world. The streets, hitherto 
unpaved , were now converted into the massive lava-causeways 
which are still visible on many of the ancient roads (e. g. Via 
Appia). The highest ambition of the opulent nobles was to per- 
petuate their names by the erection of imposing public buildings. 
Thus in 184 M. Porcius Cato erected the first court of judicature 
(Basilica Portia) in the Forum , and others followed his example. 
Pompey was the founder of the first theatre in stone (p. 204). Ge- 
nerally, however, the structures of the republic were far inferior to 
those of the imperial epoch, and owing to this circumstance but few 
of the former have been preserved ( Tabularium of B. C. 78, p. 218; 
tombs of Bibulus, p. 157, and Caecilia Metella, p. 337). 

The transformation of the republic into a Military Despotism 
involved the introduction of a new architectural period also. Usur- 
pers are generally wont to direct their energies to the construction 
of new buildings , with a view to obscure the lustre of the older 
edifices , and to obliterate the associations connected with them. 
Caesar himself had formed the most extensive plans of this nature, 

124 History. ROME. The Emperors. 

but their execution was reserved for his more fortunate nephew. Of 
all the ruins of ancient Rome those of the buildings of Augustus 
occupy by far the highest rank , both in number and importance. 
The points especially worthy of note are the Campus Martius with 
the Pantheon (p. 192) and the Thermae of Agrippa (p. 194), the 
Theatre of Marcellus (p. 206) and the Mausoleum (p. 185), the Ba- 
silica Julia (p . 224) , and the Forum of Augustus with the Temple 
of Mars (p. 234). No fewer than 82 temples were restored by 
Augustus ('templorum omnium conditorem ac restitutorem' as he 
is termed by Livy) , who might well boast of having transformed 
Rome from a town of buck into a city of marble. During the re- 
publican period the ordinary volcanic stone of the neighbourhood 
was the usual building material, but the marble from the quarries 
of Carrara (discovered about 100 B. C, but not extensively worked 
till the time of Augustus) and the beautiful travertine from the vi- 
cinity of Tivoli were now employed. The administration and po- 
lice-system of the city were also re-organised by Augustus , who 
divided Rome into 14 quarters (regiones) , adapted to its increased 
extent (p. 125). A corps of watchmen (vigiles), who also served as Bre- 
men, was appointed to guard the city by night. These and other wise 
institutions, as well as the magnificence attained by the city under 
Augustus , are depicted in glowing terms by his contemporaries. 
His successors followed his example in the erection of public edi- 
fices , each striving to surpass his predecessors. In this respect 
Nero (54-68) displayed the most unbridled ambition. The con- 
flagration of the year 54 , which reduced the greater part of Rome 
to ashes , having been ignited , it is said , at the emperor's in- 
stigation, afforded him an opportunity of rebuilding the whole city 
in the most modern style and according to a regular plan. For his 
own use he erected the 'golden house' , a sumptuous palace with 
gardens, lakes, and pleasure-grounds of every description, covering 
an enormous area, extending from the Palatine across the valley of 
the Colosseum, and far up the Esquiline (p. 175). These and other 
works were destroyed by his successors, and well merited their 
fate ; the fragments which still bear the name of Nero at Rome are 

The Flavian Dynasty, which followed the Julian , has on the 
other hand perpetuated its memory by a number of most imposing 
works, above all the Colosseum (p. 229), which has ever been re- 
garded as the symbol of the power and greatness of Rome, the Baths 
of Titus on the Esquiline (p. 232) , and the Triumphal Arch 
(p. 229) erected after the destruction of Jerusalem. Under Trajan, 
architecture received a new impetus , and indeed attained the 
highest development of which the art was capable at Rome. To 
this the Forum of Trajan (p. 235) , with the column , and the 
reliefs afterwards employed to decorate Constantine's arch, bear the 
most eloquent testimony. Under Trajan, indeed, the culminating 

History. ROME. The Emperors. 125 

point both of art and of political greatness was attained. Thence- 
forward the greatness of the empire began gradually, but steadily to 
decline. Although under the next emperor Hadrian this down- 
ward tendency was apparently arrested, yet the monuments of his 
reign , such as the Temple of Venus and Roma (p. 229) and his 
Mausoleum (p. 273), begin to exhibit traces of degeneracy. The same 
remark applies also to the time of the Antonines. These monarchs 
were remarkable for their excellent qualities as sovereigns , and 
their peaceful sway has frequently been regarded as the period 
during which mankind in general enjoyed the greatest prosperity. 
There is even a tradition that 'the good old times' will return when 
the equestrian statue of the worthy Marcus Aurelius, the gilding of 
which has almost entirely disappeared, shall resume its costly cover- 
ing. This, however, was but the lull preceding a storm. The great 
plague under the latter emperor was the first of a series of fearful 
calamities which devastated the empire. Throughout an entire cen- 
tury civil wars , incursions of barbarians , famine , and pestilence 
succeeded each other without intermission. Although Rome was 
less affected by these horrors than the provinces , it is computed 
that the population of the city , which at the beginning of the 2nd 
cent, was about l'/2 million, had dwindled to one-half by the time 
of Diocletian. A constant decline in architectural taste is still trace- 
able; but, as building always constituted an important feature in 
the policy of the emperors, the number and extent of the ruins of 
this period is considerable. To this epoch belong the Column of 
Marcus Aurelius (p. 147), the Triumphal Arch of Septimius Severus 
(p. 222), the magnificent Baths of Caracalla (p. 253), the Temple 
of the Sun of Aurelian (p. 155) , and the extensive Thermae of 
Diocletian (p. 173). 

After the Punic War the walls of the city had been suffered to 
fall to decay, and during nearly five centuries Rome was destitute 
of fortification. Under the emperor Aurelian, however, danger 
became so imminent that it was deemed necessary again to protect 
the city by a wall against the attacks of the barbarians. This 
structure is to a great extent identical with that which is still 
standing. The latest important ruins of antiquity bear the name of 
Constantine thb Gheat , viz. the Basil ica (p . 228) , Baths (pp. 
155, 168), and Triumphal Arch (p. 232). The two former were, 
however, erected by his rival Maxentius. Constantine manifested 
little partiality for Rome and ancient traditions, and the transference 
of the seat of empire to Byzantium (in 330) marks a decided turn- 
ing-point in the history of the city, as well as in that of the whole 
empire. Rome indeed was still great on account of its glorious past 
and its magnificent monuments , but in many respects it had sunk 
to the level of a mere provincial town. No new works were thence- 
forth undertaken, and the old gradually fell to decay. 

The city was still divided, in accordance with the Ausustean System, 
into fourteen regions, in enumerating which we shall name the principal 

126 History. ROME. Rise of Christianity. 

ruins belonging to each : — 1. Porta Capena , Via Appia , within the city 
(p. 253); 2. Caelimontium , Cselius (p. 257); 3. Jsis et Serapis, Colosseum 
(p. 229), Baths of Titus (p. 232) ; 4. Templum Pads, Venus et Roma (p. 229), 
Basilica of Constantine (p. 228), Temple of Faustina (p. 226) ; 5. Exquiliae, 
ruins near S. Croce (p. 182) ; 6. Alta Semita, Baths of Constantine (p. 168) and 
Diocletian (p. 173), gardens of Sallust (p. 162); 7. Via Lata, the modern 
Corso (p. 145) ; 8. Forum Romanum , the republican and imperial Fori 
(pp. 219, 231) and the Capitol (p. 208) ; 9. Circus Flaminius, Theatres of Mar- 
cellus (p. 206) and Pompey (p. 204) , colonnade of Octavia (p. 206), Pan- 
theon (p. 192), column of Marcus Aurelius (p. 147); 10. Palatium, Pala- 
tine (p. 236); 11. Circus Maximus, temple in the Forum Boarium (p. 245); 
12. Piscina Publica, Baths of Caracal la (p. 253); 13. Aventinus, Pyramid 
of Cestius (p. 248) ; 14. Transtiberim, Trastevere and the Borgo. Accord- 
ing to the statistics of this period, Borne possessed 37 gates, from which 
28 high roads diverged, and 19 aqueducts; and although four only of these 
last are now in use , there is probably no city in the world which can 
boast of such an excellent supply of water as Rome. The banks of the 
Tiber were connected by S bridges. There were 423 streets, 1790 palaces, 
and 46,602 dwelling-houses. Among the public structures are mentioned 
11 Thermse , 856 bath-rooms , 1352 fountains in the streets , 423 temples, 
36 triumphal arches, 10 basilicas, etc. When the grandeur and magnificence 
suggested by these numbers is considered, it may appear a matter of sur- 
prise that comparatively so few relics now remain ; but it must be borne 
in mind that the work of destruction progressed steadily during nearly a 
thousand years , and was not arrested till the era of the Renaissance , but 
for which even the monuments still existing would ere now have been con- 
signed to oblivion. 

The Catacombs , the earliest burial-places of the Christians, 
illustrate the gradual progress of this interesting community, in 
spite of every persecution, from the 1st century downwards. At 
the beginning of the year 313 Constantine issued his celebrated 
decree from Milan, according to Christianity equal rights with all 
other religions. This was the decisive step which led to the union 
of the church with the state. In 324 the first oecumenical council 
was held at Isictea , and in 337 the emperor caused himself to be 
baptised when on his deathbed. Tradition attributes the earliest 
ecclesiastical division of Rome into seven diaconates to St. Clement, 
the fourth bishop , and St. Peter is said to have founded the first 
place of worship in the house of the senator Pudens, now the 
church of S. Pudenziana (p. 175). To Calixtus I. (217-22) is 
ascribed the foundation of the church of $. Maria in Trastevere 
(p. 323), and to Urban, his successor, that of 5. Cecilia (p. 323). 
About the beginning of the fourth century S. Alessio and S. Prisca 
on the Aventine are supposed to have been founded. Of these 
churches, however, and also of the edifices erected by Constantine, 
no trustworthy record has been handed down to us. To that 
monarch tradition attributes the foundation of the following 
churches — the Lateran, St. Peter's, S. Paolo Fuori, S. Croce in 
Oerusalemme , S. Agnese Fuori, S. Lorenzo Fuori and S. Pietro e 
Marcellino at Torre Pignattara (p. 342), — but probably errone- 
ously , with the exception of the first, which was styled 'omnium 
urbis et orbis ecclesiarum mater et caput'. It is, however, note- 
worthy that the oldest and most important churches were generally 
outside the gates, or at least in their immediate vicinity ; and this 

History. ROME. Early Middle Ages. 127 

is accounted for by the fact that the Roman aristocracy at first clung 
tenaciously to the old traditions, and for a long period the city pre- 
served its heathen character. The state at length overcame this 
antagonism. In 382 the altar of Victoria was removed from the 
senate-hall, and in 408 the ancient religion was at length deprived 
by a law of Honorius of all its temporal possessions , and thus in- 
directly of its spiritual authority also. The destruction of the an- 
cient temples, or their transformation into Christian places of wor- 
ship now began, and the churches rapidly increased in number. At 
this early period Rome possessed 28 parish churches (tituli) , be- 
sides numerous chapels, and among them arose the five Patriarchal 
Churches, presided over by the pope, and forming a community to 
which the whole body of believers throughout the world was con- 
sidered to belong. These five were S. Giovanni in Laterano, S. 
Pietro, S. Paolo, S. Lorenzo, and the church of 8. Maria Maggiore 
founded by Liberius. Besides these, S. Croat in Oerusalemme and 
S. Sebastiano, erected over the catacombs of the Via Appia, enjoyed 
special veneration. These formed the 'Seven Churches of Rome' to 
which pilgrims flocked from every part of western Christendom. 
The number of monasteries now steadily increased, and at the same 
time the inroads of poverty made rapid strides. 

In the 4th Century the cultivation of the Roman Campagna 
began to be seriously neglected, and in an official document of the 
year 395 it is stated that upwards of 500 square miles of arable land 
had been abandoned and converted into morass. The malaria at the 
same time extended its baneful sway from the coast into the in- 
terior of the country. The storms of the barbarian irruptions greatly 
aggravated the misery. Although the Vandals and Goths are often 
erroneously held responsible for the destruction of all the great 
monuments of antiquity , which , on the contrary, Theodoric the 
Great did his utmost to protect, Rom» doubtless suffered terribly 
from having been the scene of their battles and pillagings. In 410 
the city was plundered by Alaric, and in 445 by the Vandals , and 
in 537 it sustained its first siege from the Goths under Vitiges. 
They laid waste the Campagna and cut off all the supplies of water 
brought to the city by the aqueducts, but the skill of Belisarius, 
and the strength of the walls , particularly those of the Castle of 
S. Angelo, effectually repelled their attacks on the city. In March 
538 they were at length compelled to abandon their designs, after 
having beleaguered the city for upwards of a year. In December 
546, Totilas, the king of the Goths, entered Rome, and is said to 
have found not more than 500 persons within the walls of the 
devastated city. Belisarius then repaired the walls which had been 
partially destroyed, and in 547 he sustained a second siege. In 549 
the city again fell into the hands of Totilas, but in 552 it was re- 
captured by Narses and again united with the Byzantine empire. 
About this period the city was reduced by war, pestilence, and 

128 History. ROME. The Middle Ages. 

poverty to a depth of misery which was never again paralleled, ex- 
cept during the absence of the papal court at Avignon. No thorough 
restoration was possible, for the Byzantine emperors cared nothing 
for Rome, and in the Lombards arose new enemies to their dynasty 
in Italy. In 663 Constans II. visited Rome , an interval of 306 
years having elapsed since it had been entered by a Byzantine em- 
peror, and availed himself of the opportunity to carry off the last 
remains of bronze with which the ancient monuments were de- 
corated. In 755 the Lombards under their duke Aiatolf besieged 
Rome for two months and ruthlessly devastated the Campagna, 
which during the preceding interval of peace had begun to wear a 
more smiling aspect. A lamentation of that period begins thus : — 

'Nobilibus quondam fueras constructa patronis, 
Subdita nunc servis, heu male Roma ruis; 

Deseruere tui tanto te tempore reges, 

Cessit et ad Greecos nomen honosque tuns', 
and terminates with the words : — 

'Nam nisi te Petri meritum Paulique foveret, 
Tempore jam longo Roma misella fores'. 

It was in fact the tradition , indelibly attaching to Rome, of the 
great struggles and victories of Christianity which preserved the 
city from total destruction. The transformation of heathen into 
Christian Rome was accompanied by the gradual development of 
Papacy as the supreme ecclesiastical power in the West. Leo the 
Great (440-461) and Gregory the Great (590-604) may be regarded 
as the chief originators of this scheme of aggrandisement. These 
prelates and their successors were indefatigable in their efforts to 
realise their project, and under their auspices, notwithstanding the 
poverty and misery into which Rome had sunk , new churches and 
monasteries were constantly springing up among the ruins of the 
monuments of antiquity , and the last feeble spark of artistic taste 
which still survived was devoted to the decoration of these build- 
ings. The objects at which they chiefly aimed were independence 
of Byzantium, the subjection of the Eastern church to the court of 
Rome, and the conversion of the heathen Germans, the accomplish- 
ment of which would materially pave the way for their ulterior am- 
bitious schemes. In 727 the Lombard king Luitprand presented 
Sutri, which had been captured by him, to the pope, this being the 
first instance of a town being presented to the church, and this gift 
constituted a basis for the subsequent formation of the States of the 
Church. In 755, on the invitation of the pope, the Frankish king 
Pepin proceeded to Italy and practically put an end to the Byzan- 
tine supremacy. It is not known whether that monarch absolutely 
made over the Exarchate of Ravenna and the other towns to the re- 
presentative of St. Peter , or whether he granted them to him as a 
nef ; but it is certain that the temporal power of the popes and their 
supremacy over Rome dates from the grants made by Pepin to the 
church. On Christmas Day , in the year 800 , Charlemagne was. 

History. ROME. The Middle Ages. 129 

crowned by Leo J J J., and from that period dates the career of the 
'Holy Roman Empire' and the Medieval History of the Roman 
Catholic Church. 

A characteristic of this period is to be found in the numerous, 
many-storied towers of red brick which contrast so strongly with 
the monuments of ancient Rome. This style of architecture was 
developed in the Carlovingian epoch, although most of these towers 
now extant were not erected before the 12th or 13th century. In 
still greater numbers sprang up towers of a defensive character, a 
few only of which, such as the so-called Torre di Nerone (p. 169), 
are still preserved. The forest of towers , belonging to numerous 
different owners , which reared themselves over the ruins of the 
mistress of the world , affords at the same time a clue to the 
character of the whole epoch ; for , in spite of the nominal sway 
exercised over the greater part of Europe by the pope and the em- 
peror, continual feuds raged both at Rome and elsewhere between 
the temporal and spiritual powers , and between the nobility and 
the populace. The great monuments of antiquity were now doomed 
to utter destruction, and their fate is thus described by the historian 
Gregovorius (in, 565): — 'Charlemagne had already set the ex- 
ample of carrying off ancient columns and sculptures to adorn his 
cathedral at Aix-la-Chapelle , and the popes , who regarded the 
greatest monuments of Rome as the property of the state, possessed 
neither taste, nor time , nor ability to take measures for their pre- 
servation. The plundering of ancient buildings became the order 
of the day. The priests were indefatigable in transferring antique 
columns and marbles to their churches ; the nobles, and even the 
abbots , took possession of magnificent ancient edifices which they 
disfigured by the addition of modern towers ; and the citizens estab- 
lished their workshops, rope- walks, and smithies in the towers 
and circuses of imperial Rome. The fisherman selling his fish near 
the bridges over the Tiber, the butcher displaying his meat at the 
theatre of Marcellus, and the baker exposing his bread for sale, de- 
posited their wares on the magnificent slabs of marble which had 
once been used as seats by the senators in the theatre or circus and 
perhaps by Caesar, Mark Antony, Augustus , and other masters of 
the world. The elaborately sculptured sarcophagi of Roman heroes 
were scattered in every direction and converted into cisterns, wash- 
ing-vats, and troughs for swine ; and the table of the tailor and the 
shoemaker was perhaps formed of the cippus of some illustrious 
Roman, or of a slab of alabaster once used by some noble Roman 
matron for the display of her jewellery. For several centuries Rome 
may be said to have resembled a vast lime-kiln , into which the 
costliest marbles were recklessly cast for the purpose of burning 
lime ; and thus did the Romans incessantly pillage, burn, dismantle, 
and utterly destroy their glorious old city'. 

Leo IV. encircled the 'Leonine City' with a wall , and erected 
Baedeker. Italy II. 5th Edition. 9 

130 History. ROME. The Middle Ages. 

other useful structures , which indicate a renewed period of pros- 
perity; but the ravages of the Saracens in the city and its en- 
virons soon prevented farther progress. When at length these bar- 
barians were finally subdued by John X., the city was repeatedly 
besieged and captured by German armies during the contest for the 
imperial supremacy ; and subsequently, in consequence of incessant 
civic feuds , the whole city was converted into a number of distinct 
fortified quarters, with castellated houses, in the construction of 
which numerous monuments of antiquity were ruthlessly destroyed 
for the sake of the building materials they afforded. Every tem- 
porary re-establishment of peace was invariably followed by new 
scenes of devastation, as when the senator Brancaleone dismantled 
no fewer than 150 of the strongholds of the warlike nobles. 

The constantly increasing civic and national dissensions at 
length compelled Clement V. in 1309 to transfer the seat of the 
pontifical government to Avignon, where it remained till 1377, 
whilst Rome was successively governed by Guelphs and Ghibellines, 
Neapolitans and Germans , Orsini's and Colonna's, and for a brief 
period (1347) Cola di Bienzi even succeeded in restoring the an- 
cient republican form of government. This was an epoch of the ut- 
most misery, when poverty, war, and disease had reduced the popu- 
lation to less than 20,000 souls. 

A more happy era was inaugurated by the return of Gregory IX. 
to the city. After the termination of the papal schism(1378-1417), 
the new development of the city progressed rapidly, aided by the 
vast sums of money which flowed into the papal coffers, and by the 
revival of taste for art and science promoted by Nicholas V., Ju- 
lius II., Leo X., and others. In 1527 the city was fearfully devas- 
tated by the troops of Charles of Bourbon ; but it gradually re- 
covered from the blow , its population again increased, and many 
churches and palaces were restored or re-erected by the popes, their 
cardinals, and favourites, especially during the pontificate of Six- 
tus V. (1585-90), to whom modern Rome is chiefly indebted for its 
characteristic features. In 1798 a republic was established for a 
short period at Rome , and from 1809 to 1814 the city was under 
the supremacy of France. A republican form of government was 
again declared in 1849, in consequence of the events of the previous 
year, but on 12th April, 1850, Pius IX. was restored by the 
French. The city was then garrisoned by 15,000 French troops, 
who were withdrawn in December 1866, in accordance with the 
convention of 15th Sept., 1864; but they were recalled after the 
Garibaldian hostilities of 1867, and were quartered in the environs 
until the breaking out of the Franco-Prussian war of 1870. On 
20th Sept. of that year the Italian troops marched into the city, 
after a bombardment of five hours. The States of the Church are 
now incorporated with the kingdom of Italy, of which Rome is once 
more the capital. 

Chronolog. Table of 

ROME. Emperors and Popes. l'Sl 



Bom. Emp. 

Popes t. 


Bom. Emp. 



Julius Csesar 




Gordian III. 


Ceesar Octa- 
vianus Au- 


Philip the 








Gallus and 

Cornelius, 251. 






St. Peter, 42. 


Lucius I., 252. 





Stephen I., 254. 


Martyrdom of 


St. Peter. 


Sixtus II., 257. 



Linus, 67. 


Dionysius, 259. 







Claudius II. 

Felix I. 






Cletus, 78. 





Clement, 90. 














Carinus and 










Alexander I. 








Sixtus I. 





Chlorus and 








Pius I. 




Marcus Au- 


the Great 
(sole Emp. 







Maximin II. 






Victor I., 185. 






Didius Ju- 





Sylvester I. 







Constantine II. 

Julius I. 


(Geta d. 212.) 



Zephyrinus, 198. 









Calixtus I., 217. 





<*H OJ 




c u 


Urban I., 222. 

nian I. 

..2 8 


Pontianus, 230. 




Anterus, 235. 




Fabianus, 236. 



Gordian I. 


Damasus I. 

and II. 







+. The dates of the popes down to Constantine 
been handed down by vague tradition only. 

are uncertain, having 

132 Chronolog. Table of ROME. Emperors and Popes. 


Rom. Erap. 



Rom. Emp. 





St. Martin I. 




St. Eugene I. 



St. Vitalianus. 


Honorius ■}-. 






Donus I. 


Anastasius I. 


St. Agathus. 


Innocent I. 


St. Leo II. 



St. Benedict II. 




John V. 


Valentinian III 

Boniface I. 





St. Sergius I. 


Ccelestimis I. 


John VI. 




John VII. 


Sixtus III. 





Leo I., the Great. 




Leo and Majo- 


St. Gregory II. 



St. Gregory III. 

Lib. Severus. 


St. Zacharias. 



Stephen II. 




St. Paul I. 




Stephen III. 

Julius Nepos. 


Hadrian I. 


Romulus Au- 


Rom. Emp. of 

St. Leo III. 


End of the W. 

Germ, origin. 





Felix II. 


Louis the 





Anastasius II. 


Stephen IV. 




St. Paschalis I. 




Eugene II. 


John I. 




Felix III. 

Gregory IV. 


Boniface II ft- 




John II. 


Sergius II. 


St. Agapitus I. 


St. Leo IV. 


St. SiLverius. 


Louis II. 

Benedict III. 




St. Nicholas I. 


Pelagius I. 


Hadrian II. 


John III. 


John VIII. 


Benedict I. 


Charles the 


Pelagius II. 



St. Gregory I. the 


Martin II. 



Charles the 

Hadrian III. 





Boniface III. 


Stephen V. 


S. Boniface IV. 








Boniface V. 


Boniface VI. 


Honorius I. 

Stephen VI. 




Romanus I. 

John IV. 


Theodorus II. 


Theodorus I. 

John IX. 

t From 395, the year of the death of Theodosius , the division of the 
Empire became permanent ; in the above table the Emperors of the W. 
Roman Empire only are enumerated. 

ft Thus far all the popes have been canonised. 

Chronolog. Table of ROME. Emperors and Popes. 133 


Rom. Emp. 



Bom. Emp. 


900 Louis the 

Benedict IV. 


Conrad III. 


of Hohen- 


Leo V. 




Coelestine 11. 


Sergius III. 


Lucius II. 


Anastasius III. 


Eugene III. 


Conrad I. 


Frederick I. 





John X. 


Anastasius IV. 


Henry I. the 


Hadrian IV. 



Alexander III. 


Leo VI. 


Lucius III. 


Stephen VII. 


Urban III. 


John XI. 


Gregory VIII. 


Otho I. 

Leo VII. 


Clement III. 


Stephen VIII. 


Henry VI. 


Martin III. 


Coelestine III. 


Agapetus II. 


Otho IV. 


John XII. 


Innocent III. 


Leo VIII. 


Frederick II. 

Benedict V. 


Honorius III. 


John XIII. 


Gregory IX. 


Benedict VI. 


Coelestine IV. 


Otho II. 

Donus II. 


Innocent IV. 


Benedict VII. 


Conrad IV. 


Otho III. 

John XIV. 



Alexander IV. 


John XV. 


Urban IV. 


Gregory V. 


Clement IV. 


Sylvester II. 


Gregory X. 


Henry II. 


Rudolph of 


John XVII. 


John XVIII. 


Innocent V. 


Sergius IV. 

Hadrian V. 


Benedict VIII. 

John XX. 


Conrad II. 

John XIX. 

or XXI. 


Benedict IX. 


Nicholas III. 


Henry III. 


Martin IV. 


Gregory VI. 


Honorius IV. 

Clement II. 


Nicholas IV. 


Damasus II. 


Albert I. and 


St. Leo IX. 

Adolph of 


Victor II. 



Henry IV. 


St. Coelestine V. 


Stephen IX. 


Boniface VIII. 


Nicholas II. 


Benedict XI. 


Alexander II. 


Clement V. 


Gregory VII. 


Henry VII. of 


Victor III. 


Louis of Ba- 


Urban II. 

varia and 


Paschalis II. 

Frederick of 


Henry V. 



Gelasius II. 


John XXII. 


Calixtus II. 


Benedict XII. 


Honorius II. 


Clement VI. 


Lothaire of 


Charles IV. of 


Innocent II. 


Innocent VI. 
Urban V. 

134 Chronolog. Table of ROME. Emperors and Popes. 


Rom. Einp. 



Rom. Emp. 



Gregory XI. 

compagni of 



Urban VI. 



Boniface IX. 


Rudolph II. 


Rupert of the 


Sixtus V. (Felix 


Innocent VII. 


Urban VII. 


Gregory XII. 



Alexander V. 

Castagna of 



John XXIII. 



Martin V. 


Gregory XIV. 


Eugene IV. 

(Nic. Sfondrati 


Albert II. 

of Milan). 


Frederick III. 


/,A-jJi* .'- '. '■' 

Innocent IX. 


Nicholas V. 


'■»> •<•.'. . 



Calixtus III. 

- . - ''.-- v . ■ 

Facchinetti of 


Pius II. (iEneas 


Sylvius , Siena). 


Clement VIII. 


Paul II. 

(Hippolyt. Aldo- 


Sixtus IV. 
(Francis della 

brandini of 

Rovere of 


Leo XI. (Alexan- 


der Medici). 


Innocent VIII. 
(Joann. B. Cibo 

Paul V. (Camillo 

of Genoa). 




Alexander VI. 


Ferdinand II. 

(Roder. Borgia). 


Gregory XV. 


Maximilian I. 

(Alexander Lu- 


Pius III. (Fran- 


cis Piccolomini 


1 . ■' > - / 

UrbanVIII. (Maf- 

of Siena). 

feo Barberini). 


Julius II. (Julian 


Ferdinand III. 

della Rovere). 


Innocent X. — 


Leo X. (John de' 



Charles V. 


Alexander VII. 


Hadrian VI. 
(of Utrecht). 

(Fabio Chigi of 


Clement VII. 


Leopold I. 

(Julius Medici). 


Clement IX. 


Paul III. (Alex- 
ander Farnese). 

(Giul. Rospig- 


Julius III. (Joan. 
Maria de Monte). 


Clement X. 
(Emilio Altieri). 


Marcellus II. 
Paul IV. (Gian 
Pietro Caraffa 


Innocent XI. 

of Naples). 


Alexander XIII. 


Ferdinand I. 

(Pietro Otto- 


Pius IV. (Joan. 
Angelus Medici 


of Milan). 


Innocent XII. 


Maximilian II. 

(Ant. Pigna- 


St. Pius V. 


(Ghislieri of 


Clement XI. 


(Giov. Franc. 


Gregory XIII. 

1705 Joseph I. 


(Ugo Buon- 


Charles VI. 



Environs. lo5 


Rom. Emp. 

Popes. A.D. 

Rom. Emp. 



Innocent XIII. 


Leopold II. 

(Mich. Ang. de 


Francis II. 



Pius VII. (Gre- 


Benedict XIII. 
(Vine. Maria 

gorio Barnaba 
Chiaramonti of 


Clement XII. 
(Lorenzo Cor- 


Leo XII. (Annib. 
della Genga of 


Benedict XIV. 
(Prosp. Lam- 


Pius VIII. 
(Franc. Xav. 
Castiglione of 


Charles VII. 


of Bavaria. 


Gregory XVI. 


Francis I. 

(Mauro Capellari 


Clement XIII. 

of Belluno). 

(Carlo Rezzo- 


Pius IX. (Gio- 

nico of Venice). 

vanni Maria 


Joseph II. 

Mastai - Feretti 


Clement XIV. 
(Giov. Ant. Gan- 
ganelli of Ri- 

of Sinigaglia, 
born 13. May, 
1792, Cardinal 
1839, Pope 16. 


Pins VI. (Giov. 
Ang. Braschi). 

June 1846). 

Rome is situated (41° 53' 54" N. lat., 12° 29" E. longit., meri- 
dian of Greenwich) in an undulating volcanic plain, ■which extends 
from Capo Linaro, S. of Civita Vecchia, to the Promontorio Circeo, 
a distance of about 85 M., and between the Apennines and the sea, 
a width of 25 M. The city is built on both banks of the Tiber, the 
largest river in the Italian peninsula, 14 M. from its influx into the 
Mediterranean. The prospect from one of the hills of Rome — and 
no city is more replete with ever-varying and delightful views — 
is bounded towards the E. by the unbroken chain of the Apennines, 
which rise at a distance of 10 to 20 M. In the extreme JN". towers 
the indented ridge of Soracte (2260 ft.), occupying an isolated po- 
sition in the plain, and separated by the Tiber from the principal 
range of the Apennines. Farther E., and still more distant , is the 
Leonessa group (7257 ft.), which approaches the Central Apennines. 
Considerably nearer lies the range of the Sabine Mts. The summit 
at the angle which they form by their abutment on the Campagna 
is M. Gennaro (4163 ft.), the Lucretilis of Horace; the village at 
the base is Monticelli (1295 ft.). Farther off, on the slope of the 
hill, lies Tivoli, recognisable by its villas and olive-gardens. More 
towards the S., on the last visible spur of the Sabine Mts. (2513 ft.), 
is situated Palestrina, the Prseneste of antiquity. A depression 
4 M. in width only, separates the Apennines from the volcanic Al- 
ban Mts., above which a few peaks of the distant Volscian Mts. 

136 Topography. KOME. The Tiber. 

appear. On the E. spur of the Alban Mts. lies the village of Co- 
lonna (1180 ft.). The following villages are Rocca Priora (2352 ft.) 
and Monte Porzio (1529 ft.); then the town of Frascati (2218 ft.), 
below the ancient Tusculum. The highest peak of the Alban Mts. is 
M. Cavo (3130 ft.), once surmounted by a temple of the Alban Ju- 
piter, now by a Passionist monastery. On its slope lies the village 
of Rocca di Papa (2647 ft.), loftily and picturesquely situated, be- 
low which, towards the plain, is the town of Marino (1322 ft.). 
The village , with the castle farther to the W. on the hill, is Castel 
Gandolfo ; the mountain then gradually sinks to the level of the 
plain. Towards the W. the sea is visible from a few of the highest 
points only. On the N. the eye rests on the Janiculus (282 ft.), a 
volcanic chain of hills approaching close to the river, beyond which 
the horizon is bounded by mountains also of volcanic formation : 
towards the sea, to the left, the mountains of Tolfa (2040 ft.), then 
the heights around the lake of Bracciano with the peak of Rocca 
Romana (2018 ft.), the Ciminian Forest (now generally called the 
mountains of Viterbo, 3464 ft.); the nearest point to the right is 
the crater of Baccano, with the wooded bill of M. Musino (1319 ft.). 
The plain enclosed by this spacious amphitheatre of mountains, and 
intersected by the Tiber and the Anio, which descends from Tivoli 
and falls into the former II/2 M. above Rome, contains a sprinkling 
of farms and villages, but is far more replete with witnesses of its 
former greatness and present desolation in the innumerable and ex- 
tensive ruins which cover it in every direction. 

The "Wall by which modern Rome is surrounded is 14 M. in 
length, constructed of brick, and on the outside about 55 ft. in height. 
The greater part of it dates from 271 to 276, having been begun by 
the Emp. Aurelian, completed by Probus, and subsequently restored 
by Honorius, Theodoric, Belisarius, and several popes. The city is 
entered by Twelve Gates (several of earlier date being now walled 
up). Of these the most important is the Porta del Popolo, whence 
the grand route to N. and E. Italy issues, afterwards crossing the 
Tiber by the Ponte Molle, l'/ 2 M. from the city. Receding from the 
river , follow : Porta Salara , Porta Pia , Porta S. Lorenzo (road 
to Tivoli) , Porta Maggiore (to Palestrina) , Porta S. Giovanni (to 
Frascati and Albano) , Porta S. Sebastiano (Via Appia) , Porta S. 
Paolo (to Ostia). Then, on the right bank of the Tiber : Porta Por- 
tese (to Porto) , Porta S. Pancrazio , Porta Cavaleggieri, and Porta 

The Tiber reaches Romes after a course of about 216 M., and 
intersects the city from N. to S. The water is turbid (the 'flavus 
Tiberis' of Horace) , and rises to a considerable height after con- 
tinued rain. The average width of the river is about 65 yds. and 
its depth 20 ft. , but it sometimes rises as much as 30-35 ft. , as 
was the case during the great inundation of 1871. The con- 
struction of an artificial channel for the river is projected. The 

Topography. ROME. The Hills of Rome. 137 

navigation of the river, by means of which the commerce of im- 
perial Rome was carried on in both directions , with transmarine 
nations as well as with the Italian provinces, is now comparatively 
insignificant. The Tiber enters the city not far from the base of 
M. Pincio, and describes three curves within its precincts : the first 
towards the S.W. , skirting the quarter of the Vatican, the second 
to the S.E., bounding the Campus Martius and terminating at the 
island and the Capitol, and the third to the S.W., quitting the 
city by the Aventine. 

On the Right Bank of the Tiber lies the more modern and 
smaller portion of the city. This part is divided into two halves : 
on the N. the Borgo around the Vatican and St. Peter's, encircled 
with a wall by Leo IV. in 851 and erected into a separate town ; 
on the S., lying on the river and the slopes of the Janiculus, Tras- 
tevere, which from a very remote period has formed a tete-de-pont 
of Rome against Etruria, and was a densely populated suburb in the 
reign of Augustus. These two portions are connected by the long 
Via della Longara, constructed by Sixtus V. — The banks of the 
Tiber are connected by means of Five Bridges : the Ponte S. An- 
gelo near the castle of that name , below which the Ponte Leonino, 
a new suspension bridge , crosses from the Longara; then fromTras- 
tevere the Ponte Sisto ; another traverses the island , the portion 
from Trastevere to the island being called Ponte S. Bartolommeo, 
and thence to the left bank the Ponte de' Quattro Capi; finally, be- 
low the island, is the Ponte Rotto. 

The more ancient portion of the city, properly so called , lies 
on the Left Bank, partly in the plain which extends along the river, 
the ancient Campus Martius, and partly on the surrounding hills. 
Modern Rome is principally confined to the plain, whilst the Heights 
on which the ancient city stood are now to a great extent un- 
inhabited, but have recently again begun to be occupied by houses. 
These are the far-famed Seven Hills of Rome. The least exten- 
sive, but historically most important, is the Capitoline (161 ft.), 
which rises near the Tiber and the island, and at the present day 
forms to some extent the barrier between ancient and modern Rome. 
It consists of a narrow ridge extending from S.W. to N.E., culmin- 
ating in two summits, separated by a depression : on the S.W. 
point, towards the river, stands the Palazzo Caffarelli, and on that 
to the N.E., towards the Quirinal, the church of S. Maria in Araceli. 
Contiguous to the Capitoline, in a N.E. direction, and separated 
from it by a depression which the structures of Trajan consider- 
ably widened, extends the long Quirinal (170 ft.). On the N. a 
valley, in which the Piazza Barberini is situated, separates the 
Quirinal from the Pincio (164 ft.), which, as its ancient appellation 
'collis hortorum' indicates, was occupied by gardens, and not re- 
garded as a portion of the city. To the E. of the Quirinal, but con- 
siderably less extensive, rises the Viminal (177 ft.). Both of these 

138 Topography. ROME. Population. 

may be regarded as buttresses of the third and more important 
height, the Esquiline (246 ft.), which, forming the common basis 
of these two, extends from the Pincio on the N. to the Caelius. 
Its distinguishing feature with regard to modern Rome is the con- 
spicuous church of S. Maria Maggiore ; with regard to ancient Rome, 
S. Pietro in Vincoli and the ruins of the Thermae of Titus, where it 
approaches the Quirinal, Palatine, and Caelius. To the S. E. of the 
Capitoline, in the form of an irregular quadrangle, rises the isolated 
Palatine (165 ft.), with the ruins of the palaces of the emperors, 
and on the low ground between these hills lies the ancient Forum. 
Farther S., close to the river, separated from the Palatine by the 
depression in which the Circus Maximus extended, is the Aventine 
(151 ft.), with the churches of S. Sabina, S. Balbina, etc. Finally, 
to the E. of the latter, the long-extended Caelius (161 ft.), with S. 
Gregorio and S. Stefano Rotondo; in the low ground between the 
Caelius , Palatine , and Esquiline is situated the Colosseum ; farther 
E., by the city-wall, between the Caelius and Esquiline, is the 

By far the greater portion of the area enclosed by the walls, which 
was inhabited during the imperial period by l*/2-2 million souls, 
is now untenanted. On the Palatine, Aventine , Caelius, Esquiline, 
and the whole of the region immediately wilhin the walls, streets 
once densely peopled are now replaced by the bleak walls of vine- 
yards. The Modern City is divided into two halves by the Corso, 
or principal street, which runs from N. to S., from the Porta del 
Popolo to the Piazza di Venezia in the vicinity of the Capitoline. 
The E. half, a f the base and on the ridge of the Pincio and Quiri- 
nal, presents a modern aspect, and is the principal resort of stran- 
gers. The W. half, on the bank of the Tiber, consists of narrow and 
dirty streets, occupied by the humbler classes. 

Population. According to the census of 31st Dec. 1871, Rome 
contained 244,484 inhabitants, of whom 29,000 were temporary 
Italian residents and 5687 soldiers. Of these 115,767, including 
children, could neither read nor write. There were 1428 secular 
clergymen, 2175 monks (of whom 179 only were natives of Rome), 
1824 nuns; 232,665 Roman Catholics, 3798 Protestants, 4619 
Jews, and 3402 professors of other creeds. The monasteries covered 
one-seventh of the area occupied by buildings , and one-eighth of 
the remainder of the area of the city also belonged to them. One- 
third of the area in secular hands belonged to various corporations, 
one-third was held by the municipality in trust for public pur- 
poses, and the remaining third was the private property of indi- 

The following description of Rome is arranged in accordance 
with a division of the city into five principal quarters, the extent of 
which is marked on the clue-map at the end of the Handbook. Each 
of these quarters possesses monuments which in many respects 

Piazza del Popolo. ROME. /. Strangers' Quarter. 139 

impart to it a distinctive character of its own , though of course 
numerous monuments of all periods are scattered throughout the 

J. Strangers' Quarter and Corso, which constitute modern Rome, 
and are the chief centre of business. 

II. The Quirinal, Viminal, and Esquiline Hills, to the E., 
covered with houses in ancient times , but until recently quite un- 

III. Rome on the Tiber, the closely packed and tortuous city of 
the middle ages, the abode of the poorer classes. 

IV. Ancient Rome, to the S., mostly uninhabited, but containing 
the most important monuments of antiquity. 

V. The Right Bank of the Tiber, including the Vatican, St. Pe- 
ter's, the Longara, and Trastevere. 

Lastly, we add a description of the Catacombs, to which a 
separate paragraph is devoted. 

I. Strangers' Quarter and Corso. 

The N. entrance to Rome is formed by the Porta del Popolo 
(PI. I, 15), not far from the Tiber, through which, before the con- 
struction of the railroad, most visitors approachtd the Eternal 
City. The gate was constructed in 1561 by Vignola, and the side 
towards the town embellished by Bernini in 1655, on the occasion 
of the entry of Queen Christina of Sweden. It is named after the 
adjoining church of S. Maria del Popolo (see below), opposite to 
which are the Barracks of the Carabinieri. — Outside the gate , on 
the right, is the Villa Borghese, see p. 159. — Within the gate ex- 
tends the handsome *Piazza del Popolo (PI. 1, 15, 18), adorned with 
an Obelisk between four water-spouting lionesses, which was brought 
by order of Augustus from Heliopolis , after the defeat of Antony, 
placed in the Circus Maximus , and , according to the inscription, 
dedicated to the Sun. It was removed to its present position by 
order of Sixtus V. in 1589. The shaft is 78 ft. in height, and 
the whole monument with the pedestal and cross 118 ft. 

Towards the W. the Piazza is bounded by an arched wall with 
figures of Neptune and Tritons, opposite which is a similar structure 
adorned with Roma between the Tiber and the Anio. On each side 
of the latter is an approach to the Pincio (p. 141). 

Three streets diverge from the piazza on the S. : to the right 
the Via di Ripetta (p. 185), parallel with the river; in the centre 
the Corso (p. 145) ; and to the left the Via del Babuino, leading to 
the Piazza di Spagna (p. 143). — Between the two latter streets 
stands the church of S. Maria in Monte Santo , to the right, ad- 
joining it, that of 8. Maria de' Miracoli , both dating from the 
latter half of the 17th cent., with domes and vestibules, designed 
by Rinaldi, and completed by Bernini and Fontana. 

140 J. Strangers' Quarter. ROME. S. Maria del Popolo. 

*S. Maria del Popolo, said to have been founded byPaschalis II. 
in 1099 on the site of the tombs of the Domitii, the burial-place 
of Nero which was haunted by evil spirits, was entirely re-erected 
by Baccio Pintelli under Sixtus IV. in 1477, and the interior after- 
wards decorated by Bernini in the rococo style. It consists of nave, 
aisles, transept, and octagonal dome, and contains numerous works 
of art, in particular several handsome monuments of the 15th cent. 
(The sacristan shows the choir and chapels; fee t/o f r 

Right Aisle. The 1st Chapel, formerly della Rovere, now Venuti, was 
painted by Pinturicchio : ~ altar-piece, Adoration of the Infant Christ ; in the 
lunettes, life of St. Jerome. On the left, the tomb of Cardinal della Rovere, 
right, that of Cardinal di Castro. In the 2nd Chapel : Assumption of Mary, al- 
tar-piece by C. Maratta. 3rd Chapel, painted by Pinturicchio: above the altar, 
Madonna with four angels ; on the left , Assumption of the Virgin ; in the 
lunettes, scenes from the life of Mary; in the predelle representations of 
martyrs in grisaille ; on the right, tomb of Giov. della Rovere (d. 1483) ; on 
the left , recumbent bronze figure of a bishop. In the 4th Chapel marble- 
sculptures of the end of the 15th cent, above the altar : St. Catharine be- 
tween St. Antony of Padua and St. Vincent; right, tomb of Marcantonio 
Albertoni (d. 1485) ; left, that of the Cardinal of Lisbon (d. 1508). 

Right Transept. On the right, tomb of Cardinal Podocatharus of Cyprus. 
Near it is a door leading into a passage, at the end of which is the sacristy, 
containing the former " canopy of the high-altar of Alexander VI. of the 
year 1492, with an ancient Madonna of the Sienese school and the beautiful 
monuments of (1.) Archbishop Rocca (d. 1482), and (r.) Bishop Gomiel. 

Left Aisle. In the 1st Chapel, on the left and right of the altar, two 
ciboria of the 15th cent. ; left, tomb of Card. Ant. Pallavicini (erected 1507). 
By a pillar near it the rococo monument of a Princess Chigi, by Pom' (1771). 
The '2nd Chapel was constructed under the direction of Raphael by Agostino 
Chigi in honour of St. Mary of Loreto ; on the vaulting of the dome eight 
"mosaics by Aloisio della Pace (1516), from Raphael's cartoons, the Creation 
of the heavenly bodies : the sun, the moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, 
and Saturn, who, conducted by angels, perform the circuit of the universe; 
in the lantern an emblem of God the Father, surrounded by angels; altar- 
piece, Nativity of the Virgin, by Sebastiano del Piombo, the other pictures 
by Salviali. Bronze relief at the altar, Christ and the Samaritan woman, 
by Lorenzelto; in the niches four statues of prophets : at the altar (1.) "Jonah, 
by Raphael, and (r.) Habakuk, by Bernini; at the entrance, (1.) Daniel, by 
Bernini, and (r.) Elijah by Lorenzetto, designed by Raphael. 

In the Left Transept the tomb of Cardinal Bernardino Lonati (loth 

In the Choir "ceiling-frescoes by Pinturicchio: Madonna, the Four Evan- 
gelists, and the Four Fathers of the church, Gregory, Ambrose, Jerome, 
and Augustine. Beneath are the "tombs of the cardinals Girolamo Basso and 
Ascanio Sforza by Andrea Sansovino, erected by order of Julius II. The 
same pope is said to have caused the two fine stained glass windows to be 
executed by Claudius and William of Marseilles. 

The church gives a title to a cardinal. In the adjacent Augustinian 
monastery Luther resided during his visit to Rome. 

If we ascend the Pincio by the approaches above named (the 
gates are closed one hour after Ave Maria), we observe in the first 
circular space two columns [columnae rostratae') , adorned with the 
prows of ships, from the temple of Venus and Roma (p. 229); in 
the niches three marble statues , and above them ca; tive Dacians, 
imitations of antiques. Beyond these , farther up, a large relief. 
Halfway up stands a large antique granite basin with a fountain. 

Pincio. ROME. /. Strangers' Quarter. 141 

The *Pincio (PI. I, 18), the collis hortorum, or 'hill of gardens', 
of the ancients, probably derived its name of Mons Pincius from a 
palace of the Pincii situated here in the later period of the empire. 
Here were once the celebrated gardens of Lucullus , in which 
Messalina, the wife of Claudius, afterwards celebrated her orgies. 
A vineyard belonging to the monastery of S. Maria at the foot of 
the hill was converted by Valadier, during the Napoleonic regime, 
into beautiful pleasure-grounds, the Passeggiata of Rome. This 
is a fashionable drive in the evening, when the visitors to the 
grounds frequently pay and receive visits in their carriages, pre- 
senting a gay and characteristic scene which the traveller should 
not omit to see. A military band generally plays here on Sundays 
and Thursdays (but the days are sometimes changed), two hours 
before sunset, attracting a large audience of all classes. The walks 
are shaded by plantations and groups of trees, and, on the suggest- 
ion of Mazzini in 1849, adorned with busts of celebrated Italians, 
to which recently many addditions have been made. 

The projecting terrace at the summit (151 ft.) commands a magnificent 
'View of modern Rome. Beyond the Piazza del Popolo with the buildings 
above described, on the opposite bank of the Tiber, rises the huge pile of St. 
Peter's, contiguous to which is the Vatican to the right, and near it the city- 
wall. Of the chain of hills which here bound the horizon, the point planted 
with cypresses to the right, where to the right the yellow Villa Mellini is 
situated, is Monte Mario ; more to the left, the white building of the new 
Tivoli. To the left of St. Peter's, close to the Tiber, which, however, is 
not visible from this point, is the round castle of S. Angelo, so called from 
the bronze angel by which it is surmounted. The pine-grove on the height 
to the left of the castle belongs to the Villa Doria-Pamfili. Farther to the 
left, on the height, the facade of the AcquaPaola, adorned with a cross. 
Between the spectator and the river is a labyrinth of houses and churches. 
The following points will serve as landmarks. The two nearest churches 
are : that with the two towers to the right, S. Giacomo in the Corso, that 
with the dome to the left, S. Carlo in the Corso; between the two appears 
the flat dome of the Pantheon, beyond which a part of the Campagna is 
visible. To the left of this, on the height in the extreme distance , rises 
the long, undecorated side of a church, behind which a tower appears: the 
church is S. Maria in Aracoeli, and the tower belongs to the senatorial 
palace on the Capitoline hill. On the right side of the Capitol lies the 
Palazzo Caffarelli (residence of the German ambassador), in front of which 
the upper portion of the column of M. Aurelius in the Piazza Colonna is 
visible. Adjacent to the Capitoline, on the left, is the bright-looking Villa 
Mills (now a nunnery), shaded by cypresses , on the Palatine. Farther to 
the left a low brick-built tower on the Quirinal, the so-called Torre di 
Uerone. To the extreme left, and less distant, is the extensive royal palace 
on the Quirinal. 

The N. side of the Pincio is supported by lofty walls , opposite 
which are the well-planted grounds of the Villa Borghese. On the 
E. side we obtain a view of a large fragment of the city wall. In a 
small round space near the middle of the hill, where there is a 
Cafe, rises the Obelisk, which Hadrian once erected in Egypt to the 
memory of Antinous. It was afterwards brought to Rome, and erected 
here in 1822. 

Proceeding in a S. direction, we leave the Pincio grounds by a 
gate (closed one hour after sunset), before reaching which we observe 

142 /. Strangers' Quarter. ROME. Villa Medici. 

to the left the white Villa Medici with its two corner-turrets, now 
the seat of the Academie Franchise ; in front of it is an avenue of 
evergreen-oaks and a fountain, whence a celebrated view of St. Pe- 
ter's, most striking towards evening or by moonlight, is obtained. 

The Villa Medici (PI. I, 18), erected in 1540 by Annibale Lippi 
for Cardinal Kicci da Montepulciano, came into possession of Car- 
dinal Alessandro de' Medici about 1600, and subsequently into that 
of the grand-dukes of Tuscany. In 1801 the French transferred 
thither the seat of their academy of art, founded by Louis XIV. The 
entrance to the garden, to which visitors are readily admitted, is by 
the gate to the left, or by the staircase to the right in the house 
(5-6 soldi). 

Ancient reliefs have been built into the walls of the tastefully deco- 
rated facade of the villa next to the garden. The right wing contains a 
Collection of Casts (open daily, except Saturdays, 8-12, and in the after- 
noon till near sunset), comprising many from statues, etc. not preserved 
at Rome, e. g. from the Parthenon of Athens, and the museum of the 
Louvre, which are valuable in the history of art. Adjoining the wing is 
a terrace, the front-wall of which is adorned with casts. We then enter 
by a side-door, opposite the museum of casts, which if closed will be 
opened by the porter (25 a), and ascending, traverse the oak-grove in a 
straight direction to the right. We next ascend 60 steps to the -Belvedeke, 
whence a charming panorama is enjoyed. 

On the N. the shady pleasure grounds of the Villa Medici are bounded 
by the Pincio. Most of the statues with which they are embellished 
are modern. 

The street passing the front of the Academy ends in the Piazza 
della Trinita, where to the left rises the church of SS. Trinita 
de' Monti. The Obelisk in front of it, a conspicuous object from 
many points, is an ancient imitation of that in the Piazza del 
Popolo, and once adorned the gardens of Sallust. 

SS. Trinita de' Monti (PI. I, 20), erected by Charles VIII. of 
France in 1495, and plundered during the French Revolution, was 
restored by Magri in 1816 by order of Louis XVIII. The church 
is open on Sundays only before 9 a. m., and in the evening during 
Vespers (1 hr. before Ave Maria), when the nuns, for whom Men- 
delssohn once expressly composed several pieces, perform choral 
service with organ-accompaniment. When the door is closed, visi- 
tors ascend a side-stair on the left, and ring at a door protected by 
a roof. 

Left, 1st Chapel : Cast of the Descent from the Cross, by Achtermann. 
2nd Chapel : an altar-piece al fresco, * Descent from the Cross, by Daniel 
da Volterra, master-piece of the artist (much injured and freely restored) ; 
the excellence of the drawing and composition is attributed to the assis- 
tance of Michael Angelo. 3rd Chapel : Madonna, altar-piece by Veit. 4th 
Chapel : St. Joseph, by Langlois. 6th Chapel : Christ, the Wise and Foolish 
Virgins, and Return of the Prodigal, an altar-piece by Seitz. — Right, 
3rd Chapel : Assumption of the Virgin , Dan. da Volterra. 5th Chapel : 
Presentation in the Temple, Adoration of the Magi, Adoration of the 
Shepherds, a work of the school of Raphael. 6th Chapel: Resurrection, 
Ascension, Descent of the Holy Ghost, school of Perugino. — In the Tran- 
sept, which is supported by Gothic arches, paintings by Perino del Vaga 
and F. Zucearo. 

Piazza di Spagna. ROME. I. Strangers Quarter. 143 

The convent connected with the church has been occupied by 
the Dames du Sacre" Cceur (teachers of girls) since 1827. 

We quit the piazza to the left by the Via Sistina, which leads in 
5 min. to the Piazza Barberini (p. 161), and in 20 min. more to S. 
Maria Maggiore (p. 175). To the right is the small Via Gregoriana, 
which after 3 min. is intersected by the Via Capo le Case (p. 161). 

No. 64 in the Via Sistina, immediately to the right, is the Casa 
Zuccari, once the property of the family of the artists of that name 
(marked by a memorial tablet in 1872; paintings by Federigo Zuc- 
caro on the ground-floor). At the beginning of the present century 
the house was occupied by the Prussian consul Bartholdy, whence 
it is generally named Casa Bartholdy, who caused one of the apart- 
ments to be adorned with *Frescoes from the history of Joseph by 
the most celebrated German artists then at Rome. (The house being 
a private dwelling, the hour for seeing the frescoes is frequently 
changed. Enquiry should therefore be made of the porter; 1 fr.) 

On the long window- wall : left, Overbeck, Joseph sold ; right, Veil, Joseph 
and Potiphar's wife. On the short window-wall: Cornelius, Recognition of 
the brethren. In the lunette above : -Overbeck, The Seven lean Years. On the 
second long wall : left , Joseph's interpretation of the dreams in prison ; 
right, the Brethren bringing Jacob the bloody coat, both by W. Schadow. 
On the second short wall : Cornelius , Joseph's interpretation of Pharaoh's 
dream ; in the lunette above , Veil , The Seven Years of Plenty. The two 
allegorical representations are among the finest creations of modern Ger- 
man art. 

The long Scala di Spagna, which descends from S. Trinita by 
125 steps, was constructed by Specchi and de Sanctis in 1721-25, 
and was formerly a favourite resort of beggars, who are now dis- 
persed over the whole city. Models for artists with their picturesque 
costumes frequent its vicinity especially towards evening. 

The Piazza di Spagna (PI. I, 17; 82 ft.), the centre of the 
strangers' quarter, is surrounded by hotels and attractive shops. 
At the foot of the steps is La Barcaceia (barque), a tasteless 
fountain by Bernini. Towards the N. the Via delBabuino, in which 
there are also many hotels , leads to the Piazza del Popolo (see 
p. 139). In the S. prolongation of this long piazza rises the Co- 
lumn of the Immacolata (PI. I, 20, 2), erected by Pius IX. in 
honour of the 'Immaculate Conception of the Virgin' , a doctrine 
promulgated for the first time in 1854; on the summit of the ci- 
polline column stands the bronze statue of Mary ; beneath are Mo- 
ses, David, Isaiah, and Ezekiel. 

At the S. extremity of the piazza is the Collegio di Propaganda 
Fide (PI. I, 19, 16), founded in 1662 by Gregory XV., and ex- 
tended by his successor Urban VIII. (whence 'Collegium Urbanum'), 
an establishment for the propagation of the Roman Catholic faith, 
in which pupils of many different nationalities are educated as 
missionaries. The printing-office of the college was formerly 
celebrated as the richest in type for foreign languages. — On the 
right is the palace of the Spanish ambassador, whence the piazza 

144 I. Strangers' Quarter. ROME. Fontana di Trevi. 

derives its name. Near the column of the Immacolata, to the 
left, is the small Piazza Mignanelli. 

Immediately opposite the Scala di Spagna is the Via de' Con- 
dotti, with its numerous shops of jewellery, mosaics, antiquities 
photographs, etc. It terminates in the Corso, opposite the spacious 
Palazzo Ruspoli (p. 146). 

From the Piazza di Spagna, in a S.E. direction, to the left of 
the Propaganda , runs the Via de' Due Macelli, and to the right the 
Via di Propaganda. If we follow the latter, we reach the church of 
S. Andrea delle Fratte (PL I, 19) at the corner of the Via di Capo 
le Case, the next transverse street (p. 161). It was erected under 
Leo XL by La Ouerra; the unsightly dome and campanile are by 
Borromini ; the facade was added in 1826 by Valadier in consequence 
of a bequest by Cardinal Consalvi. 

The pictures in the Interior are poor works of the 17th cent.: the 
two angels by the tribune, by Bernini, were originally destined for the 
bridge of S. Angelo. In the 2nd Chapel on the right is (on the right side) 
the monument of Lady Falconet by Miss Hossmer; on the last pillar to 
the right, in front of the aisle, the monument of the artist R. Schadow 
by E. Wolff. In the 3rd Chapel to the left, by the right wall, is the tomb 
of Angelica Kauffmann. The Danish archceologist Zoega and a converted 
prince of Morocco are also interred in this church. 

At the extremity of the Via di S. Andrea delle Fratte we enter 
the narrow Via del Nazzareno to the left. On the left is the Col- 
legio Nazzareno (in the court several ancient statues), founded by 
Card. Tonti (1622) for the education of destitute boys. Opposite 
is the Pal. del Bufalo. Then, to the left, the Via dell' Angelo Cu- 
stode (in which, immediately to the right, is the small church of 
SS. Angeli Custodi) and the Via del Tritone lead direct to the Piazza 
Barberini (p. 161). 

We turn to the right into the Via della Stamperia, so called 
from the ex-papal Printing- Office situated in it (right). Adjacent 
to the latter is the extensive royal Engraving Institute (Regia Calco- 
grafia, p. 109), with warehouse, where the office of the Minister of 
Commerce is also now established. No. 4 is the entrance to the 
German Artists' Association. 

We now reach the *Fontana di Trevi (PI. I, 19), which vies in 
magnificence with the Acqua Paola. It is erected on the side-wall 
of the Palazzo Poli , and was completed from a design by Niccolo 
Salvi in 1762; in the central niche Neptune, by Pietro Bracci, at 
the sides Health (left) and Fertility (right) ; in front of these is a 
large stone basin. 

The ancient Aqua Virgo, now Acqua Vergine, which issues here, was 
conducted by 31. Agrippa from the Campagna, chiefly by a subterranean 
channel 14 M. in length, to supply his baths at the Pantheon (p. 194), in 
B. C. 27. It enters the city by the Pincio, not far from the Porta del Po- 
polo. Tradition ascribes the name to the fact of a girl having once 
pointed out the spring to a thirsty soldier. The fountain was restored 
by Hadrian I. and Nicholas V. among other popes. In 1453 the latter 
conducted hither the main stream of the aqueduct, and the fountain then 

Corso. ROME. 1. Strangers' Quarter. 145 

exchanged its ancient name for its present name of Trevi (a corruption of 
'Trivio'), which it derives from its three outlets. This aqueduct yields 
per day upwards of 13 million cubic feet of water, which is according to 
many the best in Rome. The fountains in the Piazza di Spagna, the Piazza 
Navona, and the Piazza Farnese are also supplied from the same source. 
At ancient arch of this aqueduct , with an inscription to the effect that it 
was restored by the Emp. Claudius, is still to be seen at No. 12, Via del 
Nazzareno, in the court. 

On quitting Rome , the superstitious partake of the water of this 
fountain, and throw a coin into the basin, in the pious belief that their 
return is thus ensured. 

Opposite to this fountain is the church of SS. Vincenzo ed Ana- 
stasio (PI. I, 19, 3), erected in its present form, with a degraded 
facade, by the well-known Card. Mazzarini. 

The Via di S. Vincenzo terminates in the Via dellaDataria (left), 
which leads to the Quirinal (p. 168j. The busy Via delle Muratte 
leads to the right from the Fontana Trevi to the Corso. 

The Corso. 

The *Corso , which corresponds with the ancient Via Flaminia 
leading from the Capitol, extends from the Piazza del Popolo 
(p. 139), between the Via di Ripetta and Via del Babuino, to the 
Piazza di Venezia, and is now the principal street of Rome, with 
numerous shops , and enlivened , especially towards evening , by 
crowds of carriages and foot-passengers. The Carnival is celebrated 
here, and the whole street is then thickly strewn with puzzolana 
earth for the horse-races , the horses starting from the Piazza del 
Popolo. From the Piazza del Popolo to the Via Condotti is a distance 
of 750 yds., thence to the Piazza Colonna (p. 147) 520, and thence 
to the Piazza di Venezia 610 yds. , i.e. a total distance of 1880 
yds. , or upwards of a mile. From each side diverge numerous 
streets and lanes, which to the right lead to the crowded purlieus 
on the bank of the Tiber, and to the left to the now partially un- 
inhabited hills of the city. 

The first part of the street as far as the Piazza S. Carlo is less 
frequented than the other portions. No. 518, to the right between 
the first and second transverse streets, is the Pal. Rondinini (PI. I, 
17, 18), the court of which contains an unfinished Pieta by Michael 
Angelo. No. 18, the house opposite the palace, was once inhabited 
by Goethe ; inscription : 'In questa casa immagind e scrisse cose 
immortali Wolfgango Goethe. 11 Comune di Roma a memoria del 
grande ospite pose 1872'. 

On the right, beyond the third transverse street, stands the 
church of S. Oiaeomo in Augusta, or degli Incurabili (PI. I, 17, 2), 
with a facade by C. Maderna. It belongs to the adjoining surgical 
hospital, which extends as far as the Via Ripetta and accommodates 
340 patients (founded 1338, enlarged 1600). Nearly opposite, on 
the left, is the small Augustinian church of Gestc e Maria (PI. I, 
17, 4~), with facade by Rinaldi. — In the Via de' Pontefici , the 

Baedekek. Italy II. 6th Edition. 10 

146 J. Strangers' Quarter. ROME. The Corso an dits 

third trans-verse street from this point to the right, is the Mauso- 
leum of Augustus (p. 185). 

The Piazza S. Cablo is next reached. Here, on the right, is 
S. Carlo al Corso (PI. I, 17), the national church of the Lombards, 
and the resort of the fashionable world, with a tasteless facade. It 
was erected in the 17th cent, by the two Lunghi and Pietro da 

The ceiling-paintings of the Interior are by Oiacinlo Brandt. At the 
high-altar is one of the finest works of Carlo Maratta : the Virgin recom- 
mending S. Carlo Borromeo to Christ {the heart of the saint is preserved 
under the altar). The chief festival of the church is celebrated on 4th Nov. 

On the opposite side, the Via Carrozza, and farther on the Via 
de' Condotti diverge to the left to the Piazza di Spagna (p. 143); 
while the prolongation of the latter to the right, the Via delta Fon- 
tanella di Borghese , leads to the Palazzo Borghese (p. 186) and 
the bridge of S. Angelo (p. 273). 

Farther on in the Corso, on the right, No. 418 A, is the spacious 
Palazzo Ruspoli (PL I, 16), built in 1586 by Ammanati, and now 
containing the Banca Nazionale. 

To the left the Via Borgognona and Via Frattina diverge to the 
Piazza di Spagna. In the small piazza which lies opposite the en- 
trance of the Via Frattina, to the right of the Corso , rises on the 
left S. Lorenzo in Lucina (PI. I, 16), a church of very ancient 
origin, but frequently restored. The campanile, the upper part of 
which is modern, is now the only old part of the building. The 
church, with the adjoining monastery, has since 1606 belonged to 
the Minorites, who have given it its present form. 

The Portico is supported by four columns; at the door are two half- 
immured mediaeval lions. — In the Interior , by the 2nd pillar to the 
right, is the tomb of Nic. Poussin (d. 1665), erected by Chateaubriand; 
above the high-altar a Crucifixion by Ouido Rem. 

A new Protestant Church is also situated in this piazza. — Om- 
nibus hence to the Piazza of St. Peter, see p. 112. 

Farther on, to the right, standing a little back from the street and 
concealed by other houses , is the uncompleted Pal. Fiano (PL I, 
16, S). In front of it, in the Corso (see inscription on opposite 
house, No. 167, which records that Alexander VII. levelled and 
widened the Corso in order to afford space for the horse-races) a 
triumphal arch of M. Aurelius stood until 1662 ; some of the reliefs 
are now preserved in the palace of the Conservatori (p. 211). 

On the right is the Pal. Teodoli (No. 385). Opposite to it the 
Via delle Convertite leads to the Piazza di S. Silvestro, in which 
rises the venerable church of <S. Silvestro in Capite (PI. I, 16), 
erected, together with a monastery, hy Paul I. (757-67) on the site 
of his own house. The entrance court has been preserved, but the 
chuTch itself has been frequently rebuilt. The head of John the 
Baptist is said to have been preserved here since the 13th cent, 
(festival on 31st Dec), whence the addition to the name 'in capite'. 

Side-Streets. ROME. I. Strangers' Quarter. 147 

— Opposite S. Silvestro is the new English Church (p. 112), erected 
in 1874, with a handsome facade in the early Renaissance style. 

On the right is the Pal. Verospi (No. 374), now Torlonia, erected 
by Onorio Lunghi, and restored by Alessandro Specchi. A loggia 
on the first floor is adorned with pleasing mythological frescoes by 
Fr. Albani, distantly recalling the famous Farnesina works (p. 315). 

To the right, farther on, at the corner of the Piazza Colonna, is 
the extensive Pal. Chigi, begun in 1526 by Giac. della Porta, and 
completed by C. Maderna. 

On the first floor are a few antiquities (Venus of Menophantus, Mer- 
cury with new head, Apollo) and a small picture-gallery of no great value, 
comprising a few works of Garofalo, Caracci, Domenichino, Albani, Dosso 
Dossi (St. Bartholomew, the apostle St. John, and others in a landscape), 
and two ascribed to Titian (the Tribute-money, and Portrait of Pietro 
Aretino, a bad copy of the original in Florence). An ante-chamber contains 
a fine marble vase with a relief: Cupid tormenting Psyche. In the study 
of the prince (not always shown), a relief from Palombino: Victory of 
Alexander the Great over Darius at Arbela. — The Biblioteca Chigiana 
contains valuable MSS., access to which is obtained by permission of the 
Duca di Campagnano (Palazzo Chigi, ground-floor). The applicant must 
be provided with introduction from his ambassador or consul (p. 108). 

The handsome *Piazza Colonna (PI. I, 16) is bounded on the 
right by the Pal. Chigi, opposite which is the Pal. Ferrajuoli (PI. I, 
16, 20). In the Corso is situated the Pal. Piombino (PI. I, 16, -2-2). 
and opposite the Corso the Post- Office, with ancient Ionic columns 
on the facade brought from Veii (p. 370). 

In the centre of the piazza, to which it gives its name, stands 
the * Column of Marcus Aurelius, embellished like that of Trajan 
with reliefs from the wars of the emperor against the Marcomanni 
and other German tribes on the Danube. It consists of 28 blocks, 
besides the basement and capital, being altogether 95 ft. in height, 
and is approached by steps. Sixtus V. caused it to be restored in 
1589, and ascribed it, according to the then prevalent opinion, to 
Antoninus Pius, by whose name it is still frequently designated. 
On the summit is a statue of St Paul. 

The four large candelabra are of recent date. The piazza is very 
animated in the evening. The band , which usually plays on the 
Pincio, performs here in the height of summer (p. 141). 

Adjoining the Piazza Colonna (beyond the post-office) is the 
Piazza di Monte Citobio, on the right side of which stands the 
spacious Camera de' Deputati (PI. I, 16, 24), formerly the po- 
lice-office. The design of the building by Bernini was afterwards 
modified by C. Fontana. The court in the interior was covered 
with a roof in 1871, fitted up for the sittings of the Italian parlia- 
ment, and inaugurated on 27th Nov. of that year. Visitors obtain 
cards of admission at the office. The rising of the piazza towards 
the N. is due to the buried ruins of the vast amphitheatre of Sta- 
tilius Taurus, erected B. C. 31, and the only amphitheatre at Rome 
prior to the construction of the Colosseum. Rows of seats have 


148 /. Strangers' Quarter. ROME. The Corso and its 

been discovered here at a depth of 88 ft. below the present level 
of the piazza. 

In the Piazza di Monte Citorio are also situated (No. 12) the 
Railway Office (p. 112) and to the left (No. 127), on the S. side, 
the Telegraph Office. — The Obelisk in the centre of the piazza, 
like that in the Piazza del Popolo (p. 139), was brought to Rome 
by Augustus, and was used as the indicator of a sun-dial. It stood 
till the 9th cent., was afterwards overthrown, but was restored and 
erected here in 1789 under Pius VI. It was originally erected in 
the 7th cent. B.C. by Psammetichus I. The total height, includ- 
ing the globe and the pedestal, is 84 ft. 

Turning to the right at the foot of the Monte Citorio (S.E.), 
and crossing the small Piazza Capranica (p. 194), we reach the 
Pantheon, see p. 192; to the left we proceed to the Piazza di Pie- 
tra, in which is the *Dogana di Terra (PI. I, 16, 18). Immured in 
the facade are eleven Corinthian columns of a temple , which once 
possessed fifteen in its length and eight in its breadth. The style 
is mediocre, and not earlier than the 2nd cent. The edifice is gener- 
ally, but without authority, called the Temple of Antoninus Pius. 

The Via de' Pastini leads hence to the Pantheon (p. 192), while 
the Corso is regained by the Via di Pietra to the left. 

In the church of S. Maria in Campo Marzo (PI. I, 16, 2), to the 
W. of the Piazza di Monte Citorio, the new Government Archives 
are established, comprising the charters and documents of the ex- 
papal authorities, suppressed monasteries, etc. 

Continuing to follow the Corso from the Piazza Colonna, we ob- 
serve, to the left, opposite the above named Via di Pietra, the Via 
delle Muratte (p. 145), leading to the Fontana Trevi. 

Farther on, also on the left, where the Corso expands into the 
'Piazza Sciarra', we reach the *Palazzo Sciarra-Colonna (No. 239; 
PI. I, 16), the handsomest palace in the whole street, erected in the 
17th cent, by Flaminio Ponzio, with a portal of later date. 

The Picture Gallekt which this palace contains is said to have heen 
partly sold, while the rest is expected to share the same fate, and visitors 
cannot reckon with certainty on obtaining permission to see it. The chief 
treasures of the collection were : Raphael , Violin player , dated 1518 
(differing from Raphael's other portraits in the treatment of the fur; name 
of the person represented unknown) ; Titian, 'Bella di Tiziano', signed 
'Tambend' ; Bern. Luini, 'Vanity and Modesty', half-figures, the heads 
resembling those of Leonardo in type ; Caravaggio, Players ; Perugino, St. 
Sebastian; Ouido Rent, Magdalene, a work which it is difficult to ap- 
preciate after Titian's Bella, but a good specimen of the master's female 

The Via del Caravita, the first side-street on the right, leads 
to the Piazza di S. Ignazio (PL II, 16), in which is the Jesuit 
church of S. Ignazio, designed by Padre Grassi, with a facade by 
Algardi (1685). The building was begun by Card. Ludovisi in 1626, 
after the canonisation of the saint, but not completed till 1675. 

Side-Streets. ROME. /. Strangers' Quarter. 149 

Interior. The impression is marred by the bad taste of the decora- 
tions, which, however, are less obtrusive than in most Jesnit churches. 
The paintings on the vaulting, dome, and tribune, and the picture over 
the high-altar are by the Padre Pozzi , an able master of perspective , by 
whom the chapel of St. Lod. G-onzaga, in the aisle to the right, was also 
designed. The perspective of the paintings on the ceiling and dome is 
correctly seen from a circular stone in the centre of the nave. 

The choir of the church adjoins on the S. the Collegio Romano 
(PI. II, 16), formerly a well attended Jesuit establishment , -where 
the higher branches of classics, mathematics, philosophy, etc. were 
taught, and degrees conferred. The extensive building was erected 
at the end of the 16th cent., in the pontificates of Gregory XIII. and 
Sixtus V. , by B. Ammanati. The massive principal facade looks 
towards the Piazza del Collegio Romano. A number of the rooms 
are occupied by the new Biblioteca Vittorio Emanuele, the nucleus 
of which consists of the old Library of the Jesuits (63,000 vols, and 
2000 MSS.), augmented by the libraries of numerous suppressed 
monasteries (in all about 450,000 vols, and several thousandMSS.). 
Special attention is devoted to the department of modern literature. 
The library (adrn., see p. 108) possesses a well-arranged reading 
room, and is connected by a bridge with the Biblioteca Casanatense 
(p. 195). — The building also contains the Liceo Ennio Quirino 
Visconti, the new Museo Preistorico, and the *Mtjseo Kirchkriano, 
founded by the learned Athanasius Kircher, born in 1601, a Jesuit 
and teacher at Wiirzburg in 1618, afterwards professor of mathe- 
matics in the Coll. Romano, and celebrated for his mathematical and 
scientific discoveries (d. 1680). The museum is now government 
property, and is open daily, 9-3; admission 1 fr., on Sundays gra- 
tis. The entrance is in the Via del Collegio Romano 216, by the 
door facing the visitor (where there are several inscriptions and 
seven colossal horses' heads in the passage) ; we ascend by a stair- 
case to the left to the 2nd floor ; here we turn to the right round 
the comer, and finally ascend a spiral staircase at the end of the 

We traverse the Ante-Chamber, which contains a model of colum- 
baria with cinerary urns. In the following small Room are preserved 
fragments of ancient mural paintings. The glass cabinets contain small 
vessels in terracotta with engraved inscriptions ; silver goblets found in the 
mineral spring at Vicarello (on the Lago di Bracciano, p. 372), inscribed with 
the names of the chief stations on the route from Cadiz in Spain to Rome ; 
several inscriptions on slabs of bronze and lead ; leaden balls of Roman 
catapults : bronze seals. To the left of the entrance is a large inscription 
on bronze, found in the territory of the Babianic Ligurians (near Bene- 
vento), referring to the alimentary provisions of the Emperor Trajan. — 
Ascending a few steps to the left, we enter a Room with mosaics : in the 
centre of the pavement is a mosaic representing a hippopotamus -hunt, 
found on the Aventine ; on the walls are genre and mythological scenes, 
four circus-horses with attendants in interesting costumes, etc. 

At the beginning of the Corridor (the modern mosaic pavement of 
which is designed in ancient style) are fragments of terracottas on each 
side. The 1st Wall-Cabinet on the left contains votive objects in terracotta, 
heads, feet, ears, and eyes. In the opposite Cabinet are votive heads and 
other objects in terracotta. Ranged along the wall on each side are reliefs 
in marble, statuettes, and small heads. In the centre a considerable "Col- 

150 I. Strangers' Quarter. ROME. The Cor so and Its 

lection uf early Roman coins (cast), including unstamped pieces (aes rude). 
In the 2nd Cabinet on the left are statuettes in terracotta , chiefly of a 
votive character. In the opposite cabinet are earthenware vessels. Along 
the walls on each side are reliefs (including a Mourning Penelope) and 
Etruscan cinerary urns. The 3rd Cabinet, on the right and left, contains 
Roman earthenware lamps. Along the walls on each side are fragments 
of reliefs in marble. In the centre, all kinds of utensils in bone , glass, 
and cut stones, and vessels of crystal. In the 4th Cabinet, on each 
side, are lamps and painted vases. At the end of the corridor are several 
busts, statues, and heads of inferior value. — A Room to the left contains 
early Christian tombs and tomb-reliefs; in the cabinets are mediteval 
curiosities. By the window is a piece of ancient wall, in a black frame, 
with a caricature of the Christians scratched upon it: a man with the 
head of an ass, affixed to a cross, with a man at the side, and the words 
'AXt^ajisvo? asftttt 9iov (Alexamenos worships God), found on the 

To the right is the long Corridor of the Bronzes. Immediately 
to the left, on the upper part of the wall, is a beam from the barge of 
Tiberius, found in the Lago di Nemi. In the 1st Wall-Cabinet are Egyp- 
tian idols in wood and bronze, others cast in glass, and various Oriental 
antiquities. The last division of the cabinet contains a larger Phoenician 
bronze idol from Sardinia, and a number of Etruscan statuettes. Oppo- 
site are candelabra and vessels in bronze. On the left is a youthful 
figure of a bearer. The 1st detached Cabinet contains all kinds of 
weapons, greaves, swords, lance-heads, and axes, above which are 
helmets. Then a statue of Bacchus. In the 2nd Wall - Cabinet are 
statues of every description ; in the first division an Etruscan ploughman. 
Also an arm in bronze. In the 2nd detached Cabinet are handles of 
bronze vessels, rings, ornaments for horses, and several fibulae (or brooches 
with delicate enamel). In the 3rd Wall-Cabinet are statuettes, votive 
offerings, masks, figures of animals , feet and handles of chests. The 
most interesting object is a head of Apollo, nearly life size. In the 3rd 
detached Cabinet are keys , chains , locks , spoons , pencils for writing, 
surgical instruments, and water-taps from aqueducts. In the centre 
of the Corridor is the most important object in the whole collection, 
named after its first owner the "Ficoronian Cista, dating from the 3rd 
cent. B.C. , and found near Palestrina in 1774. It is a toilet casket 
of cylindrical form, adorned with admirably engraved designs, represent- 
ing the arrival of the Argonauts in Bithynia, and the victory of Poly- 
deuces over king Amycus. The feet and the figures on the lid are of 
inferior workmanship ; on the latter the inscriptions : 'Novios Plautios 
med Piomai (me Eomse) fecid', and 'Dindia Macolnia filea dedit\ The 
4th Wall-Cabinet contains scales and weights, lamps, strigils, and other 
instruments. In the 4th detached Cabinet are leaden water-pipes with 
inscriptions. In the centre of the corridor is an ancient -Bronze Chair, 
inlaid with silver. In the 5th Wall-Cabinet are vases in bronze and silver, 
candelabra, pitchers, bracelets, ornamental pins, horse-decorations, and 
lastly Etruscan mirrors, some of them delicately engraved. 

We next enter the Pre-Historic and Ethnographical Collection, both 
still in their infancy. (The origin of the objects is given on the printed 
labels attached.) 

The rooms which extend along the whole length of the Via del Col- 
legio Romano are fitted up for the collection of the earliest, and early, 
Italian period (Museo Italico), and for that of Ancient Inscriptions (Museo 
Lapidario). The Museo Italico at present contains nothing but empty 
cabinets, but in the last rooms are preserved a very valuable 'Collection 
of Etruscan mural paintings, which were found in a tomb of Vulci in 
1857, and were presented to the Museum by Prince Torlonia. Copies of 
these paintings are to be seen at the Vatican in the Museo Gregoriano 
(see p. 309). The two principal figures represent human sacrifices in 
honour of deceased persons. In one of these Achilles sacrifices a young 
Trojan to the shade of Patroclus; in the background is the bluish-grey 
Charon, who is about to conduct the soul of the victim to the infernal 

Side-Streets. ROME. J. Strangers' Quarter. 151 

regions; two other Trojans in bonds are being brought to the spot by 
Greek heroes. The second of these pictures represents three human 
sacrifices and the preparations for a fourth. The motives are probably 
borrowed from Etruscan legends. — In the Museo Lapidario are exhi- 
bited inscriptions of every variety. The most important of these are the 
records of the Arvales, found near the temple of the Dea Dia, enumerat- 
ing the festivals celebrated by the brotherhood on certain occasions, and 
the sacrifices offered by them (comp. pp. 333, 334). The adjacent rooms 
contain a collection of brick-stamps and leaden pipes "with inscriptions. 

On the floor above is the recently founded Museo Medioevale (or 
Artistico Industriale), a collection of products of the Italian handicrafts 
(terracottas, majolicas, and rich stuffs of various periods) and a number 
of mediaeval casts (shown daily, 9-3; admission 50 c). 

The Observatory, presided over by the learned and meritorious Padre 
Secchi, enjoys a European reputation. It is shown in the forenoon to 
visitors provided with an introduction. A signal is given here daily 
to indicate when the sun has attained the meridian, and the hour is then 
announced by the firing of a cannon from the castle of S. Angelo. 

In the Corso, beyond the Piazza Sciarra, on the right, is the 
Palazzo Simonetti (308). Opposite is S. Mar cello (PL II, 16), in 
the small piazza of that name, a church mentioned as early as 499, 
re-erected by Giacomo Sansovino in 1519, and recently entirely 
modernised. The poor facade is by Carlo Fontana. 

The 4th Chapel contains paintings by Perino del Vaga, completed after 
his death by Dan. da Volterra and Pellegrino da Modena, and the monu- 
ment (by Rinaldi) of the celebrated Card. Consalvi (d. 1824) , minister of 
Pius VII. Paintings in the Tribune by Qiov. Battista da Novara; those of the 
2nd Chapel to the left by Fed. Zuccaro. 

On the right is the small church of S. Maria in Via Lata, men- 
tioned as early as the 7th cent., but in its present form dating from 
the 17th; facade by Pietro da Cortona; from the vestibule a stair- 
case ascends to an oratory in which St. Paul and St. Luke are said 
to have taught. The name of the church is a reminiscence of the 
ancient main street of the city, which nearly corresponded with 
the present Corso. Below this church, and below the Palazzo 
Doria, are situated ancient walls of considerable extent, which 
once belonged to the Septa Julia, an edifice begun by Caesar and 
completed by Agrippa, originally used for taking the votes of the 
national assembly, but, after this practice had fallen into disuse, 
converted into a market-place. 

Adjoining S. Maria in Via Lata is the *Palazzo Doria, formerly 
Pamfili (PI. II, 16), an extensive pile of buildings, and one of the 
most magnificent palaces in Rome ; facade towards the Corso by Val- 
vasori, that towards the Coll. Romano by P. da Cortona, and another 
towards the Piazza di Venezia by P. Amati. The handsome court, 
surrounded by arcades, is entered from the Corso (No. 305). To 
the left is the approach to the staircase ascending to the *Pictukb 
Gallery on the 1st floor (visitors admitted on Tuesdays and Fri- 
days, 10-2; during the Easter fortnight, daily; catalogues in each 
room; fee i/ 2 fr.). 

The Doria Gallery resembles all the other Roman galleries in being 
devoted to no particular school, and in possessing examples of every 

152 /. Strangers Quarter. ROME. The Corso and its 

different style, but on the whole the founders seem to have shown a 
preference for works of the 17th cent. The ante-chambers are badly 
lighted, so that the pictures are not seen to advantage, but most of the 
works here are hardly above mediocrity. The visitor should, however, 
note the predella of a now lost altar-piece by Peselli (II. Room, 23, 
29), a good specimen of early Florentine painting, and the Madonnas of 
Niccolb Rondinelli (II. Room, 12, 43), a little known master, who has 
happily imitated the golden colouring of the old Venetians , and is one 
of Giov. Bellini's ablest followers. 

The gems of the collection are in the three galleries and in the 
corner cabinet. Raphael, the prince of cinquecentists, is represented by 
the portraits of two Venetian scholars, Andrea Navagero and Agostino 
Beazzano (in the corner cabinet) ; but their authenticity has been 
questioned and their touch indeed is somewhat different from Raphael's 
usual style. The vigorous tone and breadth of colouring may, however, 
have been occasioned by his habit of fresco painting. Johanna of Ar- 
ragon is a copy only (II. Gall. 53), and so too is Titian's Periods of 
Life (II. Gall. 20). Pordenone's Herodias (II. Gall. 40), and Lor. Lotto's 
portrait of himself (II. Gall. 34), on the other hand, are admirable Venetian 
works. The portrait of Andrea Doria by Sebastian del Piombo is not Vene- 
tian in character , but is interesting from the faculty displayed by the 
master of imparting an air of grandeur to a repulsive subject (corner 
cabinet). With this work the visitor should compare the portrait of 
Pope Innocent X., by Velasquez, in the same room. The colouring of the 
latter is strikingly rich , completely eclipsing Piombo's massiveness of 
style. The skilful manner in which the three shades of red are blended 
should be particularly noticed. 

Oarofalo, though not a master of the highest rank, has produced a 
most admirable work in his Nativity of Christ (II. Gall. 61). The 
landscape painters of the 16th cent, are also well represented. In the 
landscapes of Annibale Caracci (III. Gallery) we observe a conflict 
between historic and scenic imagination, and the obtrusion of the former 
at the expense of harmony of effect. The pictures by Salvator Rosa 
(VI. Room) are not among his best works , but Claude Lorrain's land- 
scapes (III. Gall. 5, 12, 23) are justly much admired. His 'mill', and the 
landscape with the temple of Apollo, may be regarded as models of ideal 
landscape ; the effect is produced by the skilful gradations of distance : 
the foreground is enclosed by trees on both sides , the middle distance 
gently softened off , and the background formed by serrated mountain 
outlines. — The Netherlands School is represented by a few pictures 
only, some of which, however, such as Memling's Descent from the Cross 
(Corner-Cabinet), and Lievens' Sacrifice of Isaac (II. Gall. 26), are worthy 
rivals of their Italian neighbours. 

I. Room : also copying-room, to which the finest pictures in the collection 
are frequently brought, almost always including Sassoferrato's Holy Fa- 
mily and Madonna. Antiquities: four Sarcophagi with the hunt of Me- 
leager, history of Marsyas, Diana and Endymion, and procession of Bacchus. 
Two fine circular altars, duplicate of the so-called Diana of Gabii in the 
Louvre, archaic statue of the bearded Dionysus, and a number of statuettes. 
Pictures: 19, 23, 30. Landscapes by Poussin and his imitators; on the wall 
of the entrance, Perino del Vaga, Madonna. To the left we next enter the — 

II. Room : Antique portrait busts , a Centaur in pietra dura and 
rosso antico (freely restored) ; 24. Franc. Francia, Madonna. — 37. Titian, 
Magdalene (original in the Palazzo Pitti at Florence); 13. Holbein(1), Por- 
trait of a woman ; 12, 43. Rondinelli, Madonnas (comp. with Bellini's Ma- 
donna, II. Gall. 25); 21. Pisanello, Sposalizio ; 23. Peselli, St. Silvester in 
presence ofMaximin II.; :;: 28. Fit. Lippi, Annunciation ; 29. Peselli, Leo IV. 
appeasing a dragon ; 35. Pisanello, Nativity of Mary ; 49. Titian, Boy playing 
with lions; 42. Holbeinil), Portrait of himself in his 40th year; Murillo, 
Magdalene; 5. Giov. Bellini (?), Circumcision. — 15. School of Mantegna, 
St. Antony. 

III. Boom (very dark). To the right on entering: 34. Caravaggio, St. 
John; "18, 32. P. 'Brill, Landscapes. Over the door: 1. Paris Bordone, 

Side-Streets. ROME. I. Strangers' Quarter. 153 

Mars, Venus, and Cupid. In the centre a recumbent river-god in pietra 
dura. On the left wall in two frames, antique bronzes and other objects. 
By the window a bronze vessel with graffiti in a peculiar style, of late origin. 

IV. Room: 16. Titian, St. Agnes; 22. Titian, Holy Family and St. 
Catharine; 25. Guercino, St. Joseph; 27. Domenichino, Landscape; 31. Pous- 
sin, Landscape. In the centre : Jacob wrestling v, ith the angel, a group 
in marble, of the School of Bernini. 

V. Room. Over the door: 5. Sandro Botticelli (?), Holy Family; "30. 
Spanish School, Portrait of a boy; 13. Maratta, Madonna. By the egress, 
to the right : 37. School of Giov. Bellini, Marriage of St. Catharine. — The 
raised passage- room contains several small Netherlandish works, and a 
female portrait-bust by Algardi. 

VI. Room: 3, 8. Salv. Rosa, Landscapes; 19. Mazzolino, Massacre of 
the Innocents. 

VII. Room: "22. Lod. Caracci, St. Sebastian; opposite, 17. Lod. Caracci, 
Holy Family. In the corner a "Head of Serapis in marble. 

VIII. Room: Several interesting ancient portrait heads. 

IX. Room: Subjects from still life. 

We now enter the galleries. To the left is the — 

I. Gallery: 2. Garofalo, Holy Family; 3. Ann. Caracci, Magdalene; 
8. Quintin Matsys, Heads ; 9. Sassoferrato, Holy Family ; 14. Titian, Portrait ; 
15. A. del Sarto (?), Holy Family ; 20. Titian , The three Periods of Life , a 
copy of the original in London ; "25. CI. Lorrain, Landscape with the flight 
to Egypt; "26. Garofalo, Mary visiting Elizabeth; 16. Breughel, Creation 
of the animals ; 32. Saraceni, Repose during the flight into Egypt ; 38. Pous- 
sin, Copy of the Aldobrandine Nuptials (p. 312) ; 49. P. Veronese^!}, Angel; 
50. Raphael, Holy Family, a copy by G. Romano. Opposite, in front of 
the last window, 5. School of Mantegna, Christ bearing the Cross. 

II. Gallery (chiefly remarkable for its admirable portraits) : "25. Giov. 
Bellini, Madonna; "6. Fr. Francia, Madonna; 13. Mazzolino, Christ in the 
Temple; '17. Titian, 18. Pordenone, 19. Rubens, 21. Van Dyck(f), Portraits; 
24. Giorgione , Three heads from a concert; 26. Jan Lievens (erroneously 
attributed to Rembrandt), Sacrifice of Isaac; 3. Rembrandt, Faun; "40. Por- 
denone, Herodias with the head of the Baptist; 50. Rubens, Portrait of a 
monk; 51. Giorgione, Portrait; 53. Flemish School, Johanna of Arragon, 
after Raphael; "61. Garofalo, Nativity; "69. Correggio, Unfinished allego- 
rical painting; 32. Titian, Portrait; 80. Titian, Portraits of a man and a 
woman. • — The adjacent room (generally closed) contains a number of works 
of the 17th cent. 

III. Gallery : 1 , 6, 28, 34. An. Caracci , Landscapes with historical 
accessories ; 5. Claude Lorrain, Landscape with Mercury's theft of the cattle ; 
11. Bronzino, Portrait of Macchiavelli ; "12. CI. Lorrain, Mill; "23. CI. Lorrain, 
Landscape with temple of Apollo (two most admirable landscapes of this 
master); adjoining No. 18 are two small pictures of the old Dutch school; 26. 
Mazzolino, Portrait; "27. Giorgione, Portrait; 31. Fra BartolommeoC!), Holy 
Family; 33. CI. Lorrain, Landscape with Diana hunting. 

Adjacent is a small Corner -Cabinet which contains the gems of the 
collection (well lighted) : "Raphael, the two Venetian scholars Navagero and 
Beazzano, once erroneously said to represent the jurists Bartolus and 
Baldus; Seb. del Piombo, Portrait of Andrea Doria; "Quintin Matsys, Money 
changers disputing ; "Memling, Entombment ; Velasquez, Innocent X. 

The IV. Gallery contains statues of no great value, most of them greatly 

On the left side of the Corso, opposite the Pal. Doria, is the 
Pal. Salviati. 

The side-street adjoining the Pal. Salviati, as well as the pre- 
ceding and the following, lead to the Piazza di SS. Apostoli (PI. 
II, 19). This piazza is bounded on the E. side by the church of 
that name and the Pal. Colonna. At one end is the Pal. Valentini, 
containing a few antiquities. On the other side are the Pal. Buffo 

154 I. Strangers' Quarter. ROME. The Cor so and its 

(No. 308) and the Pal. Odescalchi (No. 314), the latter with a 
facade by Bernini. 

*SS. Apostoli, originally founded by Pelagius I. in honour of 
St. Philip and St. James , and re-erected under Clement XI. in 
1702, -was much injured by a Are in 1871, and is now undergoing 
repair. The vestibule by Baccio Pintelli, the only part of the build- 
ing of earlier date than 1702, contains (on the left) the monu- 
ment of the engraver Giov. Volpato by Canova (1807), and (on 
the right) an ancient *eagle with chaplet of oak-leaves, from the 
Forum of Trajan. Chief festival on 1st May. 

Interior. Right Aisle, 3rd Chapel: St. Antony by Luti. In the Left 
Aisle, 2nd Chapel: Descent from the Cross by Franc. Manno. At the end, 
to the left, over the entrance into the sacristy : "Monument of Clement XIV. 
by Canova, on the pedestal Charity and Temperance. In the tribune, with 
altar-piece by Muratori (said to be the largest in Rome), are the monu- 
ments erected by Sixtus IV. to his two nephews , the Cardinals Riario, 
that of Pietro (d. 1474) on the left, and that of Alexander behind the 
altar , and partly concealed by the organ. On the vaulted ceiling of the 
tribune, Fall of the Angels, a fresco by Giov. Odassi, in the rococo style, 
but of striking eifect. The older church was decorated by Melozzo da Forli, 
a fine fragment of whose frescoes is now in the Quirinal (p. 168), and 
others are in the sacristy of St. Peter's (p. 282). 

The adjoining monastery is now the War Office. The passage 
adjacent to the church contains a monument to Mich. Angela and 
the tomb of Card. Bessarion (d. 1472). 

The * Palazzo Colonna, begun by Martin V., and afterwards 
much extended and altered, is now in great part occupied by the 
French ambassador, and a number of rooms on the ground-floor, 
containing interesting frescoes, are therefore closed to the public. 
The *Pictuke Gallery, situated on the first floor (daily 11-3 , ex- 
cept Sundays and holidays), is entered from the Piazza SS. Apostoli 
by the gate No. 53. "We turn to the left in the court, and ascend 
the broad staircase. 

At the top of the staircase, opposite the entrance to the saloons, is the 
painted cast of a colossal Medusa head. Traversing a large hall contain- 
ing family-portraits, we turn to the right into three ante-rooms adorned 
with Gobelins, in the second of which are four ancient draped statues; in 
the third a small ancient statue, belonging to a group of playing girls. 
We then ring at the entrance to the Gallery (fee of '/z ft - - on leaving). — 
The chief objects of interest are eleven water-colour landscapes by Gaspar 
Poussin in the 4th Room. They represent a mountain road close to a 
profound ravine, a bleak plain lashed by a storm, a calm lake enclosed by 
majestic trees, a riven rocky landscape with waterfall, and various other 
subjects. Notwithstanding the simplicity and uniformity of the materials 
used, these works will not fail to interest the spectator owing to the ex- 
cellence of the composition and drawing. — The portraits of the ancestors 
of the Colonna family also are deserving of attention, e. g. that of Isa- 
bella Colonna by Novelli, a Sicilian painter of the 17th cent. The follow- 
ing pictures also may be mentioned : Lorenzo di Credi, Madonna ; Bonifazio, 
Madonna and saints ; Tintoretto, Saints ; Rubens, Assumption of Mary. The 
two early Flemish Madonnas, surrounded by small circular pictures (1st 
Room), are remarkable for their delicate and miniature-like execution. — 
All the pictures bear the names of the masters. 

I. Room On the wall of the entrance : Fil. Lippi , Madonna ; same 
by Luca Longhi and 8. Botticelli. On the left wall: Luini, Madonna (much 
damaged); Giov. Santi (father of Raphael), Portrait; Jacopo d'Avanzo, Cru- 

Side-Streets. ROME. I. Strangers' Quarter. 155 

cifixion ; Ft: Aliano , Two Landscapes ; "Giulio Romano , Madonna, ; Gentile 
da Fabriano (?), Madonna. Wall of the egress: Parmeggianino , Holy Fa- 
mily; Innoc. da Imola, .same subject; "two Madonnas surrounded by smaller 
circular pictures (erroneously attrib. to Van Eyck) , of the later Dutch 

II. Room : Throne-room with fine old tapestry. 

III. Room : Ceiling-painting by Battoni and Luti (in honour of Martin V.). 
Entrance-wall: Giov. Bellini, St. Eernhard; Titian, Onuphrius Panvinius; 
Bronzino, Holy Family ; Girolamo Trevisani, Poggio Bracciolini. Left wall : 
Aliano, Rape of Europa ; Spagna, "St. Jerome; Domenico Pulego, Madonna ; 
Ann. Caracci, Bean-eater; Paris Bordone , Madonna with saints. Wall of 
the outlet : Holbein (t), Lor. Colonna ; P. Veronese, Portrait of a man ; Bor- 
done, Holy Famity. Window-wall: F. Mola, Cain and Abel; Sassoferralo , 
Madonna; Guido Rent, St. Agnes. 

IV. Room: G. Poussin, "Eleven landscapes, some of that artist's finest 
works, all well worthy of careful examination, although not all favourably 
hung. Entrance - wall : Canaletto, Architectural piece; Crescenzo d'Onofrio, 
Landscape. Opposite the windows : Berghem, Huntsman ; Claude Lorrain (t), 
Landscape; Wouvermans (f), Chase and cavalry skirmish; N. Poussin, Meta- 
morphosis of Daphne; a large cabinet with ivory carving by Franc, and 
Dom. Steinhard. 

V. Gallery with ceiling - paintings by Coli and Gherardi (Battle of Le- 
panto, 8th Oct. 1571, which Marcantonio Colonna at the head of the papal 
army assisted in gaining). On the walls mirrors painted with flowers (by 
Mario de' Fiori) and genii (by C. Maralta). Statues here of no great value, 
most of them modernised. Reliefs built into the wall under the windows 
(right): Head of Pallas; Wounded man, borne away by his friends; Selene 
in the chariot (archaic style). On the left wall: "Rubens, Assumption of 
the Virgin; ~ Sustertnans , Fed. Colonna; Crist. Allori, Christ in hell; Sal- 
viati , Adam and Eve; "Van Dyck , Don Carlo Colonna, equestrian por- 
trait; Guercino, Martyrdom of Emmerentia; S. Gaetano, Family-portrait of 
the Colonnas. Right wall: Tintoretto, Double portrait; N. Poussin, Pastoral 
scene ; Mccolb Alunno , Madonna rescuing a child from a demon. 

A staircase, on which is placed a cannon-ball fired into the city during 
the bombardment of 1849, leads to Room VI. From left to right: Lor. 
Lotto, Card. Pomp. Colonna; Moroni, Portrait; Tintoretto, Narcissus; "Palma 
Vecchio , Madonna with St. Peter and the donor ; Ghirlandajo, Rape of the 
Sabine women, and opposite to it the Reconciliation; Bonifazio, Madonna 
with saints; Van Dyck, Lucrezia Colonna; Hieron. Bosch, Temptation of 
St. Antony; 'Tintoretto, Angels in glory, with four busts; Moretto da 
Brescia, Portrait ; Ag. Caracci, Pompeo Colonna ; Giorgione, Giac. Sciarra Co- 
lonna ; Pourbus, Franc. Colonna. In the centre a column of red marble 
with scenes from a campaign in relief (Renaissance). 

The beautiful Garden (entered through the palace , or by Via 
del Quirinale 12) contains several antiquities, fragments of a colossal 
architrave, said to have belonged to Aurelian's temple of the sun, 
and considerable portions of the brick-walls of the Thermae of Con- 
stantine (p. 168) which once extended over the entire Piazza di 
Monte Cavallo. The terrace commands a good survey of the city. 

Towards the S. the Corso is terminated by the Piazza di Ve- 
nezia (PI. II, 16, 19; 48 ft. above the sea-level) , immediately to 
the right in which, at the corner, rises the Pal. Bonaparte, formerly 
Binuccini, erected by De Rossi, where Madame Laetitia, mother of 
Napoleon I., died on 2nd Feb. 1836. The piazza derives its name 
from the * Palazzo di Venezia, which consists of the large palace, 
and a smaller one of later date, built in the Florentine style, and 

156 /. Strangers' Quarter. ROME. 5. Marco. 

imposing dimensions. The building -was formerly attributed to Oiu- 
linno da Majano, but existing documents record that it was erected 
by Francesco del Borgo di S. Sepolcro for Pope Paul II. about 1455. 
To what extent Bernardo di Lorenzo participated in the work is 
uncertain. The palace was presented in 1560 by Pius IV. to the 
Republic of Venice, with which it subsequently came into the pos- 
session of Austria, and is still the residence of the Austrian am- 
bassador, as it was before the cession of Venetia. The extensive 
court with arcades is little more than begun ; and so also is a second 
and smaller court to the left of the other. Many of the stones used 
in constructing this building are said to have been obtained from 
the Colosseum. 

Opposite the side-entrance of the Pal. di Venezia is the Palazzo 
Torlouia, formerly Bolognetti, erected about 1650 by C. Fontana, 
occupying the block as far as the Piazza SS. Apostoli, and the pro- 
perty of the banker Prince Torlonia, Duke of Bracciano. It is lavishly 
decorated, and contains among other works of art Canova's Raving 
Hercules, but is not shown to the public. Permessi for the Villa 
Albani may be procured on the ground-floor, to the left. 

From the Piazza Venezia we proceed in a straight direction 
through the narrow Ripresa dei Barberi , so named because the 
'Barbary' horses formerly used in the races of the Carnival were 
stopped here. On the left (No. 174) is the Pal. Nipoti. The first 
cross-street to the left leads to the Forum of Trajan (p. 235). To 
the right the Via S. Marco, passing under an arch of the passage 
which leads from the Pal. di Venezia to S. Maria in Aracceli, brings 
us to the Piazza di San Marco (PI. II, 16), laid out in prome- 
nades. Here, on the right, lies — 

S. Marco, incorporated with the Pal. di Venezia. a church of 
very ancient origin, said to date from the time of Constantine, re- 
erected in 833 by Gregory IV., adorned in 1455 by Oiuliano da 
Majano with a fine vestibule and probably with the coffered ceiling 
of the nave, and finally embellished in modern taste by Card. Quirini 
in 1744. Festival on 25th April. 

Vestibule. Roman and ancient Christian inscriptions, built into the 
walls. St. Mark in relief, above the handsome inner principal portal. The 
Interior is approached by a descent of several steps. With the exception 
of the tribune and the beautiful ceiling, all the older parts have been 
disfigured by restorations. The Tribune, with its handsome pavement 
(opus Alexandrinum), lies a few steps higher than the rest of the church. 
The mosaics (in the centre Christ; left, the saints Mark, Agapetus, and Agnes; 
right , Felicianus and Mark escorting Gregory IV.) date from the period of 
the utmost debasement of this art (about 833} and have been justly 
described as 'utter caricatures'. In the Right Aisle, 1st Chapel : altar-piece 
by Palma Giovine , the Resurrection. 3rd Chapel : Adoration of the Magi, 
Maratta. At the end, adjoining the tribune: "Pope Mark, an admirable old 
picture, perhaps by Carlo Crivelli. In the Left Aisle, 2nd Chapel : altar- 
relief, Greg. Barbadigo distributing alms , by Ant. d'Este. 4th Chapel : 
St. Michael, Mola. 

Gesu. ROME. /. Strangers' Quarter. 157 

In the Piazza, in front of the church, is the so-called Madonna 
Lucrezia , the mutilated marble bust of a colossal female statue 
(priestess of Isis) which carried on conversations with the Abate 
Luigi near the Pal. Vidoni (p. 198), similar to those of Pasquin 
with the Marforio (comp. p. 199). 

The Via di S. Marco terminates in the Via Aracali, which to 
the left leads to the Piazza Aracceli (p. 208) and the Capitol, and 
to the right to the Piazza del Gesu (see below). 

From the Piazza Venezia the Ripresa de' Barberi and its con- 
tinuation the Via Macel de Corvi (in which No. 88 is marked by a 
memorial tablet as the house where Giulio Romano was born), and 
beyond it the Via di Marforio, lead by the N.E. slope of the Capi- 
toline to the Forum and the Arch of Severus (p. 222). The name 
is derived from Forum Martis (otherwise Forum of Augustus). The 
celebrated statue of Marforio which formerly stood in this street, 
opposite the Career Mamertinus, is now in the Capitoline museum 
(p. 215). 

Beyond the second transverse street (the Via della Pedacchia, 
now Giulio Romano, which connects the Piazza Aracceli with the 
Forum of Trajan), is situated on the left the Monument of C. Pu- 
blicius Bibulus (now entirely built over), to whom the ground was 
granted by the senate as a burial-place for himself and his family 
in recognition of his merits ('honoris virtutisque causa', as the in- 
scription records) towards the end of the republic. This point 
must accordingly have lain outside the walls of Servius, which ran 
immediately below the Capitol, interments within their precincts 
having been prohibited. 

Leaving the Piazza Venezia, we follow the broad Via del Ple- 
biscite, formerly del Oesii, to the right, past the Pal. di Venezia. 
On the right we observe the palazzi Bonaparte (p. 155), Doria 
(p. 151), and Grazioli. We next come to the Pal. Altieri, with its 
extensive facade, erected in 1670, bounding the N. side of the small 
Piazza del Gesu (PI. II, 16) which is called after the church of 
that name. 

*Gesii , the principal chuTch of the Jesuits, is one of the most 
gorgeous in Rome. It was built by Vignola and Oiac. della Porta 
by order of Card. Alessandro Farnese, 1568-77. 

In the Have is a "ceiling-painting by Baciccio, by whom the dome and 
tribune were also painted, one of the best and most life-like of the rococo 
works of that period. The walls were covered with valuable marble at 
the cost of the Principe Aless. Torlonia in 1860. On the high - altar, with 
its four columns of giallo antico : Christ in the Temple, by Capalti ; on the 
left the monument of Card. Bellarmino with figures of Religion and Faith, 
in relief; on the right the monument of P. Pignatelli, with Love and Hope. 
— In the Transept , to the left : "Altar of St. Ignatius with a picture by 
Pozzi , under which a silver-plated relief, representing St. Ignatius sur- 
rounded by angels, is said to be concealed. The original silver statue of the 
saint, by Le Oros, which was formerly here, is said to have been removed 
on the suppression of the order in the previous century. The columns are 
of lapis lazuli and gilded bronze ; on the architrave above are two statues : 

158 I. Stranger*' Quarter. ROME. Villa Borghese. 

God the Father , by 13. Ludovisi, and Christ , by L. Ottoni , behind which, 
encircled by a halo of rays, is the emblematic Dove. Between these the 
globe of the earth , consisting of a single block of lapis lazuli (said to be 
the largest in existence). Beneath the altar, in a sarcophagus of gilded 
bronze, repose the remains of the saint. On the right and left are groups 
in marble; on the right the Christian Religion, at the sight of which 
heretics shrink, by Le Oros ; on the left Faith with the Cup and Host, which 
a heathen king is in the act of adoring, by Th4odon. Opposite, in the tran- 
sept, on the right, the altar of St. Francis Xavier. 

The church presents a most imposing sight on 31st Dec. , on the 
festival of St. Ignatius, on 31st July, and during the Quarant'ore (two last 
days of the Carnival) , on which occasions it is brilliantly illuminated in 
the evening. During Advent and Lent, and generally at other seasons also, 
sermons are preached here at 11 a. m. , often by priests of great ability. 

Immediately adjoining the church is the former Cam Professa 
of the Jesuits, now used as a barrack, opposite which is the Palazzo 
Bolognetti (PI. I, 16, 3). — Passing the monastery, and following 
the Via di Aracali , we come in 5 min. to the Piazza di Aracoeli, at 
the foot of the Capitol (see p. 208). 

From the opposite angle of the Piazza del Gesu, the Via del 
Gesu leads to the right in 5 min. to the Piazza della Minerva (p. 
194); while the busy Via de' Cesarini (p. 198) to the left leads to 
S. Andrea della Valle (p. 198) and thence to the bridge of S. An- 
gelo, forming the shortest and mo^t frequented route to the Vati- 
can , and sometimes called 'Via Papale'. The Via del Governo 
Vecchio, see p. 199. From the church of Gesu to the bridge of 
S. Angelo (p. 273) 18 min. ; omnibus thither, starting from the 
Piazza di Venezia, see p. 111. 

Villa Borghese. 
On the right, just outside the Porta del Popolo, rises the — 
*Villa Borghese (PI. I, 21), founded by Card. Scipio Borghese, 
nephew of Pius V. , and subsequently enlarged by the addition of 
the Giustiniani gardens and the so-called villa of Raphael , which 
last, with a great part of the plantations, was destroyed during the 
siege of 1849. The beautiful and extensive grounds are open to 
the public daily, except Mondays, from 12 till dusk; the Casino 
with the collection of antiquities is shown on Saturdays only, 1-4 
o'clock in winter, 4-7 in summer. The Villa Borghese is justly a fa- 
vourite promenade, and was formerly the scene of popular festivi- 
ties in October. The gardens contain a number of ancient statues 
and inscriptions. 

On entering, we select the footpath which skirts the carriage- 
road on the right, and leads to an Egyptian Gateway (8 min.); 
thence in a straight direction , passing a grotto with antique frag- 
ments (left). After 4 min. the road divides (for the branch in a 
straight direction, see below). Following the left branch , which 
leads through an artificial ruin with two Doric columns, we observe 
on the left the private gardens of the prince , and farther on reach 
an imitation of a Ruined Temple. Turning to the right here, we 

Villa Borghese. ROME. /. Strangers' Quarter. 1 59 

come in 10 min. to a circular space with a Fountain. (Or this spot 
may be reached by the first broad path to the right beyond the 
Doric columns , leading through an avenue of evergreen oaks to a 
small temple , and thence to the left , through another similar 
avenue.) From this point the carriage-road leads to the Casino 
in 5 min. , whither also beautiful, shady footpaths lead from the 
left of the fountain. 

If we proceed in a straight direction from the above-mentioned 
bifurcation of the path, we observe on the left, after 3 min., the 
remains of Raphael's Villa, and in 3 min. more an arch with a Statue 
of Apollo, whence the road turns to the left and leads to the Casino. 

The Casino formerly contained one of the most valuable private 
collections in existence, which was purchased by Napoleon I. and 
transferred to the Louvre. In consequence, however, of recent ex- 
cavations , especially near Monte Calvi in the Sabina , Prince Bor- 
ghese has again established a Museum here, which contains several 
objects of great interest. Visitors are provided with catalogues by 
the custodians (72 ir 0- 

Ground-Floor. I. Vestibule : Two candelabra ; on the narrow walls 
two reliefs , probably from *the triumphal arch of Claudius which once 
stood in the Corso near the Pal. Sciarra. Several sarcophagi ; one of them, 
to the left by the wall of the egress, with a harbour, lighthouse, and ships. 

II. Saloon ('Salone'), with ceiling-painting by Mario Rossi. On the floor 
mosaics, discovered in 1835 near the Tenuta di Torre Nuova, with gladiator 
and wild beast combats. Left wall : 3. Colossal head of Isis ; 4. Dancing 
Faun, under it a Bacchic relief; 5. Colossal head of a Muse (?). Long wall : 
7. Tiberius; 8. Meleager; 9. Augustus; above, a raised relief of a galloping 
rider (M. Curtius?); -10. Priestess ; 11. Bacchus and Ampelus. Eight wall: 
14. Hadrian ; 16. Antoninus Pius (colossal busts.) ; under No. 15 a Bacchic 
relief. Entrance-wall : 18. Diana. 

III. Room (1st Eoom to the right). In the centre: s 'Juno Pronuba, found 
near Monte Calvi. Left wall : 4. Ceres ; 5. Venus Genetrix. Opposite the en- 
trance: 8. Belief, Sacrificial prayer (ofHesiod?) to Cupid; ! 11. Relief of the 
Rape of Cassandra. Right wall : 16. Statue with drapery. Entrance-wall : 

20. Greek relief from a tomb. 

IV. Room. In the centre: Amazon on horseback contending with two 
warriors. Entrance-wall: 2. Pan; 4. (and 17, opp.) Sarcophagus with the 
achievements of Hercules; on the cover, Reception of the Amazons by 
Priam ; 6. Head of Hercules ; 7. Pygmsea. On the left wall : 9. Statue of 
Hercules. Wall of the egress : 15. Hercules in female attire. Window-wall : 

21. Venus ; 23. Three-sided ara with Mercury, Venus, and Bacchus. 

V. Room. In the centre: Apollo. Left wall: 3. Scipio Africanus; 4. 
Daphne metamorphosed into a laurel. Following wall : 7. Head of a 
Msenas or Bacchante; 8. Melpomene; 9. Genre-group; 10. Clio. Right wall: 
*13. Statue of Anacreon in a sitting posture, perhaps a copy from a ce- 
lebrated work of Cresilas at Athens; 14. Lucilla, wife of L. Verus. En- 
trance-wall: 16. Terpsichore; 18. Polyhymnia. 

VI. Room : 'Gallery' with modern busts of emperors in porphyry. In 
the centre a porphyry bath, said to have been found in the mausoleum of 
Hadrian ; 3. Diana, restored as a Muse ; 8. Diana ; 22. Bacchus ; *29. Statue 
of a Satyr in basalt ; 32. Bronze statue of a boy. (The second door of the 
entrance-wall leads to the upper story.) 

VII. Room , with columns of giallo antico and porphyry , on the floor 
ancient mosaics. Left wall : *2. Boy with bird ; 3. Bacchus ; "4. Captive boy. 
Wall of the egress : 7. Recumbent Hermaphrodite ; 9. Sappho (doubtful) ; 
10. Tiberius. Entrance-wall: "13. Roman portrait-bust (said to be Do- 

160 II. Hills of Rome. ROME. Quirinal. 

mitius Corbulo); '14. Head of a youth; 15. Boy with a pitcher, a fountain 
figure; 16. Female bust. 

VIII. Room. In the centre : * Portrait statue of a Greek poet, perhaps Al- 
cseus. Left wall: 2. Athene; 4. Apollo (archaic style). Following wallt 
6. Figure from a tomb ; 7. Candelabrum with Hecate. Eight wall : 8. Nymph j 
10. Leda. Entrance-wall : 15. jEsculapius and Telesphorus. 

IX. Boom. In the centre: *Satyr on a dolphin, a fountain-figure; 3. Isis; 
i. Paris; 8. Female statue, improperly restored as Ceres; 10. Gipsy woman 
(17th cent.); 13. Venus; 14. Female figure (archaic); *16. Bacchante; 18. 
Satyr ; 19. Hadrian ; 20. Satyr. 

X. Room. -1. Dancing Satyr, erroneously restored (he originally played 
on the flute); 2. Ceres; 3. Mercury with a lyre; 4. Dancing Satyr; 8. Satyr, 
after Praxiteles; 9. Pluto with Cerberus; 14. Periander; 19. Bacchus en- 
throned. The beautiful ceiling-paintings in this room by Conca should be 

Upper Floor. A large saloon (fee 1 /i fr.) contains three early works 
of Bernini : iEneas carrying Anchises ; Apollo and Daphne ; David with the 
sling. The ceiling-paintings are by Lanfranco, the five 'Landscapes on the 
left wall by Phil. Hackerl. In one of the following rooms the recumbent 
statue of |Pauline Borghese, sister of Napoleon I., as Venus, by Canova. 
Other apartments contain modern sculptures and numerous pictures, which 
with a few exceptions (e.g. Portrait of Paul V. by Caravaggio in the 2nd 
room) are of little value. The balcony commands a fine View of the gardens. 

II. The Hills of Rome. 
Quirinal. Viminal. Esquiline. 

The following description embraces the E. part of Rome, which 
extends over the three long, parallel hills of the Quirinal, Vimi- 
nal, and Esquiline, and adjoins the Corso and Strangers' Quarter, 
the greater part of which is as yet occupied by vineyards and gar- 
dens, especially towards the -walls. Since the Italian occupation, 
however, buildings are springing up here in every direction, and 
on the Esquiline, in particular, whole quarters are being erected. 

On the Quirinal at a very early period lay a Sabine town, from the 
union of which with that on the Palatine was formed the city |of Rome. 
The Servian wall ran from the Capitol along the N. W. side of the 
Quirinal, and then to the E. behind the Baths of Diocletian and the 
church of S. Maria Maggiore, thus enclosing the Quirinal, Viminal, and 
part of the Esquiline. According to the new division of the city made 
by Augustus , this quarter comprised two districts , the Alta Semita 
(Quirinal) and the Exquiliae (Esquiline). The construction of the wall 
of Aurelian shows that this quarter was afterwards extended. According 
to the mediaeval division these districts formed a single region only, 
named the Rione Monti, the most spacious of all the fourteen quarters 
of the city, as it extended from the Porta Pia to the now closed Porta 
Metronia, below the Lateran , and to the Forum Romanum. Its inhabi- 
tants , who were called Montigiani , differ, like those of Trastevere, in 
some of their characteristics from the other Romans. The hill was pro- 
vided with water by Sixtus V., by whom the long main street from the 
Pincio to S. Maria Maggiore was also constructed. The second street in 
importance, intersecting the main street, and leading from the Piazza 
del Quirinale to the Porta Pia (Via del Quirinale and Via Venti Settembre), 
was constructed by Pius IV. 

From the Piazza della Trinita on the Pincio (p. 142), crossing 
the heights of the Quirinal and Viminal, a street 1 M. in length in- 
tersects this quarter of the town in a S. E. direction as far as the 

Piazza Barberini. ROME. 11. The Hills. 161 

church of S. Maria Maggiore on theEsquiline, the first part of which 
is called Via Sistina and the remaining portion Via delle Quattro 
Fontane. This street with its offshoots is at first well peopled, 
both with citizens and visitors, but beyond the Quirinal it be- 
comes deserted, and building operations have only recently been 
begun here. 

The Via Sistina (PI. I, 20) descends gradually from the Pincio 
to the Piazza Barberini (5 min.). The first cross-street descending 
to the right is called Via di Capo le Case (p. 144); its prolongation 
to the left is the Via di Porta Pinciana, which ascends to the gate 
of that name (closed in 1808), and in which (left) is situated the 
Villa Malta, once the property of King Lewis I. of Bavaria, now in- 
habited by German artists. 

Passing S. Francesco on the left, and S. lldefonso on the right, 
we reach the Piazza Barberini (PI. I, 19, 22). In the centre the 
*Fontana del Tritone, by Bernini, a Triton blowing on a conch. On 
the upper (N.E.) side is the Hotel Bristol. On the right, one side of 
the Palazzo Barberini (p. 166) is visible. Ascending the Piazza, we 
come to the Via di S. Nicola di Tolentino, with several new hotels, 
which leads to the church of that name, and then, under the name of 
Via di S. Susanna, turns to the right to the Fontanone dell' Acqua 
Felice and the Piazza delle Terme (p. 172). — The second street to 
the left , on the N. side of the Piazza Barberini , is the Via di 8. 
Basilio, which leads to the Villa Ludovisi (se below), and through 
the Porta Salara to the Villa Albani (p. 163 ; 1 M.). 

Adjoining the Piazza Barberini on the left rises the Piazza de' 
Cappuccini, in which is situated the Church of S. Maria della Con- 
cezione (PI. I, 23), or dei Cappuccini, founded in 1624 by Card. 

In the Interior, over the door, a copy of Giotto's Navicella (in the ves- 
tibule of St. Peter's, p. 279) by Beretta. In the 1st Chapel (right) "'St. Michael, 
a celebrated picture by Guido Rent; in the 3rd, remains of frescoes by Do- 
menichino. At the high-altar a copy of an Ascension by Lanfranco, now 
destroyed. Beneath a stone in front of the steps to the choir reposes the 
founder of the church, Card. Barberini ('hicjacet pulvis cinis et nihil'); on 
the left the tomb of Alex. Sobiesky, son of John III. of Poland, who died in 
1714. The last chapel contains (left) an altar-piece by Sacchi; in the first, 
one by Pielro da Cortona. 

Beneath the church are four Bckial Vaults (shown by one of the 
monks, if desired), decorated in a ghastly manner with the bones of 
about 4000 Capuchins whose remains are deposited here. Each vault 
contains a tomb with earth from Jerusalem. In the case of a new inter- 
ment the bones which have longest remained undisturbed, are used in 
the manner indicated. On All Souls' Day (2nd Nov.) the vaults are 
lighted up, and visited by numbers of people. 

A little to theN.W. is the church of S. Isidoro, founded in 1622. 

Leaving the Piazza Barberini, and following the Via di S. Ba- 
silio , the first part of which only is inhabited, in a straight di- 
rection for 5 min., we reach a corner from which the street to the 

Bakdekeb. Italy II. 5th Edition. 11 

162 II. The Hills. ROME. Villa Ludovisi. 

right leads to the gate, and that to the left to the entrance of the 
Villa Ludovisi. 

The **Villa Ludovisi (PI. I, 23) was erected during the first 
half of the 17th cent, by Card. Ludovisi, nephew of Gregory XV., 
and afterwards inherited by the princes of Piombino. The villa is 
usually shown on Thursdays after one o'clock to visitors provided 
with a permesso (p. 117). The grounds were laid out by Le Notre. 

From the gateway (i/ 2 fr- on leaving) we proceed to the right 
to the — 

I. Casino, containing a "collection of valuable ancient sculp- 
tures. Catalogues may be purchased of the custodian (1/2 fr.). 

I. Vestibule: 1, 3, 7, 42, 46,48. Statues; by the entrance-wall, to the 
right 20. Head of Juno , very ancient ; 18. Candelabrum in the form of a 
twisted tree; 15. Sitting statue of a Roman, by Zenon. To the left of the 
entrance: 25. Female draped figure; 31. Tragic mask, mouth of a fountain 
in rosso antico. — II. Room: '-28. Group of a barbarian, who, having 
killed his wife, plunges the sword into his own breast (right arm improperly 
restored), a work of the Pergamenian school (the 'Dying Gaul' in the Capitol also 
belongs to this group; see Introd., p. xxxv). To the right of the entrance: 
"55. Warrior reposing (Mars?), probably destined originally to adorn the 
approach to a door; 51. Statue of Athene from Antioch; 47. Cast of the 
statue of iEschines at Naples ; 46. Bust, name unknown ; above it, :S 45. Head 
of a Medusa, of the noblest type ; 43. Rape of Proserpine, by Bernini ; above 
it, 42. Judgment of Paris, a relief, the right side restored according to Ra- 
phael's plan; *-41. The so-called 'Juno Ludovisi', the most celebrated, and 
one of the most beautiful heads of Juno ; 30. Mercury , in the same po- 
sition as the so-called Germanicus in Paris. Left of the entrance: '1. Mars 
reposing, of the school of Lysippus ; '7. Theseus and yEthra (or Telema- 
chus and Penelope , commonly called Orestes and Electra), by Menelaos , 
pupil of Stephanos; ''9. Youthful Satyr; 14. Dionysus with a satyr; 15. Head 
of Juno; 21. Bronze head of Marcus Aurelius. 

To the left of the gateway a path leads by a wall with hedges, 
and then past a pavilion, in 4 min. to the — 

II. Casino (dell' Aurora; fee 1 /.y fr.), which on the ground-floor 
contains a ceiling-fresco of *Aurora by Ouercino, and on the first 
floor a *Fama by the same. "We next ascend (on the staircase an 
interesting ancient relief of two Cupids dragging a quiver) to the 
upper balconies , whence a magnificent *Vibw of Rome and the 
mountains is enjoyed. 

The garden with its beautiful avenues of cypresses and other 
evergreens extends to the city-wall. Ancient sculptures are distri- 
buted over the grounds ; e. g. by the city-wall a large sarcophagus 
with representation of a battle, possibly that of Alex. Severus 
against Artaxerxes, A. D. 232. 

The prolongation of the Via S. Basilio mentioned at p. 1(31 is 
the Via di Porta Salaea, which leads in 8 min. from the Villa 
Ludovisi to the Porta Salara. Here in ancient times, on the site 
of the present Villa Massimi (closed to the public), lay the magnifi- 
cent Gardens of Sallust , the historian , which afterwards became 
the property of the emperors. They included a circus, occupying the 
hollow between the Pincio and Quirinal, which are united farther 

Villa Albani. ROME. //. The Hills. 163 

up near the gate. Where the view is unintercepted to the right, 
considerable remains of the enclosing walls are observed on the 
Quirinal opposite. 

The Porta Salara (PL I, 27), which was seriously injured by 
the bombardment of 20th Sept., 1870, is now restored. The remo- 
val of its two towers brought to light a well preserved ancient 
monument in 'peperino', resembling that of Bibulus (p. 157) in 

The Via Salara leads from the gate (comp. map, p. 332) in 
8 min. to the — 

*Villa Albani (shown on Tuesdays, in winter from 10, and in 
summer from 11, till dusk, except in wet weather and in June, 
July, and August; by permesso, see p. 116), founded in 1760 by 
Card. Aless. Albani, built by C. Marchionne, and embellished with 
admirable works of art. Napoleon I. transferred 294 of the finest 
statues to Paris, which on their restitution in 1815 were sold there 
by Card. Giuseppe Albani, with the exception of the relief of An- 
tinous, in order to avoid the serious expense of transport. In 1834 
the Counts of Castelbarco became proprietors of the villa, and caused 
the arrangement of the statues to be altered. The villa has recently 
been purchased by Prince Torlonia, who has transferred several of 
the best antiques to his private museum in the Borgo. Some of 
them have been replaced by casts. 

Three paths bounded by hedges diverge from the entrance ; that 
in the centre leads first to a circular space with a column in the 
middle, and then to a Terrace with a fountain whence a compre- 
hensive survey is obtained : to the left is the Casino with the galle- 
ries on either side ; opposite is the so-called Bigliardo , a small 
building surrounded with cypresses ; on the right in the crescent 
is the l Caffe\ The finest *view from the terrace is obtained near 
the side-steps, farther to the right, whence, to the right of the 
cypresses, S. Agnese and S. Costanza appear in the centre, above 
which rises Monte Gennaro , with Monticelli at its base. (Most 
favourable light towards evening.) 

I. CASINO. Ground Floor. Vestibule. In the six niches: 54. Tiberius 
(V); 59. L. Verus; 6i. Trajan. Further on, on the other side of the stair- 
case in the vestibule mentioned below : 72. M. Aurelius, 77. Antoninus 
Pius, 82. Hadrian. In the centre, 61. Female portrait-figure sitting (Faustina) ; 
66. Circular Ara with Bacchus, Ceres, Proserpine, and three Horse; 74. An- 
other with female torch-bearer and the Seasons ; 79. Sitting female figure 
{perhaps the elder Agrippina). By the pillars on the left and right are 
statues : by the first on the right , 52. Hermes ; by the 5th on the left, 68. 
Female, and on the right, 67. Male double statue; by the 7th on the right, 
80. Euripides. — We now return to the beginning of the Vestibule and 
enter the Atrio della Cariatide, to the left : 16. 24. Two canephorse, found 
between Frascati and Monte Porzio (baskets new). In the centre, 19. Carya- 
ilde, by the Athenians Criton and Nicolaus (the names engraved on the 
hack of the vessel), found inl766 near the Csecilia Metella; on the pedestal, 20. 
so-called *Capaneus struck by lightning. In the Gallery adjacent, on the left: 
Statues; the third to the right, 45. Scipio Africanus; to the left, 29. Epicurus. 


164 II. The Hills. ROME. Villa Alb ani. 

From the vestibule we proceed through a small ante-room on the left 
to the Staircase. In front of the staircase, to the left, 9. Roma sitting on 
trophies (in relief). Adjacent, 11. A relief of a butcher's shop. On the stair- 
case, reliefs: on the first landing, (r.) 885. Death of the Children ofNiobe; 
O.J 889. Philoctetes in Lemnus (?) ; on the third landing, above, 898, 899. 
Two dancing Bacchantes. 

Upper Floor (when closed, visitors ring; 1/2 fr.). 

I. Sala Ovale. In the centre, 905. Apollo on the tripod , with his feet 
on the omphalos. To the left of the door , 906. Statue of a youth by Ste- 
phanos, a pupil of Pasiteles. Opposite: "915. Cupid bending his bow, pro- 
bably a copy from Lysippus. — On the right — 

II. Galleeia Gkande, the principal saloon (on the ceiling Apollo, 
Mnemosyne, and the Muses, painted by Raph. Mengs). In the niches of 
the entrance- wall : ''1012. Pallas, and 1010. Zeus. Reliefs (over the door) : 

1004. Apollo, Diana, Leto in front of the temple of Delphi (archaic victory 
relief). Then to the right, 1013. A youth with his horse, from a tomb near 
Tivoli ; left, 1018. Antoninus Pius with Pax and Roma. The eight fragments 
of mosaic at the sides of this door and that of the balcony, and in the four 
corners, are for the most part antique. — By the left wall : 1020. Two women 
sacrificing; to the right, 1007. Dancing Bacchantes. By the window-wall: 

1005. Hercules and the Hesperides; 1009. Daedalus and Icarus. From the 
balcony a beautiful view of the Alban and Sabine Mts. 

To the Right of the principal saloon : III. First Room. Over the 
chimney-piece : "1031. Mercury bringing Eurydice back from the infernal 
regions, an Attic relief of a period soon after that of Phidias, a strikingly 
beautiful example of the noble simplicity for which ancient art is 
justly celebrated. By the entrance -wall, (r.) '1034. Theophrastus ; 
window-wall, (1.) 1036. Hippocrates ; wall of the egress, (r.) 1040. Socrates. 
— IV. Second Room. On the wall of the entrance, on the right : 35. Pintu- 
ricchio (?), Madonna with SS. Laurence and Sebastian on the left, St. James 
and the donor on the right; to the left of the entrance, 45. Lunette 
by Cotignola: Dead Christ with mourning angels. Right wall: 36. Niccolb 
Alunno , Altar-piece: Madonna and Saints (1475). On the wall of the 
egress : ::: 37. Pietro Perugino, a picture in six sections : Joseph and Mary ador- 
ing the Infant Christ , Crucifixion , Annunciation , Saints (1491). — V. 
Third Room. Wall of the entrance, (r.) 49. Van der Werff, Descent 
from the Cross. Right wall : 55. Van Dyck , Christ on the Cross. Opposite 
the entrance, 59. Saldino , Madonna. 

To the Left of the principal saloon: VI. First Room. Over the chim- 
ney-piece, 994. the celebrated "Relief of Antinous, from the Villa of Hadrian, 
the only object in the collection which was brought back fromParis. Entrance 
wall: "997. Shepherdess playing the flute. — VII. Second Room. To the 
left of the entrance : 980. Archaic Greek relief from a tomb. Left wall : "985. 
Greek relief in the best style, a group of combatants, found in 1764 near 
S. Vito. Below it : 988. Procession of Hermes, Athene, Apollo, and Artemis 
(archaic style). By the window to the left, 970. Archaic statue of Pallas, 
found near Orta ; on the right, 975. Archaic Venus. Wall of egress, on the left: 
Greek tomb-relief (greatly modernised). — VIII. Third (corner) Room: 21. 
Holbein, Portrait, 1527; 20. Raphael, Fornarina, a copy; "18, *17. Giulio Ro- 
mano, coloured designs (in oils, on paper) for the frescoes from the myth of 
Psyche in the Pal. del Te at Mantua. The cartoons of Domenichino, and sev- 
eral other pictures formerly here , have been removed to a room on the 
lower floor, which is at present closed. — IX. Fourth Room. In front of 
the window : '965. jEsop, perhaps after Lysippus, the head beautifully exe- 
cuted. In the niche in the entrance - wall , 952. Apollo Sauroctonus, after 
Praxiteles. Opposite, 933. Farnese Hercules, a small copy in bronze. Window 
wall on the right, 942. a small statue of Diogenes. Wall of the egress, 
(1.) "957. Small relief representing the Apotheosis of Hercules; on the pil- 
lars at the sides a record of his exploits is inscribed (resembling the Tabula 
Iliaca in the Capitol, see p. 218). — X. A room with pictures of inferior 
value. — XI. Room with Gobelins. 

Returning to the oval saloon, we again descend to the — 

Ground -Floor, and there proceed to inspect the other wing of the 

Villa Albani. ROME. //. The Hills. 165 

vestibule. Here, at the extremity to the left, corresponding to the Atrio 
della Cariatide, is the : I. Atrio della Giunone. 91. 97. two Canephorse ; 
93. So-called Juno. — II. Gallery. In the first niche, "103. Bacchante 
with Nebris; -106. Satyr with the young Bacchus. Some of the statues 
by the pillars are fine , but arbitrarily named. — In a straight direction : 
III. Stanza della Colonna (generally closed, fee 25 c. ). Antique 
columns of variegated alabaster , found in the Marmorata. On the left, 
"131. Sarcophagus with the Nuptials of Peleus and Thetis ; above, four sar- 
cophagus-reliefs ; on the left, 135. Hippolytus and Phaedra ; over the egress, 
139. Rape of Proserpine ; on the right, 141. Bacchanalian procession ; over 
the entrance , 140. Death of Alcestis. — IV. Passage : Bearded Bacchus (ar- 
chaic). — V. Stanza delle Terracotte. By the left wall, close to the en- 
trance: 146. Greek tomb-relief; 147. Greek votive relief. Beyond the door: 
157. Love-sick Polyphemus and Cupid ; 161. Diogenes and Alexander. Oppo- 
site the entrance, 164. Dsedalus and Icarus, in rosso antico. Below, 165. An- 
cient landscape-picture. On the right wall, 171. Mask of a river-god ; to the 
left of it, 169. Bacchus pardoning captive Indians ; to the right of the 
mask, and on the entrance - wall , several fine reliefs in terracotta. — VI. 
Room. In the centre, Leda with the swan. — VII. Room. Above the entrance- 
door, Bacchanalian procession of children, from Hadrian's Villa, in pavonaz- 
zetto , or speckled marble ; left, statue of a recumbent river-god ; right, 
Theseus with the Minotaur, found near Genzano in 1740. — VIII. Room. 
Relief in the first window to the left, the God of Sleep. — The exit here 
is generally closed. > 

An avenue of oaks, flanked with cippi (tomb-stones) leads from 
the last-named apartments of the Casino to the — 

II. BlGLlAHDO, containing a few unimportant antiques (25 c). In a 
niche in the vestibule, a cast of a Greek relief: probably Hercules, Theseus, 
and Peirithous in the lower regions. 

HI. Caffe. In the semicircular Hall, to the left : 1. Alcibiades (a cast); 
left, 604. Statue of Mars; 610. Chrysippus; 612. Apollo reposing; 628. Cary- 
atide. Farther on, beyond the entrance to the saloon mentioned below : 
(1.) on a detached column, 721. Homer. Adjacent, 725. Caryatide; (r.) bv 
the 3rd pillar, 737. Mask of Poseidon. Obliquely opposite, (1.) 744. Ar- 
chaic Greek portrait head, said to be Pericles , but perhaps Pisistratus ; 
(1.) 749. Statue, called Sappho, perhaps Ceres. — We now return to the 
middle of the hall and enter the Ante-Room. Here, in the section to the 
right, 711. Iris; (1.) 706. Theseus with Mthru, perhaps a sarcophagus-relief. 
In the section to the left, 641. Marsyas bound to the tree ; (1.) 639. Relief of 
Venus and Cupid. Also several statues of comic actors. — In the Saloon 
(5-10 s.), in the niche to the left of the door, 639. Libera with a fawn. 
Below, 663. Mosaic with meeting of seven physicians. Corresponding to 
the latter, to the right of the door, 696. Mosaic , liberation of Hesione by 
Hercules. To the right of the balcony-door, 688. Ibis , in rosso antico ; 
684. Atlas, bearer of the universe; (1.) 678. Boy with comic mask; 676. 
Colossal head of Serapis, in green basalt. The balcony commands a pleasing 

Before the hall of the Cafe is entered , a flight of steps to the left de- 
scends to a lower part of the garden. Several fragments of sculpture are 
built into the walls of the ground-floor of the building, and a few Egyptian 
statues are arranged in a hall. In the centre : Ptolemy Philadelphus , in grey 
granite; (r.) the lion-headed goddess Pacht; (1.) statue of a king, in black gra- 
nite ; several sphynxes. On a fountain in front of the hall : reclining Am- 
phitrite ; on the left and right two colossal *Tritons. 

Numeious antique statues are also distributed throughout the 
Garden, among which the colossal busts of Titus on the left, and 
Trajan on the right, below the terrace in front of the Casino, de- 
serve mention. 

We may now return by the avenue of evergreen oaks, wluch is 

166 II. The Hills. ROME. Pal. Barberini. 

entered by an arch at the end of the left gallery of the Casino. In 
the centre of the avenue is a colossal bust of the German anti- 
quarian Winckelmann, the intimate friend of Card. Albani, the 
founder of the villa, by E. Wolff, erected by order of Lewis I. of 


Ascending the Via delle Quattro Foxtaxe from the Piazza 
Barberini, we observe on the left the handsome — 

* Palazzo Barberini (PI. I, 22), begun by Maderna under Ur- 
ban VIII., and completed by Bernini. The court, laid out as a gar- 
den, is embellished with a statue of Thorvaldsen, by E.Wolff, after 
a work by the master himself, erected here, near his studio, by his 
pupils and friends. — The principal staircase is to the left under 
the arcades; built into it is a Greek *tomb-relief ; on the landing 
of the first floor, a *lion in high-relief, from Tivoli. A number 
of mediocre ancient sculptures are distributed throughout the court} 
and other parts of the building. 

At the right end of the arcades a winding staircase (18 steps, 
then to the right) ascends to the Picture Gallery (open daily , 
12-5. except Sundays and Thursdays ; on Thursdays 2-5 ; gener- 
ally closed in winter about dusk). Catalogues for the use of 

This is the gallery of disappointement. In Raphael's Fornarina we 
expect to find a beauty radiant with the charms of youth, whereas her 
features present an almost haggard appearance, to which the ill-preserved 
condition of the picture further contributes. In Guido RenVs Beatrice 
Cenci we expect to see a countenance Judith-like , and characterised by 
stern resolve, instead of which we encounter a pale, delicate face. Lastly, 
when we inspect Burets Christ among the Scribes, we are almost tempted 
to doubt its authenticity; the numerous heads are ungrouped, some of 
them resemble caricatures, and it is in the execution of the hands alone 
that the workmanship of the great master is apparent. 

I. Room: 9. Caravaggio, Pieta; 15. Pomarancio, Magdalene; 19. Par- 
meggianino, Betrothal of St. Catharine. — II. Room: 30. After Raphael, 
Madonna; 35. Titian (?), A Cardinal; 48. Francia (?), Madonna with St. 
Jerome ; 54. Sodoma , Madonna ; 49. Innoc. da Imola , Madonna ; 58 Giov. 
Bellini (?), Madonna; 63. Mengs, Portrait of his daughter; 64. Pontormo 
(after Morelli), Pygmalion; 66. Francia, Madonna; 67. Masaccio (?), Por- 
trait of himself. — III. Room : 72. Titian {?), 'La Schiava', female portrait; 
76. CI. Lorrain, Castel Gandolfo ; 78. Bronzino, Portrait ; -79. Durer, Christ 
among the doctors, painted at Venice in five days in 1506 ; "82. Raphael, 
Portrait of the so-called Fornarina , so frequently copied , unfortunately 
marred by restoration; 83. Gaetani. Lucrezia Cenci, stepmother of Beatrice ; 
84. Spanish School, Anna Colonna; ,:, 85. Guido Reni, Beatrice Cenci; 
86. N. Poussin, Death of Germanicus; 88. Claude Lorrain , Wharf; 90. And. 
del Sarto , Holy Family; 93 S. Botticelli, Annunciation. 

Ascending the spiral staircase 60 steps farther, we turn to the 
right into the Principal Saloon of the palace , embellished with 
frescoes by Pietro da Cortona. A narrow door to the right leads 
hence into the Saloon of the Sculptures, containing, among a 
number of ancient and modern works, an admirable *statne by a 
Greek master, near the wall opposite the entrance, representing a 

Piazza del Quirinale. ROME. II. The Hills. 167 

woman with one arm akimbo. It was formerly supposed to be a 
nymph, a Dido, or a Laodamia ; but it more probably represents 
a supplicant for protection at an altar. A twig formerly grasped 
by the right hand has been broken off. 

On the highest floor is the Biblioteca Barberina (Thursdays, 
9-2 o'clock) which contains 7000 MSS., among which are those of 
numerous Greek and Latin authors, of Dante, etc., a number of 
ancient bronze cistas from Palestrina, miniatures by Giulio Clovio 
(a pupil of Raphael), etc. Librarian, the Abbe Pieralisi. 

The Yia delle Quattro Fontane now leads to the summit of 
the Quirinal , on which a street 3 / 4 M. in length (to the right, Via 
del Quirinale, see below; to the left, Via Venti Settembre, p. 170) 
extends from the Piazza del Quirinale to the Porta Pia. At the 
four corners formed by the intersection of these two main-streets, 
are Four Fountains (PL I, 22) erected by Sixtus V., the builder 
of the former street, which derives its name from these fountains. 

We now enter the Via del Quirinale to the right. At the cor- 
ner on the left is the small, unattractive church of S. Carlo. Farther 
on, to the left, S. Andrea, by Bernini, with the former Noviciate of 
the Jesuits. To the right are some buildings connected with the royal 
palace. In a few minutes more we Teach the *Piazza del Quirinale, 
formerly di Monte Cavallo (PI. II, 19), recently extended and le- 
velled, in the centre of which is a Fountain with an antique granite 
basin. Adjacent to the fountain rises an Obelisk, 28 ft. in height, 
which once stood in front of the mausoleum of Augustus and was 
erected here in 1787, and the two colossal **Horse Tamers in 
marble from which the piazza formerly derived its name. These 
admirable groups once stood in front, and probably at the entrance, 
of the Therma; of Constantine (p. 168) which were situated here. 
They are frequently mentioned in history, and have never been 
covered or required excavation. The inscriptions on the pedestals, 
Opus Phidiae and Opus Praxitelis are entirely apocryphal, the 
groups being works of the imperial age, copied from originals of 
the school of Lysippus. In the middle ages these were supposed to 
be the names of two philosophers, who, having divined the thoughts 
of Tiberius, were honoured by the erection of these monuments in 
recognition of their wisdom. 

Opposite the Royal Palace, on the left, stands the Pal. of the 
Consults, erected under Clement XII. by Del Fuga, where a tribu- 
nal of that name, charged with the internal administration of the 
Papal States, was formerly established. It is now occupied by the 
offices of the Minister of the Exterior. On the S.W. side of the 
piazza, behind the obelisk, stands the Palazzo della Dataria, erect- 
ed by Paul V. Farther on, to the left, is the Pal. Rospigliosi (p. 168). 
The piazza commands a fine *View of the town, with the 
dome of St. Peter's in the background. In the course of the exca- 

168 II. The Hills. ROME. Pal. R. del Quirinale. 

vations preparatory to the construction of the new flight of steps 
and the carriage-road, the -workmen came upon extensive fragments 
of the walls of the Thermae of Constantine (p. 155) and below them 
older walls of solid blocks , which appear to have belonged to the 
walls of Servius Tullius (p. 174). The new Via della Dataria de- 
scends straight to the Corso, while the first transverse street to the 
right, the Via di S. Vincenzo, leads to the Fontana Trevi (p. 144). 

The Palazzo Regio, formerly Apostolieo al Quirinale (PI. 1, 19), 
begun in 1574 under Gregory XIII. by Flaminio Ponzio, continued 
under Sixtus V. and Clement VIII. by Fontana, and completed 
under Paul V. by Maderna, has frequently been occupied by the 
popes in summer on account of its lofty and healthful situation. 
The last conclaves of the cardinals were held here, and the name of 
the newly elected pope was proclaimed from the balcony of the 
facade towards Monte Cavallo. Pius VII. died here in 1823. After 
20th Sept. 1870, the palace was taken possession of by the Italian 
government, and being now the residence of the king and the crown- 
prince, the greater part is seldom shown to the public (p. 117). 

From the principal entrance we proceed in a straight direction 
between the sentinels and ascend the broad staircase to the left at 
the end of the vestibule. At the top of the staircase we write our names 
in a book, and obtain the escort of an attendant (1 fr.). Adjacent to the 
Sala Regia , with frescoes by Lanfranco and Saraceni, is the Cappella 
Paolina , erected by Carlo Maderna , and decorated with gilded stucco- 
work and copies in grisaille of Raphael's Apostles in S. Vincenzo ed 
Anastasio alle Tre Fontane, and with tapestry of the 18th cent. To the 
right lies a suite of apartments , Drawing and Reception Rooms, newly 
fitted up, and adorned with pictures and tapestries, chiefly modern. In the 
10th room, mosaics on the floor from Hadrian's villa. In the 14th, a ''Ceil- 
ing-painting by F. Overbeck (1859), to commemorate the flight of Pius IX. 
in 1848: Christ eluding the pursuit of the Jews who endeavoured to cast 
him over a precipice (Luke iv. 28, 29). In the 15th, views from the Vatican. 
Towards the garden are the Royal Guest-Chambers, which were once occu- 
pied by Napoleon I., Francis I. of Austria, and in 1861 by Francis II. of 
Naples , and are now appropriated to the crown-prince , and not shown 
to the public. The frieze of the former audience chamber here consists 
of a cast of the '-'Triumphal Procession of Alex, the Great, a work by Thor- 
valdsen, ordered by Napoleon I. for the decoration of this saloon. After 
1815 the original became the property of the Marchese Sommariva, and is 
now in the Villa Carlotta near Cadenabbia on the Lake of Como, formerly 
a residence of that nobleman. In the small Chapel dell' Annunziata an 
"Annunciation, an altar-piece by Guido Reni. — In the Court a staircase 
ascends to the right under the arcades; on the landing, ! 'Christ surrounded 
by angels, a fresco by Melozzo da Forli, built into the wall, having been 
transferred thither in 1711 from SS. Apostoli. 

The Garden, which is rarely shown, was tastefully laid out by 
C. Maderna. It contains rare plants and several antiques, and com- 
mands a fine view. 

The Talazzo Rospigliosi (PI. II, 19), erected in 1603 by Card. 
Scipio Borghese, nephew of Paul V., on the ruins of the Therm* 
of Constantine, afterwards became the property of the princes Ros- 
pigliosi, relations of Clement IX., of Pistoja. The palace contains 
frescoes from the Baths of Constantine, a beautiful CI. Lorrain 
(temple of Venus), and other treasures of. art , but is only shown 

Pal. Rospigliosi. ROME. II. The Hills. 169 

by special permission of the prince. The Casino, however, is open 
on Wednesdays and Saturdays, 10-4 o'clock (i/ 2 fr.); see p. 117. 

We enter the court by a gate in the Piazza del Quirinale, No. 65, 
turn to the left under the arcades of the palace, and then ascend the steps 
to the left. Several small statues in the Garden. 

By the external wall of the Casino are placed ancient sarcophagus- 
reliefs (Hunt of Meleager, Rape of Proserpine, etc.). By the door to the 
right we enter the — 

Principal Hall. *' Ceiling -painting by Guido Reni: Aurora strewing 
flowers before the chariot of the god of the sun, who is surrounded by 
dancing Horse, the master's finest work. The colouring deserves special 
notice. The strongest light is thrown upon the figure of Apollo, whose 
hair and flesh are of golden hue. Of a corresponding tint are the yellowish- 
red robes of the nymphs nearest to Apollo. The colours are then gradually 
shaded off from blue to white, and from green to white, while the dun- 
coloured horses accord with the clouds in the background. Opposite 
the entrance is placed a mirror, in which the painting may be conveniently 
inspected. — On the frieze, landscapes by Paul Brill , and on the ends of 
the sides , Triumph of Fauna and Cupid (from Petrarch), by Tempesta. 
Right wall : Statue of Athene Tritogeneia with a Triton ; * Van Dyck, Portrait. 

Room on the Right. In the centre a bronze steed from the Thermae 
of Constantine. Opposite the entrance, the Fall of man, Domenichino. On 
the left wall: "Lorenzo Lotto, Vanita. On the right wall: "Dutch School, 
Portrait ; Domenichino, Venus and Cupid; "Luca Signorelli, "Holy Family. On 
the entrance-wall: L. CaracciO), Samson. In the Room to the Left, en- 
trance-wall , over the door : Pauignani , Pieta ; Guido Reni , Andromeda ; 
Portrait of N. Poussin (at the age of 56), a copy of the original in the 
Louvre. Left wall : Dan. da Vollerra, Bearing the Cross. In the corner a 
bronze bust of Sept. Severus. On these two walls and the following : 
Christ and the Apostles, thirteen pictures, attributed to Rubens, probably 
only partially by him ; Domenichino, Triumph of David. 

In the Via del Quirinale, farther on, to the right, is the church 
of S. Silvestro al Quirinale (PI. II, 19), erected at the close of the 
16th cent., and with the adjacent monastery belonging to the frater- 
nity of St. Vincent of Paola since 1770. 

In the Dome four oval frescoes by Domenichino: David dancing before 
the Ark, Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, Judith, Esther and Ahasuerus. 
In the 2nd Chapel to the left, two landscapes by Polidoro Caravaggio and 
his assistant Maturino: Betrothal of the Infant Christ with St. Catharine, 
and Christ appearing as the gardener to Mary Magdalene. 

Beyond this the Vicolo della Cordonata descends to the right, 
and, a little farther on, the Via Magnanapoli (see below). To the 
left the palms and the pines of the former Villa Aldobrandini peep 
over the lofty wall. 

At the corner of the Via Magnanapoli on the right, is the small 
church of 8. Caterina di Siena (PL II, 19, 7) of the 17th cent. Be- 
hind it, in the adjoining monastery, rises the Torre delle Milizie, 
erected about 1200 by the sons of Petrus Alexius, commonly called 
Torre di Nerone, because Nero is said to have witnessed the con- 
flagration of Rome from this point. Another similar and con- 
temporaneous tower is the Torre dei Conti, near the Forum of 
Augustus , to which the Via del Grillo descends direct (p. 234). 
It was erected under Innocent III. (Conti) by Marchionne of Arezzo, 
but a considerable portion was removed in the 17th cent. 

The Via Magnanapoli , which ascends the Quirinal from the 

1 70 //. The Hills. ROME. S. Bernardo. 

Forum of Trajan (p. 2351, passes, near its intersection with the Via 
del Quirinale (p. 169), between the Villa Aldobrandini on the left, 
and the church of S. Domenico e Sisto, erected in 1640, on the right. 

The next cross-street to the left is the Via Mazzarina, immedi- 
ately to the right in which, opposite the Villa Aldobrandini, is the 
church of S. Agata in Suburra (PI. II, 22), originally built in the 
5th cent., but restored in 1633, and now possessing 12 granite 
columns only of the original edifice. It belongs to the adjacent 
seminary for Irish priests. 

The left aisle contains the Monument of O'Connell (who bequeathed his 
heart to this church), with a relief by Benzoni, erected in 1856. To the 
right of the entrance is the Tomb of John Lascaris, author of the first 
modern Greek grammar (d. 1535). 

The Via Magnanapoli retains its name as far as its intersection 
with the Via de' Serpenti, whence it ascends the Viminal under the 
name of Via di S. Lorenzo in Paneperna, affording a distinct view 
of that hill rising between the Quirinal and the Esquiline. On 
the summit of the Viminal to the left stands the church of S. 
Lorenzo in Paneperna (PI. II, 22), on the spot where St. Lawrence 
is said to have suffered martyrdom, an old edifice, but frequently 
restored. The street then descends again (its intersection with the 
Via Urbano and Via S. Pudenziana being the so-called Quadrivio di 
S. Maria Maggiore, whence omnibuses run to the Piazza Venezia, 
p. Ill), and under the name of Via di S. Maria Maggiore ascends 
the Esquiline, see p. 175. 

From the Quattro Fontane (p. 167) the Via Venti Settembre, 
formerly di Porta Pia, leads N.E. to the Porta Pia (3/ 4 M.). The 
corner house on the right is the Palazzo Albani , erected by Do- 
menico Fontana, and afterwards the property of Card. Aless. Al- 
bani. — In the Via Venti Settembre, on the right, farther on, are 
the two uninteresting churches of S. Teresa and S. Cajo. 

In 5 min. more we reach the Piazza S. Bernardo (PI. I, 22), 
in which, standing a little back, is S. Bernardo, and to the left S. 
Susanna, while opposite to us, at the corner, rises the Fontanone 
dell' Acqua Felice. 

S. Bernardo (PI. I, 22), a circular edifice which originally formed 
one of the corners of the Thermfe of Diocletian (p. 173), was con- 
verted by Catharine Sforza, Countess of Santa Fiora, into a church. 
The vaulting is ancient, but like the Pantheon was once open. — 
The new Via Torino leads hence to S. Maria Maggiore (p. 175). 

The ancient church of S. Susanna was modified to its present 
form in 1600 by C. Maderna by order of Card. Rusticucci. Paint- 
ings on the lateral walls from the history of Susanna, by Baldassare 
Croce ; those of the tribune by Cesare Nebbia. 

The Fontanone dell' Acqua Felice, or di Termini, was erected by 
Domenico Fontana under Sixtus V. ; the badly-executed copy of the 
Moses of Michael Angelo is by Prospero Bresciano, who is said to 

S. Agnese Fuori. ROME. 11. The Hills. 171 

have died of vexation on account of his failure ; at the sides Aaron 
and Gideon by Giov. Batt. della Porta and Flam. Vacca ; in front four 
modern lions. The Acqua Felice was conducted hither in 1583 from 
Colonna in theAlban Mts., a distance of 13 M., by order of Sixtus 
V. (Felice Peretti); comp. p. 341. 

On the right opens the Piazza delle Terme, see p. 173. To the 
left the Via di S. Susanna descends to the Via di S. Nicola di 
Tolentino, which leads to the Piazza Barberini (p. 161). 

At the N. angle of the Piazza S. Bernardo stands the church of 
S. Maria della Vittoria (PI. I, 23) , so called from an image of 
the Virgin which is said to have been instrumental in gaining the 
victory for the imperial troops at the battle of the 'White Hill' near 
Prague, afterwards deposited here, but burned in 1833. The church, 
with the exception of the facade, was erected by C. Maderna. 

In the 2nd Chapel on the right, an altar-piece (Mary giving the Infant 
Christ to St. Francis) and frescoes by Domenichino. In the left transept the 
notorious group of St. Theresa by Bernini (covered; 5 s.). In the 3rd Chapel on 
the left, the Trinity by Guercino, and a Crucifixion attributed to Guido Reni. 
The street now becomes deserted. The imposing new edifice on 
the right is the government Finance Office. A few minutes before 
the gate is reached, a street to the left diverges to the Porta Salara 
(p. 163), while the Via del Maccao to the right terminates near 
the railway-station. Farther on, to the left, is the Villa Bonaparte, 
and to the right, the Villa Reinach, formerly Torlonia. 

The Porta Fia (PI. I, 27, 30), which occupies an important place 
in the annals of 1870, was begun by Pius IV. from designs by 
Michael Angelo in 1564. It afterwards fell to decay, but was restored 
by Pius IX. in 1861-69. On 20th Sept. 1870, the Italians chiefly 
directed their bombardment against this gate , and soon succeeded 
in making a breach at the side of it, through* which they entered 
the city. The damage has since been repaired. On the outside, to 
the left, a memorial tablet, bearing the names of the 33 soldiers of 
the Italian army who fell on the occasion , marks the place where 
the breach was made. To the right of the gate is the old Porta 
Nomentana, closed since 1564, which led to Nomentum (p. 343). 
Outside the Gate (comp. map, p. 332) an unimpeded view is 
obtained to the left of the Villa Albani and the Sabine Mts. To the 
right is the entrance to the Villa Patrizi, with pleasant garden and 
beautiful view (finest from the steps of the small summer-house and 
from the meadow). In the grounds there are remains of ancient 
dwelling-houses and a catacomb (Catacomba Nicomedi) with well 
preserved entrance. Permessi obtained by sending an application 
with a visiting-card to the Pal. Patrizi, Piazza S. Luigi de' Francesie 
p. 192. About i/ 4 M. farther, on the right, is the Villa Torlonia, 
with pleasant gardens and artificial ruins (visitors seldom admitted). 
On this road, the ancient Via Nomentana, which commands fine 
views from various points, on the left, I1/4 M. from the gate, is — 
*S. Agnese Fuori le Mara, a church founded by Constantin, 

172 II. The Hills. ROME. S. Costanza. 

over the tomb of St. Agnes, and still presenting many of the char- 
acteristics of an early Christian basilica. It was re-erected by Ho- 
norius I. in 625-38, altered by Innocent VIII. in 1490, and again 
restored by Pius IX. in 1856. The principal festival, on 21st Jan., 
is the 'blessing of the lambs' from whose wool the archiepiscopal 
robes are woven. 

We enter by a gateway, where, to the right, is the entrance to the 
residence of the canons, with remnants of old frescoes in the corridor of the 
1st floor, dating from 1454, and including an Annunciation. In the Court, 
through a large window to the right, we observe a fresco painted in 
commemoration of an accident which happened to Pius IX. on 15th April, 
1855. The floor of a room adjoining the church, to which his Holiness 
had retired after mass, gave way, and he was precipitated into the cellar 
below, hut was extricated unhurt. On the farther side of the court, on 
the right, is the entrance to the church, to which a Staircase with 45 
marble steps descends. On the walls of the staircase are numerous ancient 
Christian inscriptions from the catacombs. 

The Intekioe is divided into nave and aisles by 16 antique columns 
of breccia, porta santa, and pavonazzetto, which support arches. Above the 
aisles and along the wall of the entrance are galleries with smaller co- 
lumns. The Tabernacle of 1614, borne by four fine columns of porphyry, 
covers a statue of St. Agnes, in alabaster, a restored antique. In the tribune, 
'Mosaics, representing St. Agnes between Popes Honorius I. and Symmachus, 
dating from the 7th cent., and an ancient episcopal chair. To the right, 
in the 1st Chapel, a Head of Christ in marble, a mediocre work of the 
16th cent. ; in the 2nd Chapel, a beautiful inlaid altar ; above it a "relief of 
St. Stephen and St. Lawrence, of 1490. In the left aisle, over the altar of 
the chapel, a fine old fresco, Madonna and Child. — With regard to the 
Catacombs, to which there is an entrance in the left aisle, see p. 330; 
visitors may see them without a permesso by applying to the sacristan, 
from whom lights are also obtainable (1 fr.). 

Leaving the covered flight of steps which descend to S. Agnese, 
and descending to the right, we reach — 

S. Costanza (which , if closed, will be shown by the custodian 
of S. Agnese, !/a fr.). This church was originally erected as a 
monument by Constantine to his daughter Constantia, but converted 
into a church in 1256. The dome, 70 ft. in diameter, is supported 
by 24 clustered columns of granite. A few fragments only of the 
vestibule and the enclosing wall of the central part of the struc- 
ture now exist. In the tunnel-vaulting of the aisle are *mosaics of 
the 4th cent, with genii gathering grapes, in the ancient style, but 
bearing traces of decline. The porphyry sarcophagus of the saint, 
which formerly stood in one of the niches (now in the Vatican 
museum, Sala a Croce Greca, p. 306). is similarly adorned. In the 
niches, Christ as the ruler of the world with SS. Peter and Paul. 

The Cameterium Ostrianum, i / i M. from this point, see p. 331. 
Beyond it lies the Campagna, see p. 343. 

Quitting the Piazza S. Bernardo and the Fontanone del! Acqua 
Felice (p. 170), and proceeding towards the S. E., we pass (left) 
an asylum for the deaf and dumb , and come to the Piazza dellk 
Tbrmb (PI. I, 25), formerly called di Termini, which derives its 
name from the Thermae of Diocletian situated here 

S. Maria degli Angeli. ROME. II. The Hills. 173 

The Thermae of Diocletian, the most extensive in Rome, were 
constructed by Maximian and Diocletian at the beginning of the 4th 
century. The principal building was enclosed by a -wall, a mas- 
sive round fragment of which , now intersected by the Via Nazio- 
nale (p. 174), is exposed to view on the S.W. side of the piazza. The 
corners on this side were formed by two circular buildings, one of 
which is now the church of S. Bernardo (p. 170), and the other be- 
longs to a prison. The circumference of the baths is said to have 
been about 2000 yds., or haif as much as that of the Baths of Cara- 
calla (p. 254), and the number of daily bathers 3000. The front 
faced theE., and the circular part, mentioned above, was at the 
back. Tradition ascribes the execution of the work to condemned 
Christians, in memory of whom a church, no longer existing, was 
erected here as early as the 5th century. 

An old scheme for erecting a Carthusian monastery among the 
ruins, which had been abandoned in the 14th cent. , was revived 
by Pius IV., who committed the execution of the task to Michael 
Angelo. That master accordingly converted a large vaulted hall 
into the church of — 

*S. Maria degli Angeli (PI. I, 25), which was consecrated in 
1561. The present transept was then the nave, the principal portal 
was in the narrow end on the right, and the high-altar placed on the 
left. In 1749 Vanvitelli entirely disfigured the church by injudi- 
cious alterations , such as converting the nave into the transept, 
blocking up the portal, etc. 

A small Rotunda is first entered. The first tomb on the right is that of 
the painter Carlo Maratta (d. 1713). In the Chapel, Angels of Peace and 
Justice , by Pettrich. The first tomb on the left is that of Salvator Rosa 
(d. 1673). In the Chapel, Christ appearing to Mary Magdalene, an altar- 
piece by Arrigo Flamingo. 

The great Tkanskpt is now entered. The niche on the right in the passage 
contains a colossal statue of St. Bruno, by Houdon ; in the chapel on the left, 
the "Delivery of the Keys, an altar-piece by Muziano. The transept (formerly 
the nave) is 100 yds. long, 29 yds. wide, and 90 ft. high. Of the 16 columns, 
each 40 ft. in height , eight are antique , of oriental granite , which were 
barbarously painted by Vanvitelli, and the others were disengaged from 
the brick wall when the church was restored. — Most of the large 
pictures here and in the tribune were brought from St. Peter's, where they 
were replaced by copies in mosaic. In the right half (on the pavement the me- 
ridian of Rome, laid down in 1703) : on the right, Crucifixion of St. Peter by 
Ricciolini ; Fall of Simon Magus, after F. Vanni (original in St. Peter's) ; on 
the left, "St. Jerome among the hermits, Muziano (landscape by Brill) ; Miracles 
of St. Peter, Baglioni. At the narrow end: chapel of B. Niccolo Albergati. 
In the left half: on the left, Mass of St. Basil with the Emperor Valens, 
Subleyras; Fall of Simon Magus, Pomp. Battoni; on the right, Immaculate 
Conception, P. Bianchi; Resuscitation of Tabitha, P. Costanzi. At the nar- 
row end : chapel of St. Bruno. 

In the Teibcne (one of the monks acts as guide here, >/2 f'O > right, 
Romanelli, Mary's first visit to the Temple ; "Domenichino, Martyrdom of St. 
Sebastian (fresco) ; left, Pomarancio, Death of Ananias and Sapphira ; Ma- 
ratta , Baptism of Christ. The choir contains two monuments (1. Pius IV., 
r. Ant. Serbelloni), designed by Michael Angelo. 

The Certosa, or CaTthusian Monastery, adjoining the church, is 
partly \ised as barracks. The second court (entrance by No. 15, 

174 II. Ihe Hills. HOME. Wall of Serviw. 

opposite the great fountain, where a sentinel stands, then turning 
to the left), embellished with 100 columns, was constructed from a 
design by Michael Angelo, who is said to have planted the beautiful 
cypresses in the centre; but it is now whitewashed, and has lost 
much of its former interest. 

Permission to inspect the other chambers of the Thermre, which are 
devoid of interest, must be obtained at the office of the commandant, 
Via del Burro 147, 2nd floor. The most interesting parts, through which 
the visitor may ascend to the roof of the church for the sake of the 
view, belong to the monastery, to the prior of which application for ad- 
mission must be made. 

Opposite the entrance of the church of S. Maria degli Angeli, 
and through the middle of the circular wall of the Thermae , runs 
the Via Nazionale, which intersects the Via Quattro Fontane, and 
is to be continued in a straight direction to the corner of Via del 
Quirinale and Via Magnanapoli (p. 169). Immediately to the right 
of the entrance to the Piazza delle Terme rises the War Office. — 
At Via Nazionale 354 is the Galleria Tenerani, a complete collection 
of the original models of the sculptor P. Tenerani(d. 1869) ; open on 
"Wed. 1-4 ; on other days a fee must be paid. 

On the E. side of the Piazza delle Terme is the extensive new 
Railway Station (PI. I, 25), constructed by Miriere and Bianchi. 
In front of it rises an imposing fountain, fed by the Aqua Marcia, 
which has been recently restored. 

Within the precincts of the railway-station part of the Wall of Servius, 
which protected the city on this undefended side, has been exposed to 
view in consequence of the construction of the railway. The wall, which 
is supported by a strong embankment, with its broad moat and numerous 
towers, may be traced as far as the arch of Gallienus. 

To the right f.S.W.) runs the new Via del Viminale, which 
farther on intersects the Via delle Quattro Fontane. 

Passing the station, and traversing the Piazza delle Terme 
lengthwise, we reach the Porta S. Lorenzo (p. 179) in V4 nr - 

Turning to the left between the station and the Therms, and 
passing the new buildings of the quarter which is now springing up 
here, we reach in 10 min. the Campo di Maccao, or Campo Mili- 
tare, the camp of the Prsetorians of imperial Rome. It was originally 
established by Tiberius, but destroyed by Constantine so far as it 
lay without the town-wall, from which it projects in a quadrangular 
form. At the end to the left, and on the side, traces of gates are 
still distinguished; the wall was skirted by a passage, under which 
are several small chambers. (Since the end of the papal re'gime it ha? 
again been devoted to military purposes ; parades and reviews are 
held here, and the large, newly erected barracks impart unwonted 
life to the bleak ramparts. 

From the Quattro Fontane to S. Maria Maggiore is a walk of 
10 minutes. We first descend the Quirinal, crossing the new Via 
Nazionale (see above ). which leads to the Piazza delle Terme. We 
then traverse the Viminal, which is here of insignificant height; 

S. Maria Magyiore. HOME. 11. The Hills. 175 

to the left diverges the new Via del Viminale (p. 174) leading to 
the station. In the valley between the Viminal and Esquiline, in 
the first side-street to the right, is situated — 

S. Pudenziana (PI. II, 25; open till 9 a.m.; custodian, Via 
Quattro Fontane 81), traditionally the most ancient church in Rome, 
erected on the spot where St. Pudens and his daughters Praxedis 
and Pudentiana, who entertained St. Peter, are said to have lived. 
The church, the earliest record of which dates from 499, has been 
frequently restored, the greatest alterations having been made in 
1598, and has recently been modernised in very bad taste. In the 
facade, which has lately been adorned with mosaics (St. Peter with 
SS. Pudens and Pudentiana; on the left Pius I., on the right Gre- 
gory VII.) is an ancient portal , supported by columns, which has 
also been restored. Pleasing campanile of the 9th cent. Chief festi- 
val on 19th May. 

Interior. In the pillars of the aisles are still to be seen the marble co- 
lumns which originally supported the wall. The Mosaics in the Tribune 
(4th cent.), Chiist with S. Praxedis and S. Pudentiana and the Apostles, 
and above them the emblems of the Evangelists on either side of the cross, 
are said to be the oldest Christian remains in Rome, but have been greatly 
modernised. The Dome above the high-altar was painted by Pornarancio. 
The Aisles contain remains of an ancient mosaic pavement. In the left aisle 
is the Cappella Gaetani , over the altar of which is an Adoration of the 
Magi, a relief in marble by Olivieri. At the extremity of this aisle is an altar 
with relics of the table at which Peter is said first to have read mass. Above 
it Christ and Peter, a group in marble by O. B. delta Porta. 

Below the churli are ancient vaults in a good style of architecture, 
which the custodian shows if desired. 

The street now ascends the Esqtjilinb , constantly affording a 
view of the choir of S. Maria Maggiore. Building operations are in 
progress in this part of the town, and an entirely new quarter is 
growing up. To the right diverges the Via di S. Maria Maggiore, 
the continuation of the Via Magnanapoli which leads to the Forum 
of Trajan, see p. 170. 

In front of the choir of the church, to which a handsome flight 
of steps ascends (two entrances adjoining the tribune) stands one 
of the two 01 disks which formerly rose in front of the mauso- 
leum of Augustus, 46 ft. in height (the other is on the Quirinal, 
p. 167). It was erected here by Sixtus V. in 1587. 

The facade of the church is turned towards the Piazza S. Maria 
Maggiore, which is embellished with a handsome Column from the 
basilica of Constantine, 16 ft. in circumference, and 46 ft. in height, 
placed here and crowned with a bronze figure of the Virgin by 
Paul V. 

**S. Maria Maggiore (PI. 11,25), also named Basilica Liberiana , 
or S. Maria ad Nives, or S. Maria ad Praesepe, from the manger 
which it contains, derives its usual name from its being the lar- 
gest of the eighty churches dedicated to the Virgin at Rome. It is 
at the same time one of the oldest at Rome, and perhaps the oldest 
in the whole of Christendom. This is one of the five patriarchal 

1 76 II. The Hills. ROME. S. Maria Maggicre. 

churches (p. 127), and has a special 'jubilee entrance'. The prin- 
cipal festivals are on Christmas Day, 5th Aug., and the Assumption 
on 15th Aug., the occasion of the papal benediction. According to 
a legend which cannot be traced farther back than the 13th cent, 
the Virgin appeared simultaneously to the devout Roman patrician 
Johannes and to Pope Liberius (352-66) in their dreams, com- 
manding them to erect a church to her on the spot where they 
should find a deposit of snow on the following morning (5th Aug.). 
The Basilica Liberiana, which they are said to have built in obe- 
dience to this vision, was re-erected by Sixtus III. (432-40), who 
named the church S. Maria Mater Dei , shortly after the Council of 
Ephesus had sanctioned this appellation of the Virgin (430). Of 
this edifice the nave with its ancient marble columns and mosaics 
is still preserved. In the 12th cent, the church was farther altered 
in the mediaeval style. Eugene III. added a new porch, Nicholas IV. 
a new tribune adorned with mosaics , and Gregory XI. gave the 
campanile its present form and its pointed roof. About the end of 
the 15th cent, began a new period in the history of the church, 
when the irregularities of the mediaeval additions were removed, 
and symmetrical lines were formed by the erection of accessory 
buildings and straight walls. The two large side-chapels, covered 
with domes, were added by Sixtus V. in 1586 and Paul V. in 
1611. The exterior of the tribune was remodelled by Clement X., 
and the final restoration was undertaken by Fuga, by order of 
Benedict XIV. 

The Facade, designed by Fuga in 1743, consists of a porch with 
a loggia above it, opening towards the piazza in five arches. Cor- 
responding with the five archways of the porch are four entrances 
to the church , the last of which on the left, the Porta Santa, is 
now built up, and a niche on the right. To the right is a statue 
of Philip IV. of Spain. The loggia (staircase to the left in the 
vestibule ; one of the attendants opens the door), from which the 
pope formerly pronounced his benediction on 15th Aug., contains 
mosaics from a facade of the 13th cent., restored in 1825. 

Above, in the centre, Christ; on the left the Virgin, SS. Paul, John, 
and James ; on the right SS. Peter, Andrew, Philip, and John the Baptist. 
Below, on the left, the vision of Pope Liberius and the Patrician Jo- 
hannes; on the right, the meeting of the two, and the tracing of the site 
of the church on the newly-fallen snow. 

The Interior, dating from the pontificate of Sixtus III., 93 yds. long 
and 19 yds. wide , and subsequently enlarged, produces a rich and 
imposing effect. The pavement of the Nave dates from the 12th cent., 
and the handsome ceiling was executed from designs by Giuliano da S. 
Oallo. The architrave, adorned with mosaic , is supported by 42 Ionic 
columns, 33 in marble and 4 in granite, above which, and on the triumphal 
arch, are Mosaics of the 5th cent., in the ancient style (good light early 
in the morning). Those on the arch represent events from the Life of 
Mary, Annunciation, Infancy of Christ, Slaughter of the Innocents, etc. ; left 
wall, history of Abraham and Jacob; right wall, Moses and Joshua (several 
of the pictures were restored in 1825). In front of the triumphal arch is 

8. Prassede. KOMli. //. The Hills. Ill 

the High-Altar, consisting of an ancient sarcophagus of porphyry, said to 
have been the tomb of the Patrician Johannes, and containing the remains 
of St. Matthew and other relics ; the canopy is borne by four columns of 
porphyry. Pius IX has chosen the 'Confessio' in front of it to be his last 
resting-place. In the apse of the Tribune are "mosaics by Jacopo Tor- 
riti (11292): Coronation of the Virgin, with saints, near whom are Pope 
Nicholas IV. and Card. Jac. Colonna. 

At the beginning of the nave are the tombs of Nicholas IV. (d. 1292) 
on the left, and Clement IX. (d. 1669) on the right, erected by Sixtus V. and 
Clement X. respectively. Right Aisle: First chapel: Baptistery with fine 
ancient font of porphyry. Farther on is the Cap. del Crocefisso with 10 co- 
lumns of porphyry, containing five boards from the manger (whence termed 
Cappella del Presepe) of the Infant Christ. — In the Right Transept is the 
sumptuous *Sistine Chapel, constructed by Fontana, and recently gorgeous- 
ly restored; in the niche on the left, an altar-piece (St. Jerome) by Ribera; 
on the right, occupying the whole wall, the monument of Sixtus V., tbe 
statue of the Pope by Valsoldo; on the left, (monument of Pius V. by 
Lenoardo da Sarzana. Over the altar rises a canopy in gilded bronze, 
representing angels bearing the church ; in the 'Confessio' tinder the stair- 
case a statue of S. Gaetano, by Bernini, and by the altar a relief of the 
Holy Family, by Cecchino da Pietrasanta (1480). — At the end of the right 
aisle, the Gothic monument of Card. Consalvi (Gunsalvus, d. 1299) by Giov. 

Left Aisle. 1st Chapel (of the Cesi) : Martyrdom of St. Catharine, altar- 
piece by Girol. da Sermoneta ; on the right and left two bronze statues to 
the memory of cardinals of the family. 2nd Chapel (of the Pallavicini-Sforza), 
said to have been designed by Mich. Angelo : Assumption of Mary, altar- 
piece by Gir. Sermoneta. — In the Left Transept, opposite the Sistine Chapel, 
is the Borghese Chapel, constructed by Flaminio Ponzio in 1611, and also 
covered with a dome. Over the altar, which is gorgeously decorated with 
lapis lazuli and agate , an ancient and miraculous picture of the Virgin, 
painted (almost black) according to tradition by St. Luke, which was car- 
ried by Gregory I. as early as 590 in solemn procession through the city, 
and again by the clergy in the war of 1860. The frescoes in the large 
arches are by Guido Reni, Lanfranco, C'igoli, etc. The monuments of the 
Popes (1.) Paul V. (Camillo Borghese, d. 1621) and (r.) Clement VIII. (Aldo- 
brandini, d. 1605) are by pupils of Bernini. The crypt contains tombs of the 
Borghese family. 

To the S.E. of the Piazza S. MariaMaggiore(p. 175) is the church 
of S. Antonio Abbate, with a portal of the 13th century. In- 
terior uninteresting. S. Antonio is the tutelary saint of animals, 
and in front of the church from 17th to 23rd Jan., domestic animals 
of every kind were formerly blessed and sprinkled with holy water. 

In the Via S. Prassede, at the right corner of the piazza, is a 
side-entrance to the church of — 

*S. Prassede (PI. II, 25), erected by Paschalis I. in 822 and dedi- 
cated to St. Praxedis, the daughter of St. Pudens with whom Peter 
lodged at Rome, and the sister of S. Pudentiana. It was restored by 
Nicholas V. about 1450, again in 1832, and finally in 1869. The 
church is generally entered by the side-door. 

Interior. The nave is separated from the aisles by 16 columns of 
granite (six others, bearing arches, having been replaced by pillars). The 
Mosaics (9th cent.) deserve special notice. On the triumphal arch the new 
Jerusalem guarded by angels, Christ in the centre, towards whom the saved 
are hastening; on the arch of the tribune the Lamb, at the sides the seven 
candlesticks and the symbols of the evangelists; lower down the twenty- 
four elders (interesting as showing the mode in which the art accommo- 
dated itself to the spaces allotted to it; thus, in order to follow the curve 

Baedkkku. II. 5th Edition. j'l 

1 78 //. The Hills. ROME. Arch of Oallienus. 

of the arch, the arms of the foremost elders in the middle and upper rows 
gradually increase in length) ^ in the round part of the apse, Christ sur- 
rounded with saints (on the left Paul, Praxedis, and Pepe Paschalis with 
the church ; on the right Peter, Pudentiana, and Zeno). On either side 
of the tribune are galleries. — Right Aisle. The 3rd chapel is the Chapel of 
the Column (ladies admitted on the Sundays of Lent only; the sacristan 
opens the door when desired). At the entrance are two columns of black 
granite with ancient entablature. The interior is entirely covered with 
mosaics on gold ground (about the 10th cent.), whence the chapel is some- 
times called Orto del Paradiso. On the vaulting a medallion with head of 
Christ, supported by four angels. Above the altar a Madonna between the 
saints Praxedis and Pudentiana. To the right in a niche , the column at 
which Christ is said to have been scourged. The 4th chapel contains the 
tomb of Card. Cetti (d. 1474). At the extremity of the right aisle the Cap. del 
Crocefisso contains the tomb of a French cardinal (d. 1286). — In the Left 
Aisle by the entrance-wall is a stone-slab, on which St. Praxedis is said to 
have slept. The 2nd Cap. di S. Carlo Borromeo contains a chair and table 
once used by the saint. The 3rd Cap. Agiati contains paintings by the Cav. 
d'Arpino. — The marble spout of a fountain in the nave indicates the 
spot where St. Praxedis collected the blood of the martyrs. 

The Confessio (keys kept by the sacristan) contains ancient sarcophagi 
with the bones of the sister saints Praxedis and Pudentiana on the right, 
and those of martyrs on the left. The altar is decorated with fine mosaic 
of the 13th cent. Above it an ancient fresco of the Madonna between the 
sisters. — The Sacristy contains a Scourging by Giulio Romano. 

To the S. and S.E. of the Piazza S. Maria Maggiore run the 
Via S. Eusebio and the Via Merulana (p. 183) , two streets now in 
course of construction. In the execution of the municipal improve- 
ments great alterations in the appearance of the ground have heen 
made here. A great part of the surface has been lowered 13-16 ft., 
a process which led to the discovery of numerous remains of ancient 
walls, fragments of sculptures in marble and bronze, sarcophagi, 
columns, etc. The ruins have been partly covered up again, and 
nothing certain is known of their history. 

We follow the Via S. Eusebio (PL II, 25, 28), from which, im- 
mediately to the right, the Via di 8. Vito diverges, passing under 
the Arch of Oallienus. This honorary arch, which closely adjoins 
the church of S. Vito, was erected in 262 in honour of the Emp. 
Gallienus 'on account of his bravery , surpassed only by his piety' 
by a certain M. Aurelius Victor. The architecture is simple, and 
in the degraded style of the age. 

Farther on in the Via S. Eusebio is the church of S. Eusebio, re- 
erected in the last century, with the exception of the campanile. 
The ceiling-painting, the glory of St. Eusebius, is one of the earliest 
works of Raphael Mengs ; the high altar-piece is by Bald. Croce. 
Opposite the church , to the right , are considerable remains of a 
water-tower of the Aqua Julia or Claudia (PL II, 28), in the 
niches of which the so-called trophies of Marius , now on the 
balustrade of the Capitol, w-ere formerly placed (p. 210). The ruin 
is called Trofei di Mario. — For the prolongation of the street 
to the Porta Maggiore, see p. 180. 

Turning to the left into the new street between S. Eusebiojand 
the Trofei di Mario, we reach ('/ 2 M.) the Porta S. Lorenzo (PL 
II, 31), constructed by Ilonorius against an arch, over which, ac- 

S. Lorenzo Fuori. ROME. II. The Hills. 179 

cording to the inscription, the three aqueducts Marcia, Tepula, 
and Julia passed. The arch stands on its original site, while the 
gateway occupies considerably higher ground. The gate derives 
its name from the basilica situated outside the gate , and stands on 
the site of the ancient Porta Tiburtina , which led to Tivoli. The 
road (Via Tiburtina) is bounded by walls, and does not afford views 
of the Sabine Mts. until the church is reached, 3/ 4 M. from the gate. 

*S. Lorenzo Fuori le Mura (see map, p. 332) occupies the spot 
where Constantine first founded a church on the burial-place of St. 
Lawrence and St. Cyriaca. In 578 it was rebuilt by Pelagius II. 
This ancient edifice, which was entered from the E. , was entirely 
remodelled by Honorius III. (1216-27), who added the present 
nave to the apse, and transferred the facade with the porch to the 
W. end. An angle formed by the outer walls shows where the new 
part was added. Under Nicholas V. and Innocent X., and finally 
under Pius IX. in 1864-70, the church underwent extensive altera- 
tions, and is now at least partially freed from the patchwork by which 
it was formerly disfigured. S. Lorenzo is a patriarchal church, and 
one of the seven pilgrimage-churches of Rome (p. 127). Festival, 
10th Aug. 

In the piazza in front of the church is a Column with a bronze 
statue of St. Lawrence. The Facade of the church has been recently 
embellished with paintings resembling mosaic, representing the 
founders and patrons of the church: Pelagius II., the Emp. Con- 
stantine, Honorius III., Pius IX., Sixtus III., and Hadrian I. The 
vestibule is supported by six ancient columns, ahove which is an ar- 
chitrave with mosaics (St. Lawrence and Honorius III.), and contains 
retouched frescoes of the 13th cent., two tombs in the form of 
temples, and two rude Christian sarcophagi. The door-posts rest on 

The Interior consists of two parts. The anterior Latee Church, which 
chiefly dates from Honorius III., consists of nave and two aisles, separated 
by 22 antique columns of granite and cipolline of unequal thickness. On 
the capital of the 8th column on the right are a frog and a lizard, and 
it is therefore supposed, but without authority, to have been brought 
from the colonnade of the Octavia, where two sculptors Batrachus (frog) 
and Saurus (lizard) are said to have adopted this method of perpetuating 
their names. Above the plain entablature rises a wall recently adorned 
with frescoes by Fraccassini (on the right, history of St. Lawrence ; on the 
left, that of St. Stephen), and the gaudily painted open roof. The pavement, 
in opus Alexandrinum, dates from the 12th century. Under a mediaeval canopy 
to the right of the entrance is an ancient 'sarcophagus with a representation 
of a wedding , in which in 1256 the remains of Card. Fieschi, nephew of 
Innocent IV., were placed. In the nave are the two elevated ambos, that 
to the 'left for the gospel, near which is a wreathed candelabrum for the 
Easter candle, that to the right for the epistle (12th cent.). On the trium- 
phal arch are modern paintings (resembling mosaics) of the Madonna and 
saints. At the extremity of the K. aisle a flight of 12 steps , on the left, 
descends to a chapel and the catacombs. 

Adjoining this building of Honorius on the E. is the Older Church, 
erected by Pelagius, the pavement of which lies 3 ft. lower. The raised 
central space, to which seven steps ascend on each side of the Confessio, 


180 II. The Hills. ROME. T. of Minerva Median. 

dates from the time of Honorius, who converted the nave of the older 
church into a choir with a crypt by laying a pavement halfway up the 
columns, and caused the aisles to be filled up. The rubbish has been 
recently removed, and the original level of the aisles exposed to view. 
They are reached by descending 14 steps from the prolongation of the aisles 
of the anterior church. The church of Pelagius, a basilica with aisles in 
the style of S. Agnese Fuori (the only two examples of churches with 
galleries at Rome) , was originally entered at the opposite (E.) end. 
Twelve magnificent fluted columns of pavonazzetto with Corinthian capitals 
(those of the two first are formed of trophies , on the benches in front of 
them are mediaeval lions) support the 'entablature, which consists of an- 
tique fragments and bears a gallery with graceful smaller columns. On 
the triumphal arch, of which this is the original front, are restored mo- 
saics of the time of Pelagius II. : Christ, right SS. Peter, Lawrence, and 
Pelagius; left SS. Paul, Stephen, and Hippolytus. The canopy dates from 
1148. The 'dome is modern. By the wall at the hack is the handsome 
episcopal throne. 

The handsome old "Court of the Monastery (generally closed; apply 
to one of the monks in the church) contains numerous fragments of sculp- 
tures and inscriptions built into its walls ; in the corner to the right of 
the principal entrance is the lid of a sarcophagus adorned with the trium- 
phal procession of Cybele. 

The church is adjoined by the Campo Verano , an extensive 
churchyard, consecrated in 1837, and considerably enlarged in 1854, 
the upper part of which commands a beautiful view of the mountains 
and the Campagna. A monument with appropriate inscriptions was 
erected here in 1870 to commemorate the Battle of Mentana. In 
the tufa rock of the hill are observed tomb-niches from the cata- 
combs of St. Cyriaca, discovered when the cemetery was extended 
in this direction. 

About a hundred paces beyond the Trofei di Mario, the street 
leading to S. Bibiana and the Porta Maggiore diverges to the right 
from that which leads to the Porta S. Lorenzo mentioned at p. 179. 
As already stated , the ground here is undergoing a complete 
transformation , and fragments of ancient walls are still frequently 

In 5 min. we reach the church of S. Bibiana (PI. II, 31), 
consecrated as early as 470, and rebuilt for the last time in 1625 
by Bernini. 

The Interior contains eight antique columns; above these are frescoes 
from the life of the saint, on the right by Ciampelli, on the left by Pietro da 
Corlona (modernised). The statue of St. Bibiana at the high- altar is by Ber- 
nini. To the left by the entrance is the stump of a column, at which 
the saint is said to have been scourged to death. Festival, 2nd Dec. 

A few hundred paces farther on , in the same direction , is the 
so-called Temple of Minerva Medica (PI. II, 32), the picturesque 
ruin of an ancient Nymphseum in the form of a decagon, 55 yds. in 
circumference , with deep niches in the walls , and originally 
covered with marble below and stucco above. It must have be- 
longed to some splendid bath-establishment , as a number of an- 
cient statues have been found in the vicinity. One of these, the 
Minerva Giustiniani of the Braccio Nuovo in the Vatican (p. 299), 

Porta Maggiore. ROME. II. The Hills. 181 

has given rise to the otherwise unfounded appellation of 'Temple of 
Minerva'. In the middle ages the ruin was called Le Terme di Oal- 
luccio, a name which has been conjectured, without any authority, 
to be a corruption of 'Gaius and Lucius Caesar'. The vaulting was 
in existence down to 1828. The building, which is interesting in 
an architectural point of view, dates from about the 3rd cent, after 

Opposite is the Museo della Society Foudiaria Italiana (open 
daily , admission 1 fr.), where the antiquities found in 1875 in the 
neighbouring columbaria are exhibited. 

I. Room: Inscriptions, tombstones, cinerary urns. — The II. Room 
contains mural paintings of scenes from the mythical history of Rome, 
found in one of the recently discovered columbaria , some of which are 
much damaged. The following are the best preserved : (1) On the longer 
fragment to the left, Amulius condemning the guilty Rhea Silvia ; Rhea Silvia 
surprised by Mars. (2) On the smaller fragment below, Romulus and Remus 
as shepherds; exposure of the twins. (3) On the second longer fragment, 
Scene with female figures in a sitting posture, of unknown import ; Build- 
ing of a town (Alba Longa); Battle on the Numieius between the Latins and 
the Rutuli ; ^Eneas crowned by Victory after the defeat of Turnus , who 
lies dead on the ground. (4) Fragment below the last, Battle ; Building of 
a town (Lavinium). Fragments of statues and buildings. In the centre, 
under glass, a number of antieaglias. — III. Room: Sarcophagi of terra- 
cotta, and brick stamps. — IV. Room : The inscriptions exhibited here are 
chiefly from the columbarium of the Statilii. The glass cabinets contain 
lamps, and vessels in terracotta. — The V. Room contains copies of the 
mural paintings in the 2nd room, but they are not remarkable for ac- 
curacy. — From the first room to the right we enter the — VI. Room, con- 
taining terracottas : amphorse, lamps, and vessels of every kind. 

The Columbaria , situated between the Nymphaeum and the 
Porta Maggiore (the largest of which is that of the Statilii) are 
hardly worthy of a visit since they have yielded up their contents to 
the Museum. 

The Via di Porta Maggiore leads in 20 min. from the church of 
S. Maria to the *Porta Maggiore (PI. II, 35), formed by a monu- 
ment belonging to the Aqua Claudia, above which the Anio Nova 
flowed through a second conduit. The inscriptions record the con- 
struction of both aqueducts by the Emp. Claudius, A. D. 52, the 
Claudia, 45 M. in length, bringing water from the neighbourhood 
of Subiaco, and the Anio Nova being conducted from the sources of 
the river of that name, a distance of 62 M. ; and also their resto- 
ration by Vespasian in 71, and by Titus in 80. Aurelian converted 
the monument into one of the gates of his city wall; and the Co- 
lonnas used it in the middle ages as the nucleus of a fortification. 
The gate derives its name either from its imposing dimensions, or 
from the church of that name. It was purged of the later additions 
by Gregory XVI., who closed up the N. archway. Two roads di- 
verged hence : to the left, through the now closed arch , the Via 
Labicana, and to the right the Via Praenestina. 

Between the two roads , outside the gate , on the occasion of 
the removal of the fortifications of Honorius, which have been re- 
erected by the wall to the right , was discovered the * Monument 

182 II. The Hills. ROME. S. Croce in Gerusalemme. 

of the Baker Kurysaces , erected in the form of a baker's oven to- 
wards the close of the republic. The monument was erected by the 
baker himself during his lifetime , and the principal inscription, 
which is repeated several times, is to the effect that — 'This is the 
monument of Marcus Vergilius Eurysaces , a public purveyor of 
bread and an official'. Some of the reliefs represent grinding, 
baking, and other parts of his trade, and others refer to his post of 
purveyor to the city. 

From this point to the Campagna, see p. 341. 

From the Porta Maggiore a road leads to (5 min.) S. Croce, 
passing under the arch of the Claudian aqueduct, and skirting the 
wall on the inside. From S. Maria Maggiore to this church by the 
Via di S. Croce is a walk of 20 min. 

S. Croce in Gerusalemme (PI. II, 36), one of the seven pil- 
grimage-churches, once named Basilica Sessoriana, because the 
Sessorium, perhaps an ancient court of judicature, once stood here, 
is said to have been erected by St. Helena in honour of the cross 
found by her. As early as 433 it was used for the meetings of a 
council, it was rebuilt by Lucius II. in 1144, and was entirely 
modernised and provided with a poor facade by Oregorini in the 
pontificate of Benedict XIV. in 1743. 

Interior. The nave was originally borne by 12 antique columns of 
granite, of which 8 only are now visible. An ancient sarcophagus of basalt 
below the high-altar contains the relics of SS. Anastasius and Ctesarius. 
In the tribune are modernised "frescoes by Bald. Peruzzi (not Pinturicchio), 
the Finding of the Cross. The church contains numerous relics, including 
the 'Inscription on the Cross'. 

To the left of the tribune a staircase descends to the Crypt, where on 
the left is an altar adorned with a relief in marble (Tieta) ; at the sides 
are statues of Peter and Paul of the 12th cent. On the right the chapel of 
St. Helena, to which ladies are not admitted except on 20th March. On 
the vaulting are ''Mosaics, after Bald. Peruzzi, representing the Four Evan- 
gelists. In the centre Christ. In the arch over the entrance , on the left 
St. Helena, right St. Sylvester; over the altar, on the left St. Peter, on the 
right St. Paul. The altar-statue of St. Helena is an exact copy of the Bar- 
berini Juno in the Sala Rotonda of the Vatican (p. 306), with the exception 
that a cross has been substituted for the sceptre in the right hand , and a 
nail of the cross for the vase in the left. 

The greater part of the old Cistercian monastery formerly belong- 
ing to the church is now used as a barrack. 

Adjacent to S. Croce, in the direction of the Lateran, is situated 
the Amphitheatrum Castrense (PL II, 36), of which only 16 arches 
of the enclosing wall, incorporated with the old city-fortifications, 
still exist. The structure is of brick, and so also are the Corinthian 
capitals and other decorations. The date of its erection is uncertain. 
The longer diameter of the amphitheatre is 57 yds. , the shorter 
44 yds. , and the arena 41 yds. in length. The outside is best 
seen in the course of a walk from the Porta Maggiore to the Porta 
S. Giovanni (from gate to gate 1 M.). In the interior is a kitchen 

8. Martino ai Monti. ROME. II. The Hills. 183 

On the other side of S. Croce is an apse with arched windows 
and the beginning of adjoining walls, which are supposed to have 
belonged to a Temple of Venus and Cupid , or a Nymphaeum of 
Alexander Severus, or to the Sessorium mentioned above. 

From S. Croce to the Lateran is a walk of 5 min. (p. 264). 

From S. Maria Maggiore the Via Merulana (PL II, 26, 29, 30) 
leads to the right to the Lateran (in '/4 h r 0- The tirst transverse 
street to the right is the Via di S. Prassede (with the church of that 
name , see p. 177), which, under different names, leads through a 
well-peopled quarter to the Forum. The Via di 8. Vito to the left 
leads through the arch of Gallienus to S. Eusebio (p. 178). — To 
the left, farther on, is the Villa Caserta (PL II, 25, 29), which was 
purchased by the Redemptorists in 1855, and in the street rises 8. 
Alfonso de' Liyuori, the church belonging to it, built in the modern 
Gothic style by Wigley, an English architect. 

From the Via Merulana diverges the Via di S. Pietro in Vin- 
coli to the W. , leading to the church of — 

S. Martino ai Monti (PL II, 26), erected by Symmachus about 
the year 500, adjacent to the Baths of Trajan and to an old church 
of Pope Sylvester, rebuilt in 844 by Sergius II. and Leo IV., and 
handsomely modernised about 1650. The adjoining Carmelite mon- 
astery is now occupied by the military. Principal festival, 11th Nov. 

The Interior, a basilica with a roof of straight beams, contains 24 an- 
tique columns. In the S. aisle six "frescoes by O. Poussin, from the life of 
Elijah, the patron of the order (disfigured by restoration). In the N. aisle 
six smaller '- frescoes. Also two pictures representing the interior of the 
old churches of the Lateran and of St. Peter. — The Pkesbttekium is eleven 
steps higher; below it the Ckypt. From the latter a large, ancient vault is 
entered, probably once belonging to Thermte, but at an early period converted 
into a church. The vaulting bears traces of very ancient painting. This is 
supposed to be the site of Pope Sylvester's church, of the period of 

To the E., near S. Martino, diverges the Via delle Sette Sale, 
skirting the vineyards of the Esquiline, and terminating near S. Cle- 
mente (p. 259). On this road, immediately to the right, in the Vigna 
No. 10, is the entrance to the so-called Sette Sale (PL II, 26), con- 
sisting of seven, or rather nine chambers, running parallel with each 
other, which appear to have been used as reservoirs for the Therm£e 
of Titus. The other ruins in the same vineyard also belonged to the 
baths. The celebrated group of the Laocoon (p. 303) was found in 
the vicinity. 

Leaving S. Martino, we next proceed in 5 min. to — 

*S. Pietro in Vincoli (PL II, 23; 151 ft. above the sea-level), 
also named Basilica Eudoxiana after Eudoxia, wife of Valentinian 
III., who founded it, about 442, as a receptacle for the chains of 
St. Peter which had been presented by her to Pope Leo I. The 
church was restored by Pelagius I. and Hadrian I., the vestibule 

1 84 77. The Hills. ROME. .s\ Pietro in Vincoli. 

added by Baccio Pintelli, and the whole is now modernised. It is 
open before 11 a. m. and after 3 p. m. ; when closed, visitors ring 
at the adjacent door to the left, No. 4 (i/ 2 fr.). 

Interior. The nave and aisles are separated by 20 antique Doric 
columns. To the left of the entrance is the monument of the Florentine 
painters Pietro and Antonio Pollajuolo (d. 1498). The fresco above it, 
representing the plague of 680, is attributed to the latter master. The 
Left Aisle, on the left contains the monument of the learned Card. Nico- 
laus Cusanus (from Cues on the Moselle, d. 1465). Above it a relief: Peter 
with keys and chains, on the left the donor (Nic. Cusanus), right an angel. 
On the 3rd altar to the left a mosaic of the 7th cent, with St. Sebastian. 
— At the end of the Right Aisle is the monument of Pope Julius II. with the 
'"'Statue of Moses by Michael Angelo, one of his most famous works. The 
monument was originally destined for St. Peter's, and intended to be a most 
imposing work, consisting of upwards of 30 statues. Owing to various ad- 
verse circumstances the portion preserved here was alone completed. (Two 
statues destined for this monument are at the Louvre.) The statues of Moses 
(who is represented by mediaeval Christian artists with horns owing to 
an erroneous translation of Exodus xxxiv. 35), Rachel, and Leah (as 
symbols , on the left of meditative, on the right of active life) alone were 
executed by the great master, and even these were not entirely his own 
workmanship. The grouping only of the remainder was from his ('esign. 
The figure of the pope (who is not interred here) by Maso del Bosco is a 
failure; the prophet and the sibyl at the side are by Saf. da Montelupo. — 
To the right of the choir is St. Margaret, an altarpiece by Ouercino. — 
The Choir contains an ancient marble seat from a bath, converted into 
an episcopal throne. 

Adjacent to the statue of Moses is the entrance to the Sacristy. A 
cabinet here with - bronze doors (by the Pollajuoli, 1477) contains the chains 
of St. Peter, which are exhibited to the pious on 1st Aug. 

The adjacent monastery of the Canonici Regolari is now the seat 
of the physical and mathematical faculty of the university. The 
handsome old monastery court, by Giuliano da San Gallo, planted 
with orange trees, is embellished with a fountain by Antonio da S. 
Gallo. The entrance is by No. 5, to the right of the church. 

In a garden opposite the facade of the church is a handsome 
palm-tree. — Proceeding to the left and then, where the street di- 
vides, to the left again, we reach the Thermae of Titus (p. 232) 
in 5 min. The street in a straight direction descends to the Basilica 
of ConstantineQp. 228), which is conveniently visited after the church 
of S. Pietro. To the right of S. Pietro in Vincoli is the church of S. 
Francesco di Paola, with a monastery, now the R. Istituto Tecnico. 

III. Home on the Tiber (Left Bank). 

That part of the city which extends to the W. from the Corso as far 
as the river, was uninhabited in the most ancient times (Campus Martins), 
but was gradually covered with buildings as Rome extended her sway, 
and as far back as the llepublic, but more particularly in the reign of 
Augustus, it became the site of many palatial edifices, and the new town 
of ancient Eome. This quarter, which is now densely peopled, and is in 
the main mediseval in character, consists of a network of narrow and 
dirty streets and lanes, enlivened by the busy traffic of the lower classes, 
and rarely intersected by grent thoroughfares. Although the topography 
of these purlieus is sometimes pu/,y.ling, and their appearance uninviting, 
they contain many highly interesting churches and palaces, and afford the 
traveller an excellent opportunity of becoming acquainted with mediaeval 

Mausoleum of Augustus. ROME. III. Left Bank. 185 

Rome, and with the characteristics of its present inhabitants. It is pro- 
posed by the present government to improve this quarter by the construc- 
tion of new and broad streets, but the work has not yet been begun. The 
following description begins with the N. side. 

From the Piazza del Popolo the broad Via di Ripetta (PI. I, 
15, 14] with its prolongation, the Via della Scrofa, leads to the S. 
in 16 min. to S. Luigi de' Francesi and the Piazza Navona. 

In the Via di Ripetta, 4 min. from the Piazza del Popolo, on 
the right, a modern building with numerous windows, erected by 
Gregory XVI. , now contains the Direzione Centrale del Lotto, and 
studios belonging to the Accademia delle Belle Arti (p. 234). The 
gateway of the circular building leads to a quiet quay (Passeggiata 
di Ripetta), planted with trees and used by the barges which ascend 
the river. Pleasing view of the opposite bank. 

Proceeding hence we reach in the first transverse street, the Via 
de' Pontefici 57 (right), the entrance to the Mausoleum of Augustus 
(PI. 1, 17), erected by that emperor as a burial-place for himself and 
his family, and in which most of his successors down to Nerva 
were interred. On a huge substructure, which contained the mor- 
tuary-chambers, arose a mound of earth in the form of terraces, em- 
bellished with cypresses, surmounted by a statue of the emperor, 
and environed with a park. In the middle ages it was used by the 
Colonnas as a fortress , and a small day-theatre , occasionally also 
used as a circus (Anfiteatro Corea) , is now fitted up within its 
precincts. A few only of the tomb-chambers are still preserved. 
Fee 1/2 ft- 

To the left in the Via di Ripetta we next reach the church of 
SS. Rocco e Martino (PI. I, 14), erected in 1657 by De Rossi, the 
facade with its two pairs of Corinthian columns having been added 
in 1834. Immediately beyond it, on the right, is the Harbour of the 
Ripetta, constructed by Clement XI. in 1707. The height attained 
by the water during inundations is indicated on the two columns on 
the arched wall. Ferry 1 soldo. Bathing-establishment on the oppo- 
site bank in summer. On the left, the small church of S. Girolamo 
degli Schiavoni (PI. I, 15). 

The Via della Scbofa, the continuation of the Via di Ripetta, 
is soon intersected (about 9 min. from the Piazza del Popolo) by a 
main street, which quitting the Corso opposite the Via Condotti 
leads to the Ponte S. Angelo under different names, and forms the 
most direct communication between the strangers' quarter (Piazza 
di Spagna) and the Vatican. The church of S. Trinita de' Monti 
(p. 142) is visible the greater part of the way, forming the termina- 
tion of the street. From the Corso to the Piazza Borghese (PI. 
I, 16; 4 min.) it is called Via della Fontanella di Borghese; thence 
to the Via della Scrofa, Via del Clementino , in which are back- 

186 111. Left Bank. ROME. Palazzo Borghese. 

buildings of the Palazzo di Firenze , formerly the residence of the 
Tuscan ambassador, now that of the Minister of Justice. — In the 
Piazza Borghese rises the celebrated — 

*Palazzo Borghese , begun by order of Card. Dezza in 1590 
by the architect Mart. Longhi the Elder, and completed by Fla- 
minio Ponzio by order of Paul V. , through whom it came into 
the possession of the Borghese family. The principal facade 
(with respect to the construction of the court) towards the street 
bears the inscription : Bonitatem et disciplinam et scientiam doce- 
m(us) ; the more imposing lateral facade is towards the Piazza 
Borghese. On the ground-floor and first floor the *Court is surrounded 
by arcades resting on clustered granite columns. Below these are 
three ancient colossal statues (a Muse, an Apollo Musagetes, and 
a portrait-statuej; and at the end of the right passage a fragment 
of the statue of an Amazon. In the centre of the left side of the 
arcades is the entrance to the ** Picture Gallery (open Mondays, 
Wednesdays, and Fridays, 9-3 o'clock; closed in July and August; 
fee */ 2 fr.). Catalogues are provided for the use of visitors. The 
apartments are artistically decorated. 

The Gallery Borghese is the most important in Rome next to that of the 
Vatican. It embraces a longer period of time and contains more master- 
pieces than the other private galleries in Rome. The fifteenth century 
is of course rather poorly represented , as the gallery was founded at a 
time when the works of that period were not generally appreciated. The 
gallery, however, possesses some excellent works of the close of that cen- 
tury, such as the Madonna with the vase by Lorenzo di Credi (I. Room, 
No. 2), and the Holy Family (I. Room, No. 54), of doubtful authorship.— 
The Milanese School of Leonardo is largely represented (I. Room), but 
the authenticity of most of the pictures is questionable. The best are the 
Christ imparting his blessing, a small work by Marco d'Oggiono (I. Room, 
No. 33), and Christ bearing his Cross, by Solario (III. Room, No. 1). — 
Among the earlier masters of the Upper Italian School , Franc. Francia 
is highly esteemed, and his St. Stephen, a half-figure in the red robe of 
a deacon, affords abundant proof that he has not been overrated. 

The only one of Raphael's works which can claim to be original, is the 
Entombment (II. Room, No. 38). The picture is not well preserved, and 
is perhaps not entirely by Raphael's own hand. The impression produced 
by it is disappointing, the composition seems too studied, and the colour- 
ing cold. The predelle belonging to it are in the Vatican Gallery (p. 297). 
The Fornarina (II. Room, No. 69), the Madonna Alba (II, 39), Pope Ju- 
lius II. (II, IS), and the Madonna col divino amore (II, 24) are copies; 
the unknown Cardinal (II, 20) is by a somewhat later Florentine master, 
who for the colouring of the gown has used a different kind of red from 
Raphael. It is quite as improbable that the so-called Portrait of Cesare 
Borgia (II, 26) was executed by Raphael. Cesare Borgia died in 1507, 
whereas the costume of the portrait is in the style of the middle of that 
century. The painter of this unknown personage is not improbably con- 
jectured to be Angela Brvnzino. The IX. Room contains several Frescoes 
transferred hither from the Villa of Raphael, and ascribed to that master ; 
but they are unlike his workmanship , both in composition and execution. 

The School of Ferrara of the 16th cent, is copiously and well re- 
presented. A fine example of Mazzolino's richness of colouring is his 
Adoration of the Magi (II, 59). Dosso Dossi's Circe (III, 11) conducts us 
into a world of fancy, similar to that depicted by Ariosto in his Orlando. 
Lastly there are several excellent works by Oarofalo, the Raphael of Fer- 
rara (II, 9 : Descent from the Cross). 

Palazzo Borgliese. ROME. HI. Left Bank. 187 

The Colourists of the XVI. Cent, will not fail to attract the visitor. 
To Sodoma the gallery is indebted for a Pieta (I, 7) and a Holy Family 
(II, 44), in which the head of the Madonna is radiant with beauty. At a 
comparatively recent period (1824) an important work by Correggio was 
secured for the gallery. It represents Danae with Cupids sharpening their 
arrows. The figure of Danae is rather graceful than strictly beautiful, 
but the Cupids are very charming, and the chiaroscuro masterly. — A 
whole room is devoted to the Venetian School. Titian's so-called Earthly 
and Heavenly Love is one of those creations which produces an indelible 
impression on the beholder. The picture rivets the attention like a poeti- 
cal dream, and after the eye has feasted on the charms of the colouring 
the composition still captivates the imagination. The Arming of Cupid 
(X, 2) is one of the finest mythological works by the same master. Botti- 
fazio is another master who supplies us with examples of the richness of 
colouring of the Venetian School (XI, 16, being the finest). Giorgione, on 
the other hand, is not fairly represented by the only specimen of his 
handiwork which the gallery possesses (X, 13). 

As it is generally the case in the Roman galleries, the painters of the 
later revival of art, the adherents of the Caracci and the Naturalists , figure 
very numerously here. Domenichino s Diana (V, 15) contains a number of 
nymphs with life-like heads, and an excellent background of landscape; 
AlbanPs Seasons are superb decorative pictures ; and the half-figures of 
Quercino are above the average of his compositions. The works of 
Caravaggio, the chief of the naturalists, produce an exceedingly unpleasant 
impression in this gallery (V, 26). The pictures by German and Nether- 
landish masters in the XII. Room are unimportant. 

I. Room. "Decorations, in grisaille and gold, by Carlo Villani. On 
the left: " 1. Sandro Botticelli, Madonna; "2. Lorenzo di Credi, Madonna; 
7. Sodoma, Pieta, unfortunately darkened by age; 8. Lvini (a copy), Va- 
nita; "17. Solario (f), EcceHomo; 26. School of Leonardo, Madonna ; 27,28. 
Laura and Petrarch (portraits); 30. Perugino (?), Ecce Homo; 32. Luini 
(a copy), St. Agatha; !! 33. Marco d'Oggiono, Youthful Christ; 34. Peru- 
gino, Madonna (a copy); "35. Ridolfo Ghirlandajo (according to Passavant 
by Timoteo della Vite), Portrait of a boy, erroneously called a portrait of 
Raphael; 43. Fr. Francia (?), Madonna; 45. After Raphael, St. Catharine; 
48. Perugino, St. Sebastian; 49, 57. Pinluricchio , Cabinet pictures of the 
kind which used to be in vogue at Florence for the decoration of wedding 
cabinets, etc. ; ::: 54. Lorenzo di Credi (?), Holy Family, a work of the 
highest rank; ,! 56. Leonardo, Leda and the swan, an excellent copy of the 
celebrated picture; 61. Fr. Francia (?), St. Antony; "65. Sch. of Leonardo, 
Madonna; 67. Ortolano, Adoration of the Child; "69. Pollajuolo, Holy 

II. Room. 4. Portrait, copy from Perugino; 16. Garofalo, Madonna 
with St. Joseph and St. Michael ; 7. Fr. Francia, Madonna with two saints ; 
*9. Garofalo, Christ mourned over by his friends; * 18. Raphael, Portrait 
of Julius II., an admirable copy; *21. Raphael (f), Portrait of a cardinal; 
*24. Raphael, Madonna with the young St. John, St. Joseph and St. Eli- 
zabeth (Mad. col divino amore, original at Naples); "26. Raphael (?), Portrait 
of Caesar Borgia (?) ; 30. (?) Portrait of a woman ; 35. Andrea del Sarto, Ma- 
donna; "38. Raphael, Entombment (1507), his last work before going to 
Rome, ordered by Atalanta Baglioni for her chapel in S. Francesco de' Con, 
ventuali at Perugia (p. 52), afterwards purchased by Paul V. ; 39. Raphael- 
Madonna di Casa d'Alba, an old copy ; 40. Fra Bartolommeo, Holy Family ; 
43. Fr. Francia, Madonna; -'44. Sodoma, Madonna; *51. Fr. Francia, St. 
Stephen; 59. Mazzolino, Adoration of the Magi; *65. Portrait of the so- 
called Fornarina , a good copy of the original of Raphael in the Pal. Bar- 
berini (p. 166), perhaps by Sassoferrato ; 69. After Raphael, John in the 

III. Room. 1. Andrea Solario, Christ bearing the Cross; "2. Parmeg- 
gianino, Portrait; 5. Aless. Allori, Christ risen; *11. Dosso Dossi, The Sor- 
ceress Circe (?); 13. Solario (>), Mater Dolorosa; 14. Sofonisbe Anguisciola, 
Portrait of a woman ; 15. Scarsellino, Madonna ; 19. Angela Bronzino, Cleo- 
patra; 22. Sch. of Raphael, Holy Family; 24. Andrea del Sarto, Madonna 

188 III. Left Bank. ROME. Palazzo Borghese. 

with angels; "28. Madonna with the Child and St. John, by the same; 
35. And. del Sarto (?), Venus with two Cupids ; 37. Portrait , unknown ; 
'40. Correggio, Danae , one of Ms finest easel-pieces ; 42. Bronzino (?), 
Portrait of Cosmo de' Medici; 46. Mary Magdalene, after Correggio's original 
at Dresden; 47. Pomarancio, Holy Family; "48. Sebast. del Piombo, Scourg- 
ing of Christ (the same piece is in S. Pietio in Montorio as a fresco, p. 318); 
49. And. del Sarto, Mary Magdalene. 

IV. Room. 1. Ann. Caracci, Entombment; *2. Domenichino, Cumsean 
Sibyl ; 4. Lod. Caracci, Head ; 10. Cap. d'Arpino, Rape of Europa ; 14. Sch. 
of the Caracci, Entombment; '-15. Guido Cagnacci, Sibyl; 18. Cigoli, St. 
Francis; 20. Guido Reni , St. Joseph; 29. Ann. Caracci , St. Dominicus; 
33. Luca Giordano, Martyrdom of St. Ignatius; 36. Carlo Dolce, Madonna; 

37. Mater Dolorosa, by the same; 38, 41. Furino, Annunciation; 39. Ribera, 
Neptune; 40. St. Jerome, by the same; 42. Carlo Dolce, Head of Christ; 
43. Sassoferralo, Madonna. 

V. Room. "11, 12, 13, 14. Franc. Albani, the Four Seasons, landscapes 
with mythological accessories; "15. Domenichino, Diana and her Nymphs 
practising with their bows; 21. Francesco Mola, Liberation of Peter; 22. 
Psyche borne aloft by Cupids, copy from a picture in the Farnesina; 
25. Fed. Zucchero , Christ bewailed by angels; 26. Caravaggio, Madonna 
with St. Anna and the Child Jesus; 27. Varotari (il Padovanino), Venus; 
20. Cav. d'Arpino, Battle; 29. Sch. of Poussin, Landscape. 

VI. Room. 1. Guercino, Mater Dolorosa; 2. Female half-figure, by the 
same; "3. Andrea Sacchi, Portrait of Orazio Giustiniani ; 5. Guercino, Re- 
turn of the Prodigal ; 7. Pietro da Cortona, Portrait of Gius. Ghislieri ; 10. 
Ribera, St. Stanislaus with the Child Jesus ; 12. Valentin, Joseph interpreting 
the dreams in prison ; * 13. Titian , Three periods of life, a copy by Sasso- 
ferralo from the original in London; 16, 17. Franc. Grimaldi, Landscapes; 
18. Sassoferralo, Madonna ; 22. Baroccio, Flight of jEneas from Troy ; 24, 
25. Landscapes in the style of Poussin. 

VII. Room. The lower part of the wall is chiefly adorned with mir- 
rors, on which Cupids (by Ciroferri) and wreaths of flowers (by Mario de' 
Fiori) are painted. Above, in small niches, are 16 ancient portrait-busts, 
some of them freely restored. In the centre is a table of irregular mosaic 
composed of stones of every variety, some of them extremely rare. 

VIII. Room , containing a number of small objects of art and curio- 
sities. Entrance-wall : 96. Brill (?) , Orpheus with the animals in a land- 
scape; "90. Female head, a drawing of the Sch. of Leonardo. By the 
window-wall and the wall of the egress are twelve small antique bronzes. 

38. Franc. Viola, Landscape. Wall opposite the window : 86. Marcello Pro- 
venzali, Mater Dolorosa; 4. GiuHo Clodio, Madonna; 91. Vanni, The Graces; 
"88. View of the Villa Borghese in the 17th cent. "From the door of 
egress the visitor looking straight on obtains a view of the banks of the 
Tiber beyond the fountain below. — To the left a passage adorned with 
landscape-frescoes leads to the — 

IX. Room, where several frescoes' removed from their original situations 
are collected. The most important are "three frescoes (underglass) from the 
so-called Villa of Raphael, which formerly stood within the grounds of the 
Villa Borghese, and was removed in 1849 (p. 158) : 1. Marriage of Alex- 
ander and Roxane, from a drawing in the Albertinaf in Vienna, which 
bears the name of Raphael, but shows close Jresemblance to the compo- 
sition of Sodoma in the Farnesina; 2. Nuptials of Vertumnus and Po- 
mona, of inferior value ; 3. The so-called 'Bersaglio de' Dei 1 (shooting con- 
test of the gods), from a drawing in the Brera at Milan bearing the name 
of Mich. Angelo; this obscure composition is perhaps borrowed from Lu- 
cian (Nigrinus, C. 36). These three were probably executed by Raphael's 
pupils. Some of the other paintings are from the Villa Lante. The balcony 
reached from this n oni affords a pleasing view of the Tiber and its banks 
as far as Monte Mario. — Returning to the mirror-room, and leaving it by 
the door to the left in the opposite wall, we enter the — 

X. Room. Opposite the entrance: 1. Moroni, Portrait; "2. Titian, 
Cupid equipped by Venus; 4. Sch. of Titian, or Giorgione, Judith, said 
to have the features of Titian's wife; 6. Sch. of Ferrara, Cupid and Psyche; 

Palazzo Galizin. KOMF. HI. Left Bank. 189 

■'9. Pordenone (according to Crowe, by Lor. Lotto), Portrait; *13. Giorgione 
(or school of Ferrara?), David with the head of Goliath ; 14. Paolo Veronese, 
John the Baptist preaching repentance; ''16. Titian, St. Dominicus; 19. 
Giac. Bassano, Portrait; "'^l. Titian, 'Amor sagro e profano 1 (earthly and 
heavenly love), one of his greatest works; 22. Leonello Spada, Concert; 
34. 8ch. of Ferrara, SS. Cosmas and Damianus; 35. Venetian Sc7i., Family 
scene, probably the Nativity of the Virgin ; "36. Madonna , an early work 
of Giov. Bellini. 

XI. Room. "1. Lor. Lotto, Madonna with SS. Onophrius and Augustine, 
the S. Onophrius being copied from Diirer, as the visitor may satisfy him- 
self by comparing it with Diirer's picture in the Palazzo Barberini (1518); 
2. Paolo Veronese (V) , St. Antony about to preach to the fish ; 3. Titian (?), 
Madonna; 9. Moroni, Portrait; 11. Luc. Cambiaso , Venus and Cupid on 
dolphins (unfinished); 14. Andr. Schiavone, Last Supper; 15. Bonifazio, 
Christ among his disciples and the sons of Zebedee with their mother ; *16. 
Bonifazio , Return of the Prodigal ; 17. Titian , Samson ; 18. Bonifazio, 
Christ and the adulteress; 19. Palma Vecchio (V), Madonna with saints, etc.; 

20. Paolo Veronese, Venus and Cupid; 24. Schidone, Madonna; 25. Titian 
(a copy), Portrait of himself; "21. Giov. Bellini (or Antonello da Messina?), 
Portrait; 28. Unknown master, Head of John the Baptist; 31. Giov. Bel- 
lini, Madonna and St. Peter; *32. Palma Vecchio, Holy Family; 33. Bernar- 
dino Licinio da Pordenone , Family-portrait ; 39. Giov. Bellini, Portrait of a 

XII. Room. Dutch and German masters. 1. Van Dyck (?), Crucifixion; 
"7. Entombment, by the same ; :s 8. D. Teniers, Genre picture ; 9. A. Brouwer, 
Genre picture; 15. Brabant Sell., Mary's visit to Elizabeth; 19. Diirer (?), 
Portrait (said 1o be of Duke Louis VI. of Bavaria) ; 20. Holbein, Portrait,; 

21. Wouverman (?), Landscape and accessories; 22. Potter (?), Cattle-piece'; 
23. Backhuyzen, Quay; 26. Crossing the ice, in different shades of brown, 
perhaps by Berghem ; 24. Holbein (V), Portrait; 27. Van Dyck {J), Portrait; 
"35. Perugino (not Holbein), Portrait of himself; 37. Diirer, Portrait of Pirk- 
heimer(V); 41. Gherardo delle Notti, Lot and his daughters; 44. Lucas C'ra- 
nach, Venus and Cupid. — In a small cabinet (which the custodian opens 
if desired), are a number of less important Italian pictures of the 14th and 
15th cent. 

Returning from the Piazza Borghese to the Via della Scrofa, we 
follow the transverse street mentioned at p. 185 in an E. direction 
to the Ponte S. Angelo (10 min.). The street, which is separated 
from the river by a single row of houses only, frequently changes 
its name. We first cross the Piazza Nicosia (PI. I, 13), where, in 
the corner to the left, is the recently erected Pal. Galizin (PI. I, 
13, 13), built to some extent on the plan of the Pal. Giraud near 
St. Peter's (p. 274). Farther on, in the Via della Tinta, on the 
left, is the small church of S. Lucia (PI. 11~), mentioned as early 
as the 9th cent. In the Via di Monte Bbjanzo there are no build- 
ings worthy of note. The side-streets diverging from it, however, 
contain several interesting Renaissance palaces. Thus in the Via 
delP Orso, the Albergo deW Orso ; in the Via del Soldato, the 
Pal. Sacripante (PL I, 13, 5), built by B. Ammanati ; opposite 
to it (PI. I, 13, 6) the Pal. Altemps (p. 191); on the house Via 
Maschera d'Oro No. 7, is a frieze with paintings from the myth of 
Niobe by Pol. Caravaggio, much damaged. — A few paces distant 
from the last is the Pal. Lancelotti (PI. I, 13, 1), erected under 
Sixtus V. by Franc, da Volterra, and completed by C. Maderna, 
at present containing the celebrated statue of *IMscus -Thrower, 

190 HI. Left Bank. ROME. S. Agostino. 

formerly in the Pal. Massimi (p. 199). The portal was designed by 
Domenichino. The court contains ancient statues and reliefs. 

We now follow the Via di Tordinone , or Tor di Nona , so 
named from the prison-tower once situated here. To the left the 
Vicolo de' Marchegiani diverges to the church of S. Salvatore in 
Lauro , erected by Ursini in 1450, and remodelled by Pius IX. 
in 1862 , with an adjacent monastery court. At the end of the 
Via Tordinone, on the right, is the Teatro Apollo (p. 110), restored 
by Valadier in 1830. 

The street terminates in the Piazza di Ponte S. Angblo, 
whence three others diverge. The first , the Via in Panico, leads 
with its prolongations to the Piazza Navona (p. 195); the Via del 
Banco di S. Spirito in the centre toj[the Piazza Farnese (p. 201); 
and the Via Paola to the new Chain-bridge and to the Via Giulia 
(p. 203) which skirts the bank of the Tiber. This was formerly 
the public place of execution , which has been removed to the 
neighbourhood of the Ponte Rotto. — By the Ponte S. Angela to the 
Church of St. Peter and the Vatican, see p. 273. 

If we follow the Via della Scrofa (p. 185), passing the Pal. 
Galizin on the right, the fourth transverse street on the right (at 
the left corner, Via della Scrofa 70, is the palace of the general- 
vicar, where permessi for the catacombs are obtained, 11-12 a.m.) 
leads us to the Piazza di S. Agostino. 

*S. Agostino (PI. I, 13), erected by Baccio Pintelli in 1483 by 
order of Card. d'Estouteville, the protector of the Augustinians, on 
the site of an old oratorium, was the first Roman church with a 
dome. The facade and the spacious flight of steps are said to have 
been constructed of stones from the Colosseum. The interior, in 
the form of a Latin cross, was restored in 1750, and again in 
1860, when it was adorned with frescoes by Gagliardi. 

Interior. On the entrance- wall a "Madonna and Child, in marble, 
by Jacopo Tatti, surnamed Jac. Sansovino after his master Andrea Sanso- 
vino, surrounded by numerous votive offerings. In the 1st Chapel on the 
right, St. Catharine by Venusti; in the 2nd, Nucci's free copy of the lost 
Madonna della Rosa of Raphael; in the 4th, "Christ delivering the keys to 
Peter, a group by Cotignola. Iiy the 5th Chapel is the monument (the second 
to the left) of the learned Onofrio Panvinio (d. 1568). Adjoining the door 
of the sacristy is the monument of the learned Cardinal Noris. — The 
Kight Transept contains the chape) ofiSt. Augustine with an altar-piece 
by Ouercino : St. Augustine between John the Baptist and Paul the Hermit. 

The High- Altar was decorated by Bernini; the image of the Madonna is 
said to have been painted by St. Luke, and brought from the church of St. 
Sophia at Constantinople. In the chapel on*fhe left of this are preserved 
the remains of St. Monica, mother of Augustine; altar-piece by Goltardi. 

The 2nd Chapel in the Left Aisle contains a "group in marble (St. Anna, 
Mary, and Jesus) by Andrea Sansovino «(1512). In the 4th , St. Apollonia, 
altar-piece by Muziano. In the Nave, on the 3rd pillar to the left, "Raphael's 
Prophet Isaiah, holding a scroll with the words from Is. xxvi, 2, painted 
in 1512, but unfortunately retouched by Dan. da Volterra, and now much 
injured. In the execution of this work the great master is said to have 
been influenced by that of M. Angelo in the Sistine Chapel. 

The neighbouring monastery, at present occupied by the Minister 

S. Luigi de' Francesi. ROME. III. Left Bank. 191 

of the Marine , contains the Biblioteca Angelica (entrance on the 
right of the church), consisting of 150,000 vols, and 2945 MSS., 
of which complete catalogues have been formed. Admission daily, 
Thursdays and holidays excepted, 8-2 (closed in October). 

Proceeding from the Piazza S. Agostino straight through the 
archway, we reach the Piazza S. Apollinare, cross the Piazza Tor 
Sanguigna, and pass through the narrow Via de' Coronari to the 
Via in Panico and the Ponte S. Angelo (8min.). This is the shortest 
way from the Piazza Colonna to the Vatican. 

In the Piazza S. Apollinare (PI. I, 13) are situated the 
Seminario Romano, a kind of grammar-school, and 8. Apollinare, 
an old church, rebuilt in 1552 and 1750, and owing its present 
form to Fuga. To the left, over the altar in the inner vestibule, is 
a Madonna by Perugino (?). — Opposite the church is the Pal. 
Altemps, of the 16th cent. , completed by the elder Lunghi, pos- 
sessing a handsome double court with arcades, the lateral colonnades 
of which are built up, and containing a few ancient statues. 

From the Piazza S. Apollinare the Via Agonale leads to the S. 
to the Piazza Kavona (p. 195); and from Tor Sanguigna, S. Maria 
dell' Anima (p. 196) and della Pace (p. 197) are reached to the left. 

In the direction of the Ponte S. Angelo the Pal. Lancelotti 
(p. 189) lies on the right (3 min.); a little farther on is the side- 
entrance to S. Salvatore in Lauro (p. 190). 

The Via della Scrofa leads to the small , but busy Piazza di 
S. Luigi de' Francesi, to the right in which rises S. Luigi de' 
Francesi (PI. II, 13), the national church of the French, con- 
secrated in 1589, having been built on the site of several earlier 
churches. Facade by Giac. della Porta. It is one of the best build- 
ings of its period, and the interior also is judiciously decorated. 
Some of the pictures are badly lighted. 

Right Aisle. 1st Chapel: St. John, altar-piece by Q. B. Naldini. On the 
opposite pillar is a monument to French soldiers who fell at the siege of 
Rome in 1849. 2nd Chapel: '-Frescoes from the life of St. Cecilia, one of 
the most admirable works of Domenichino; on the right the saint distributes 
clothing to the poor ; in the lunette above, she and her betrothed are crowned 
by an angel ; on the left the saint suffers martyrdom with the blessing of 
the Pope; above, she is urged to participate in a heathen sacrifice; on the 
ceiling, admission of the saint into heaven; altar-piece, a copy of Raphael's 
St. Cecilia (in Bologna) by Guido Rent. 4th Chapel, of St. Remigius: altar- 
piece, the Oath of Clovis", by Giac. del Conte; frescoes on the right, Cam- 
paign of Clovis, by Girolamo Sicciolante (da Sermoneta) ; on the left, Bap- 
tism of Clovis, by Pellegrino da Bologna. 5th Chapel, del Crociflsso : on the 
left the monument of the painter Guerin , on the right that of Agincourt 
(d. 1814), the writer on art. — Over the high-altar : "Assumption of Mary, 
by Franc. Bassano. 

Left Aisle. 1st Chapel: St. Sebastian, altar-piece by Massei; on the right 
and left modern frescoes; by the first pillar on the right the monument of 
Claude Lorrain , erected in 1836. 3rd Chapel , of St. Louis : altar-piece by 
Plautilla Bricci, who is said to have designed the architecture also; picture 
on the left by Gimignani. 5th Chapel, of St. Matthew : altar-piece and pic- 
tures on the right and left by Caravaggio , cm the left the evangelist's 
vocation to the apostleship, on the right his death. 

192 IIJ. Left Bank. ROME. Pantheon. 

Opposite the church is the Pulazzo Patrizi (PI. II, 13), where 
permission to visit the Villa Patrizi (p. 171) is obtained, adjoining 
which, at the end of the piazza, is the Pal. Madama, with its prin- 
cipal facade towards the piazza of that name (p. 195). 

Opposite the Pal. Madama is situated the Palazzo Qimtiniani 
(PI. II, 13), erected by Giov. Fontana. It formerly contained va- 
luable collections, of which a few statues and reliefs in the court 
and on the ground-floor alone remain. 

We next reach the small Piazza S. Eustachio, in which, to the 
right, opposite the Pal. Maccarini designed by Giul. Romano, is 
the back of the — 

University della Sapienza (PI. II, 13, 25 ; entrance Via della 
Sapienza71), founded in 1303 by Boniface VIII. , and after a rapid 
decline re-established by Eugene IV. It attained its greatest pros- 
perity under Leo X., and under Leo XII. and Gregory XVI. possessed 
five faculties, but there are now four only (law, medicine, physical 
science, and philology). It contains several natural history collec- 
tions and the Biblioteca Alessandrina, a library of 90,000 vols., 
which is open daily (p. 108). The present building was designed 
by Oiac. della Porta. The church (S. Ivo), with its grotesque spiral 
tower, was designed by Borromini in the form of a bee, in honour 
of Urban VIII., in whose armorial bearings that insect figures. 

Turning to the left, or following one of the two preceding cross- 
lanes, we reach the Piazza dklla Rotonda (PI. II, 16). Above the 
large Fountain erected by Lunghi under Gregory XIII., was placed 
the upper end of a broken obelisk by order of Clement XL This 
piazza generally presents a busy scene, and affords the stranger op- 
portunities of observing the characteristics of the peasantry. 

On the S. side of the piazza is situated the church of 8. Maria 
Jlotonda, or the **Pantheon, the only ancient edifice at Rome which 
is still in perfect preservation as regards the walls and the vaulting. 
The original statues and architectural decorations have long since 
been replaced by modern and inferior works, but the huge circular 
structure with its vast colonnade still presents a strikingly imposing 
appearance. The walls , constructed of admirable brickwork, 20 ft. 
in thickness, were originally covered with marble and stucco. The 
ground in the environs has gradually been so much raised that the 
pavement of the temple, to which five steps formerly ascended, now 
lies below the level of the piazza. Excavations recently made in 
front of the edifice , which led to the discovery of the two fine 
marble reliefs now in the vestibule, have been filled up again as 
they interfered with the street traffic. • 

The Portico (36 yds. wide, 14 yds. deep) is borne by 16 
Corinthian columns of granite, 13 ft. in circumference, and 39 
ft. in height; the tympanum formerly contained reliefs, and the 
roof was embellished by statues. Eight of the columns are in front; 
the others form three colonnades, originally vaulted over, termi- 

Pantheon. ROME. -W. Left Bank. 193 

nating in niches, in which stood the colossal statues of Augustus and 
his son-in-law M. Agrippa. The latter, according to the inscription 
on the frieze (M. Agrippa L. F. Cos. tertium fecit) , caused the edi- 
fice to be erected B.C. 27. — The central colonnade leads to the 
Entrance, with its ancient door strongly secured by bronze plates, 
in order to diminish the weight of which the upper portion is re- 
placed by a railing. 

The Interior , which is lighted by a single aperture in the 
centre of the dome, produces so beautiful an effect that it was cur- 
rently believed at an early period that the temple derived its name 
of Pantheon, which was applied to it as early as A. D. 59, from its 
resemblance to the vault of heaven. The height and diameter of 
the dome are equal, being each 140 ft. The surface of the walls is 
broken by seven large niches, in which stood the statues of the gods, 
among which those of Mars, Venus, and Caesar are ascertained to 
have been placed. The architrave is borne by fluted columns of 
giallo antico or pavonazzetto in couples, the shafts being 26 ft. 
in height. Above the latter, and corresponding with the niches, for- 
merly rose a series of round arches, borne by Caryatides, but they 
appear to have been removed on the occasion of a very early re- 
storation of the edifice. The coffered ceiling of the vault, which 
consists of concrete, was decorated with gold-leaf, and the whole 
roof was covered with gilded bronze tiles, which the Emp. Con- 
stans II. caused to be removed to Constantinople in 655. Under 
Gregory III. these tiles were replaced by lead. The building has 
frequently been restored, as, for example, by Domitian, Trajan, 
Septimius Severus, and Caracalla. The names of the last two are 
recorded by an inscription on the architrave of the portico. 

In 609 the Pantheon was consecrated by Pope Boniface IV. as 
a Christian church, under the name of S. Maria ad Martyres (comp. 
p. 326), and in commemoration of the event the festival of All 
Saints was instituted. It was originally celebrated on 13th May, 
but afterwards on 1st Nov. A palace , a cathedral-chapter , and a 
cardinal's title were afterwards attached to the church , which is 
generally known as S. Maria Rotonda, or La Rotonda. Under Ur- 
ban VIII. (Barberini) the two campanili were erected by Bernini, the 
'asses' ears' of the architect as they have been derisively named. 
The same pope removed from the portico the brazen tubes on which 
the roof rested, and caused them to be converted into columns for 
the canopy of the high-altar, and cannons for the defence of the 
castle of S. Angelo. This Vandalism gave rise to the complaint of 
Pasquin , 'Quod non fecerunt barbari, fecerunt Barberini' . Pius IX. 
has caused the church to be judiciously restored. 

In the first Chapel to the left of the high-altar stands a simp] e monu- 
ment of Card. Consalvi (buried in S. .Marcello, p. 151) by Thorv a i ( j sen 

To the left of the 3rd altar is Raphael's Tomb (b. 6th Apr., 1433. ,j ' gt n 
Apr., 1520). On the wall is the graceful epigram compose,j j ' g ar( j 
Bembo: — 

JiAiiURKKK. Italy II. 0th Edition. 10 

194 111. Left Bank. ROME. $. Maria sopra Minerva. 

Me hie est Raphael, timuit quo sospite vinci 
Rerum magna parens, et moriente mori. 
The Italian translation runs thus : — 

L Questi e quel Raffaele, cui vivo vinia 
Esser temea FTalura, e morto eslinta\ 

A lengthy inscription beside it announces that Raphael's remains were 
placed in a i;ew sarcophagus in 1833. The statue of the Madonna on the 
altar, by Lorenzetto, was executed in accordance with Raphael's last will. 

The Pantheon is also the last resting-place of Ann. Caracci , Tadd. 
Zucchero, Bald. Peruzzi, Perino del Vaga, Giov. da Udine, and other 
celebrated artists. 

A visit to the interior by moonlight should on no account be omitted, 
but the sacristan must be informed in good time. Visitors are then ad- 
mitted by the door at the back of the sacristy, Via della Palombella 10. 
To ascend the dome a special permesso must be obtained. 

At the tack of the Pantheon are situated the ruins of the Ther- 
mae of Agrippa, the proximity of which to the Pantheon once gave 
rise to the absurd conjecture that it originally belonged to the baths, 
and was afterwards converted into a temple. 

From the Piazza of the Pantheon we may proceed towards the 
E. through the Via de' Pastini to the Piazza di Pietra (p. 148); or 
we may turn at once to the left, towards the N., cross the Piazza 
Capranica , with the small theatre of that name, and reach Monte 
Citorio (p. 148); or, lastly, we may follow the Via del Seminario, 
which also runs towards the E., to S. Ignazio (p. 148). 

Leaving the Pantheon, we now proceed towards the S. K., 
through the Via della Minerva to the Piazza della Minerva 
(PI. 11, 16), where the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva lies on 
the left, and the Hotel de la Minerve opposite to us. In the centre 
of the piazza stands an elephant in marble, on the back of which 
a small obelisk was placed by Bernini, in 1667, being one of those, 
which are said once to have risen in front of a temple of Isis for- 
merly situated here. The other obelisk is in the Piazza della 
Uotonda (p. 192). 

*S. Maria sopra Minerva, erected on the ruins of a temple of 
Minerva founded by Domitian, the only Gothic church at Kome, 
was probably begun about 1285 by the builders of S. Maria No- 
vella at Florence. It was restored in 1848-55, and contains several 
valuable works of art. 

Interior. By the entrance- wall, on the right, the tomb of the Florentine 
knight Diotisalvi (d. 1482). — Left Aisle. On the left, the tomb of the Floren- 
tine Franc. Tornabuoni, by Mi no da Fiesole; above it the monument of Card. 
Giac. Tebaldi (d. 1466). To the right of the altar in the 3rd Chapel, "St, 
Sebastian, by Mino da Fiesole(?). Over the altar: head of Christ, by Pe- 
rugino. In the 5th Chapel is (r.) (he monument of the Princess Lante, by 
Tenerani. — Right Aisle. By the pillar between the 3rd and 4th chapels is an 
egress (generally closed) with an ancient Greek sarcophagus (Hercules taming 
the lion). In the 4th Chapel, the 'Annunciation, a pictuie on a golden ground 
(in the foreground Card. Giov. 'a Torrecremata recommending three poor girls 
to the Virgin), painted to commemorate the foundation of the charitable in- 
stitution of S. Annunziata, erroneously attributed to Fiesole ; on the left the 
tomb of Urban VII. (d. 1590), by Ambrogio Buonvicino. The 5th Chapel (Al- 
dobrandini) contains paintings by Alberti; over the altar the Last Supper by 
Baroccio'; monuments of the parents of Clement VIII. by Gia . della Porta. 

Piazza Havana. ROME. ///. Left Bank. 195 

— Right Transept. A small chapel on the right is first observed, containing 
a wooden crucifix attributed to Giotto; then the "Caraffa Chapel (recently 
restored), with a handsome balustrade, painted by Filippino Lippi; on the 
right Thomas Aquinas , surrounded by allegorical figures, defending the 
Catholic religion against heretics ; on the wall at the back, the Assumption 
of the Virgin; altar-fresco, the Annunciation, with a portrait of the donor 
Card. Caraffa; sibyls on the vaulting by Rafaellino del Garbo; on the left the 
monument of Paul IV. (d. 1559) , designed by Pirro Ligorio , executed by 
Giac. and Tom. Casignola. By the wall, adjacent to the latter, the tomb of 
Bishop Guiliel. Durantus (d. 1296), with a Madonna in mosaic by Johannes, 
one of the best works of that period. The first chapel by the choir contains 
an altar-piece by C. Maratta. The second is the Cappella del Rosario; 
altar-piece groundlessly attributed to Fiesole ; on the right the tomb of Card. 
Capranica (about 1470). — The Choir contains the large monuments of the 
two Medicis, (1.) Leo X. and (r.) Clement VII., designed by Ant. da San 
Gallo; that of Leo executed by Raffaele da Monte Lupo, that of Clement by 
Giov. di Baccio Bigio ; on the pavement the tombstone of the celebrated scho- 
lar Pietro Bembo (d. 1547). In front of the high-altar is Michael Angela's 
"Christ with the Cross (1527); the nudity of the figure is justified by the 
master's intention to pourtray the Risen Christ, but it is now marred by 
a bronze drapery; the right foot also is protected against the kisses of 
the devout by a bronze shoe. On the left by the choir is a passage to the 
Via S. Ignazio; on the wall the tombstone (first on the left) of Fra Beato 
Angelico da Fiesole, who died in the neighbouring monastery in 1455, with 
his portrait and the inscription : Hie jacet Venerabilis pictor Frater Joannes 
de Florenlia Ordinis praedicatorum 14 LV. — In the Left Transept is the 
Chapel of S. Domenico, with 8 black columns, and the monument of Bene- 
dict XIII. (d. 1730) by P. Bracci. Adjacent, to the right, is the entrance to 
the sacristy. 

The adjoining Dominican monastery, formerly the residence of 
the chief of the order , and now occupied by the offices of the 
Minister of Finance, contains the Bibliotheca Casanatensis (entrance 
to the left by the church , first door to the right beyond the court ; 
adm., see p. 108). The library is the largest in Rome after that 
of the Vatican, consisting of 200,000 vols, and 1000 MSS., and is 
connected by a bridge over the Via S. Ignazio with the Biblioteca 
Vitt. Emanuele in the Coll. Romano (p. 149). 

From the Piazza della Minerva, past the S. side of the church, 
the Via del Pie di Marmo leads to the Piazza del Coll. Romano (p. 
149). From the Pie di Marmo the Via del Gesu diverges to the right, 
leading in 3 M. to the Piazza del Gesil (p. 157). 

From the Piazza S. Luigi de' Francesi (p. 191) the short street 
to the right on leaving the church leads to the Piazza Madama, 
where to the left rises the facade of the Palazzo Madama (Pi. II, 
13), so called from Margaret of Parma, daughter of Charles V., by 
whom it was once occupied. Previously and subsequently it belonged 
to the Medicis, afterwards grand-dukes of Tuscany, by whose or- 
ders Marocelli altered it to its present form in 1642. The Italian 
Senate now meets in this palace. One entrance is from the Piazza 
S. Luigi, the other from the Piazza Madama. — A short side-street 
leads hence to the — 

*Piazza Navona (PI. II, 13), the largest in Rome after that of 
St. Peter , where, as its form still indicates, the Circus, or Sta- 


196 III. Left Bank. ROME. S. Maria dtW Anima. 

dium of Domitian, was formerly situated. The name is derived 
from the agones (corrupted to Navone, Navona), or contests which 
took place here. The piazza has recently been officially named 
Circo Agonale, but this new designation has found little favour. 

It is embellished with three Fountains. That on the N. side 
is unpretending, but is to be replaced by a larger one. Not far from 
it, in the centre of a large ancient basin of Pentelic marble, rises 
the large fountain erected by Bernini under Innocent X. ; at the 
corners of the lofty mass of rock, the different parts of which re- 
present the four quarters of the globe, are placed the gods of the 
four largest rivers, the Danube, Ganges, Nile, and Rio della Plata, 
executed by pupils of Bernini. The whole is surmounted by an 
obelisk, which was formerly in the Circus of Maxentius, and was 
originally erected in honour of Domitian. — The third fountain, at 
the S. end of the piazza, is adorned with masks, Tritons, and the 
statue of a Moor by Bernini. 

The piazza was used from 1447 to 1871 as a vegetable market, 
which after the Italian occupation was transferred to the Campo de' 
Fiori (p. 201). The singular custom formerly prevailed of laying 
this piazza under water for the amusement of the people in August 
annually, by preventing the escape of the water from the fountains. 

On the W. side of the Piazza Navona stands the ;church of 
S. Agnese, the interior of which, in the form of a Greek cross, 
and the campanili, are by C. Rinaldi. The facade is by Borromini. 
The Romans used to maintain that the Nile on the great fountain 
veiled his head in order to avoid being distressed by the appearance 
of the tower. 

Over the principal door is the monument of Innocent X. hy Maini; 
to the left, in the chapel of the transept, is a statue of St. Sebastian, adapted 
from an ancient statue by Maini. Beneath the dome are eight columns of 
'cognatello'. The old church was situated in the side-vaults of the Circus 
where the saint suffered martyrdom. Two chapels with ancient vaulting 
still remain. 

To the left of the church is the Palazzo Pamftli (PI. I, 13, 18), 
also erected by Rinaldi , now the property of Prince Doria. Oppo- 
site to it is the dilapidated national church of the Spaniards, 8. Qia- 
como degli Spagnuoli (PL II, 13, 23), erected in 1450. The entrance 
is in the Via della Sapienza. 

The Via di S. Agnese, on the right side of the church, leads to 
the Via delV Anima on the right, where on the left side is situated 
*S. Maria dell' Anima (PI. II, 13; open till 8i/ 2 a. m., on holi- 
days till noon ; when closed, visitors go round the church by the 
Vicolo della Pace on the right , and ring at the door of the German 
Hospice, opposite S. Maria della Pace). The name is derived from 
a small marble-group in the tympanum of the portal : a Madonna 
invoked by two souls in purgatory. This is the German national 
church, connected with the Hospice, and was completed in 1514. 
The unsuitable facade is by Oiuliano da Sang alio ; and Bramante 
is said to have designed part of the interior. 

S. Maria della Pace. ROME. III. Left Bank. 197 

Interior (at present undergoing restoration). The central window of 
lie entrance- wall formerly contained stained glass by William of Marseilles, 
iow modern. The frescoes of saints on the ceiling are by L. Seitz. — 
Jight Aisle. 1st Chapel: "St. Benno receiving from a fisherman the keys 
)f the cathedral at Meissen (Saxony), which had been recovered from the 
itomach of a fish, altar-piece by Carlo Saraceni. 2nd Chapel : Holy Family, 
iltar-piece by Gimignani ; left, monument and bust of Card. Slusius. 4th 
Jhapel : altered copy of Michael Angelo's Pieta in St. Peter's, by Nanni di 
Baccio Bigio. — Left Aisle. 1st Chapel : 'Martyrdom of St. Lambert, C. Sa- 
•aceni. 3rd Chapel : frescoes from the life of St. Barbara, Mich. Coxcie. 4th 
Dhapel : altar-piece (Entombment) and frescoes by Salviali. 

Choir. Over the high-altar , "Holy Family with saints , by G. Romano, 
damaged by inundations; on the right, 'monument of Hadrian IV. of Utrecht 
preceptor of Charles V., d. 1523), with figures of justice, prudence, strength, 
ind temperance, designed by Baldassare Ptruzzi , executed by Michelangiolo 
Sanese and Niccolb Tribolo; opposite to it, that of a Puke of Cleve-Jiilich- 
Berg (d. 1575) by Egidius of Riviere and Nicolaus of Arras. A relief in the 
antechamber of the sacristy (at the end of the N. aisle) represents the in- 
vestiture of this prince by Gregory XIII. In the church, at the entrance 
to the sacristy, is the tomb of the learned Lucas Holstein of Hamburg, 
librarian of the Vatican (d. 1661). 

The German Hospice connected with the church was under 
Austrian management down to 1863. Opposite the hospital rises 
the church of ■ — - 

*S. Maria della Pace (PI. 11, I, 13, 3), erected by Sixtus IV. 
(1484) and Innocent VIII., restored by Alexander VII., and pro- 
vided by Pielro da Cortona with a facade and semicircular portico. 
The church consists of a nave only, and terminates in an octagon 
with a dome. 

Interior. Over the 1st Chapel on the right are "*RaphaeVs Sibyls: to 
the left the Sibyl of Cumse ; on the arch above, the Persian; then the 
Phrygian, and the aged Sibyl of Tibur, receiving from angels and record- 
ing revelations regarding the Saviour. They were painted in 1514 by or- 
der of Agostino Chigi who erected the chapel, and skilfully freed from 're- 
storations' by Palmaroli in 1816 (best light, 10-11 a.m.). 'The disposition 
of the figures, the uniform and admirable symmetry, and the conception 
of the forms and characters are such as to entitle this work to be ranked 
with the very greatest of Raphael's compositions; and it is probably the 
best calculated among all his frescoes to attract, the admiration of the 
spectator' (Burckhardt). In the lunette above the Sibyls are the Prophets 
by Timoleo della Vile, a countryman and contemporary of Raphael: on 
the right Jonah and Joshua, on the left Daniel and David. — At the 
sides of (he 1st Chapel on the left are 'monuments of the Ponzetti family, 
of 1505 and 1500 (which should be compared with the heavy decorations of 
the 2nd chapel on the right, executed half-a-century later). ~ Altar-piece 
in fresco by Bald. Peruzzi : Madonna between St. Brigitta and St. Catharine, 
in front the donor Card. Ponzetti kneeling (1)16). The vaulting above con- 
tains scenes from the Old and New Testament , in three rows , also by 
Peruzzi. — To the left, under the Dome, is the entrance to the sacristy and 
court (see below). Over the first altar on the left, Adoration of the Shepherds, 
by Seriiwncla; above it, the Death of Mary, by Morandi. The second 
altar, with handsome marble- work, partially gilded, is of 1490. The high- 
altar is adorned with an ancient and highly jrevered Madonna; on the 
vaulting are pleasing 'putti' by Albani. Over the adjacent altar to the 
right, Baptism of Christ, by Sermoneta. Over the niche, Mary's first visit 
to the Temple, by Bald. Peruzzi (retouched). 

It is the custom for newly-married couples to attend their first mass 
in this church. 

The "Court of the Monastery, with arcades constructed by Bramante 
by order of Card. Caraffa in 1504, merits a visit; by the right wall, the 

198 ///. Left Bank. ROME. Pal. Massimi alleColonne. 

tomb of Bishop Bocciacio (d. 1437). Entrance through the church, or by 
Via Arco della Pace 5. 

From the portal of the church the Via della Pace and the Via in 
Parione lead straight to the busy Via del Governo Vecchio (p. 199). 

Leaving the Piazza del Gesu (p. 157), and following the Via de' 
Cesarini (PI. II, 16) towards theW. in a straight direction, we come 
(right) to the Piazza delle Stimate , with the church of that name, 
and the Pal. Strozzi with a small piazza called after it (the streets 
to the right lead hence to the Piazza della Minerva and the Pan- 
theon, pp. 192, 194). We next pass (left) the Teatro Argentina 
and follow the Via del Sudabio (PI. II, 13), the continuation of 
the Via de' Cesarini, in the direction of the church of S. Andrea 
della Valle, which is already visible. 

The corner -house to the left (No. 13) before the church is 
reached is the Palazzo Vidoni , formerly Caffarelli and Stoppuni, 
originally built from designs by Itaphael. On the staircase are a few 
ancient statues (L. Verus, Minerva, Diana). In one of the rooms 
is the celebrated Calendarium Praenestinum of Verrius Flaccus, 
being five months of a Roman calendar found by Card. Stoppani at 
Palestrina. This palace was once occupied by Charles V. (admission 
not easily obtained). — On the side of the palace towards the 
church is the so-called Abbate Luigi , a mutilated ancient statue 
(see p. 157). 

*S. Andrea della Valle (PI. II, 13), begun by P. Olivieri in 
1591 on the site of several earlier churches , was completed by 
C. Maderna. The facade was designed by Rinaldi. The interior is 
well proportioned, but part of it has unfortunately been whitewashed. 

On the right the *2nd Chapel (Stkozzi) contains copies in bronze of the 
Pieta (in St. Peter's) and the Rachel and Leah (in S. Pietro in Vine.) of 
Michael Angelo, by whom this chapel itself was perhaps designed. — On 
the left the 1st Chapel (Bakbekini) is adorned with several marble statues 
of the school of Bernini: St. Martha by Mocchi, John the Baptist by 
Pietro Bernini, Mary Magdalene by Stati da Bracciano, and St. John by 
Buonvicino. — At the end of the Nave are the monuments of the two 
popes of the Piccolomini family, brought here from the old churc.i of 
St. Peter; on the left that of Pius II. (d. 1464), by Nic. della Quardia and 
Pietro Paolo da l'odi; on the right that of Pius III. (d. 1503), executed 
somewhat later. — In the Dome: Glory of Paradise , by Lanfranco; be- 
low, the "Evangelists by Domenichino, one of his finest works. ^By the same 
master, "paintings on the vaulting of the apse. In front, in the girding- 
arch : John the Baptist, St. John, and St. Andrew pointing to Christ ('this 
is the Lamb', etc.); in the vaulting itself, on the left, the Scourging of St. 
Andrew ; then the Vocation of Peter and Andrew by Christ ; on the right, 
St. Andrew beholds and reveres the cross to which he is about to be aflixed ; 
below are six female figures representing the virtues. The large lower 
frescoes by Calabrese (martyrdom of the saint) are of no great value. 

To the N.W. of this point, on the right, No. 17 Via de' Massimi, 
is the — 

Palazzo Massimi alle Colonne (PI. II, 13, /i), a fine structure 
by Baldassare Peruzzi , who however died in 1536 before its com- 
pletion. The facade is constructed in a curve, following the di- 

Palazzo Braschi. HOME. HI. Left Dank. 1 99 

rection of the street. The glimpse obtained of the double court is 
strikingly picturesque. 

The statue of the ""Discus-thrower formerly in this palace is now by 
inheritance the property of Prince Lancelotti, in whose palace (p. 189) this 
celebrated work will probably be more easily accessible than hitherto. It is 
a copy of the bronze statue by Myron, found on the Esquiline in 1761. This 
is one of the most interesting antiques in Rome, being almost perfect, and far 
better executed than the inaccurately restored replica in the Vatican (p. 307). 
The passages and saloons of the palace contain several other ancient, statues 
and inscriptions. — Second Flook. Chapel of S. Filippo Neri, who is said 
to have resuscitated a child of the family; open on 16th March. 

In 1467, within the buildings connected with this palace, the Germans 
Pannarlz and Schweinheim, who during the two previous years had found an 
asylum in the monastery of Subiaco, established the first printing-office in 
Rome, from which they issued Cicero's epistles and other works, furnished 
with the name of the printers and the words i In aedibus Petri de Maxi- 
mis y . — The Massimi family claims descent from the ancient Fabii Maximi, 
and their armorial bearings have the motto '■Cunctando restiluif. 

Continuing to follow the Via dei Massimi (whence the Via. 
de' Baullari diverges to the left to the Pal. Farnese, which is visible 
from this point, p. 201), and crossing the small Piazza S. Pan- 
taleo, with the small church of that name on the right, we observe 
opposite to us the spacious — 

Palazzo Braschi (PI. II, 13, 77), erected by Morelli at the end 
of last cent ry, and now occupied by the offices of the Minister of 
the Interior. It contains a flue *marble staircase and a few ancient 
statues. The back of the building looks towards the Piazza Navona 
(p. 195). 

Passing the palace, we reach the Piazza del Pasquino (PL II, 
13), which derives its name from an ancient group of statuary placed 
at the obtuse angle of the Pal. Braschi. This was an admirable, 
but now sadly mutilated work of a good period of art, and is said 
to have been called Pasquino as early as the end of the 15th cent, 
after a tailor of that name who lived in the vicinity and was 
notorious for his lampooning propensities. It was once the custom 
to affix satires and ebullitions of malice to this statue, the answers 
to which used to be attached to the Marforio (p. 157, 215), and to 
refer them to the slanderous tailor, whose name is perpetuated in 
the word 'pasquinade'. Compositions of this kind have been much 
in vogue at Rome ever since that period, sometimes vying with the 
best satires of antiquity. The group represents Menelaus with the 
body of Patroclus, at the moment when he looks around for help in 
the midst of the tumult of battle. Duplicates of the group are in 
the Loggia de' Lanzi and the Palazzo Pitti at Florence, and there 
arc fragments in the Vatican (p. 305). 

We continue to follow the Via del Govbrno Vecchio, which 
with its prolongations towards the N.W. and S.E. forms the chief 
communication between the Piazza di Venezia and the Ponte S. 
Angelo (comp. p. 158). On the right is the Pat. 'del Ooverno 
Vecchio (PL II, 13, 20), which was bng the seat of the tribunals 
of justice and police. No. 124, opposite, is an elegant little house 

200 777. Left Bank. HOME. Tal. delta Cancelltria. 

in Bramante's style (1500). — We now turn to the left, and soon 
roach , in the Piazza of that name, the — 

Chiesa Nuova (PI. II, 10), oi S. Maria in Vallicelta, erected by 
S. Filippo Neri for the order of Oratorians founded by him, and 
completed in 1605. Architecture by Oiov. Matteo da Citta di Ca- 
stello, interior by Martino Lunghi, facade by Rughesi. 

The Interior, which is dark and unfavourable for pictures, is richly 
decorated. The admirable stucco-work is by Cos. Faniello, and Ercole 
Ferrata. The ceiling of the Nave, the dome, and the tribune are painted 
by Pietro da Cortona. — On the right, 1st Chapel, Crucifixion, Scip. di 
Gaetano; 3rd Chapel, deir Ascension e, altar-piece hy Muziano. — On the left, 
2nd Chapel, Adoration of the Magi, Ces. Nebbia; 3rd Chapel, Nativity, 
Durante Alberti ; 4th Chapel, Visit of Elizabeth, Baroccio. — Left Transept: 
Presentation in the Temple, Baroccio; Peter and Paul, statues in marble, 
l»y Valsoldo. Here also, adjoining the tribune, is the small and sumptuous 
chapel of S. Filippo Neri , beneath the altar of which his remains repose. 
Above is the portrait of the saint in mosaic, after the original of Gvido 
Reni preserved in the adjoining monastery. • — Over the High Altar, with 
its four columns of porta santa, a Madonna by Huberts ; on the right "SS. Gre- 
gory, Maurus , and Papia , on the left ;: SS. Nereus and Achilleus, also by 
Rubens, who painted these pictures during his second stay in Rome in 1606 
fur this church , which was then the most fashionable in the city. — Right 
Transept. On the right, Coronation of Mary, Cciv. <f Arpino; SS. John 
the Baptist and John the Evangelist, statues in marble by Flaminio Vacca. 

The Sacristv (entered from the left transept) was constructed by Marru- 
celli. On the vaulting: Angel with instruments of toiture, by Pietro da Cor- 
tona. Colossal statue of the saint by Algardi. 

On 2Gth J! ay, the festival of the saint, and after Ave Maria ev;-*y 
Sunday from 1st Nov. to Palm Sunday, concerts of sacred music, to which 
men only are admitted, are given in the adjoining Oratorivm, which 
derives its name from the oratories fitted up by S. Filippo Neri. The 
saint was fond of music and advocated a cheerful form of divine service. 

The adjoining Monastery, erected by Borromini, is of irregular 
shape, but is remarkable for the massiveness of its construction. It 
contains a room once occupied by the saint , with various relics. 
The Corte di Appello, the Tribunate Civile e Correzionale, and the 
Tribunate di Commercio have recently been established in this 
building. — The valuable Library founded by S. Filippo Neri, and 
gradually enriched by rare MSS., is open to the public on Wednes- 
days, Thursdays, and Saturdays, 8y 2 -12 o'clock. 

From the Piazza della Chiesa Nuova we may either return to the 
Via del Governo Vecchio and Ponte S. Angelo (p. 273), or, turning 
to the left opposite the facade of the church, we may follow the 
Via del Pelleyrino, at the K. end of which, on the left, is the Can- 
celleria (see below). 

The Via i>k' Baullaiu, mentioned at p. 199, leads to several 
interesting palaces in the best style of the Renaissance. Immediate- 
ly on the right, a little back from the street, is the small, but 
elegant *Ptrtazzetto Farnese, of which Baldassare Penizzi is said to 
have been the architect. 

The short streets diverging to the right lead to the Piazza and 
♦Palazzo della Cancelleria (PI. II, 13). The palace, designed by 
Bramante in strict accordance with the rules of the ancient orders 

Palazzo Farnese. HOME. ///. Left Bank. 201 

of architecture, is one of tlie finest structures in Rome and of 
majestic simplicity in its proportions. It contains within its pre- 
cincts the church of S. Lorenzo, originally erected near the theatre 
of Pompey. The elegant Facade (with portal afterwards added by 
Bom. Fontana~) is constructed of blocks of travertine from the Co- 
losseum. The *Coxje,t, in two stories, is surrounded by arcades. 
The columns are ancient; the graceful capitals are decorated with 
roses , a flower which belonged to the armorial bearings of the 
founder Card. Riario. In this palace, in 1848, Pius IX. convoked 
a parliament to deliberate on the reforms to be undertaken in the 
States of the Church. On 15th Nov. of that year the minister Count 
Rossi was assassinated on the first landing of the staircase. This is 
the only palace in the interior of the city which the Italian govern- 
ment still permits to be occupied by the ecclesiastical authorities. 

To the right of the palace (with an entrance to the right from 
the court) is situated the church of S. Lorenzo in Damaso, which 
has the above-mentioned facade in common with the palace. It was 
also designed by Bramante (originally erected by Damasus I.), and 
is bounded by arcades on three sides. The architecture is the chief 
object of interest. The pictures were destroyed during the revolu- 
tion of last century. At the end of the right aisle is the tomb of 
the ill-fated Count Rossi, with a bust by Tenerani. 

The Piazza della Cancelleria is adjoined by the Piazza Campo be' 
Flora (PI. II, 13), an important centre of business, especially since 
the vegetable market, with its picturesque frequenters, and enlivened 
by country-people in the morning, was transferred hither from the 
Piazza Navona. — Theatre o/'Pompei/andViade'Giiibbonari, p. 204. 

Adjoining the Campo de' Fiori to the S.W. is the Piazza Far- 
nese, adorned with two fountains. Here is situated the — 

*Palazzo Farnese (PI. II, 14), one of the finest palaces at Rome, 
begun by Card. Alex. Farnese, afterwards Pope Paul III. (1534-45), 
from designs by Antonio da Sangallo, continued under the direction 
of Michael Angelo (who designed the beautiful cornicing and the 
court), and completed by the construction of the loggia at the back, 
towards the Tiber, by Oiac. della Porta in 1580. The building 
materials were taken partly from the Colosseum, and partly from 
the Theatre of Marcellus. This palace was inherited by the kings 
of Naples, and from 1862 to 1870 was occupied by Francis II. 
It was purchased in 1874 by the French government, whose em- 
bassy to the Papal court is now established here; on the second floor 
is the 'Ecole de Rome', or French archaeological institution, founded 
in 1875. The triple *colonnade of the entrance was designed by 
Sangallo , the two lower halls of the court by Michael Angelo , in 
imitation of the Theatre of Marcellus. The court contains two 
ancient sarcophagi (that to the right from the tomb of C<ecilia Me- 
tella, p. 337). The celebrated antiquities once in this palace (Farnese 
Bull, Hercules, Flora) are now in the Museum of Naples. 

202 III. Left Dunk. 'ROME. Pal. Spada alia Regota. 

A room on the 1st floor (at present generally closed) ia embellished 
with "Frescoes by Annibale Caracd, his finest work, consisting of mytho- 
logical representations with rich architectural painting, executed in eight 
years by him, his brother Lodovico, Domenichiuo, and other masters. — In 
the old Banquet Hall is a "ceiling in carved wood, from a design by 
Michael Angelo. 

From the Piazza Farnese a line of streets leads to the N.W., 
called the Via di Monsbrrato, and Via de' Banchi Vecchi, to the 
Ponte S. Angelo. On the left in the former street is S. Maria di 
Monserrato (_P1. II, 10, 3), the national Spanish church, connected 
with a hospice. It was erected in 1495 by Sangallo, and after- 
wards restored. The first chapel on the right contains an altar- 
piece by Ann. Caracci. 

Proceeding to the S.E. from the Piazza Farnese, we follow the 
Vicolo de' Venti to the Piazza di Capo di Ferro. Here, on the 
right, rises the — 

*Palazzo Spada alia Regola (PI. II, 14), erected in the ponti- 
ficate of Paul III. about 1540 by Card. Capodiferro, in imitation of a 
house built by Raphael for himself. Since 1640 the palace has 
belonged to the Spada family. It contains an interesting collection 
of *antiquities and pictures (adm., see p. 119). 

The most important antiquities are exhibited in a room on the 
Ground Floor (visitors turn immediately to the left in the gateway; fee 
>/2 fr.J. Opposite the entrance wall: sitting "statue of Aristotle, formerly 
erroneously called Aristides , a copy from a celebrated Greek work ; right 
arm and left leg new. Then eight fine "reliefs, found in 1620 in S. Agnese 
Fuori le Mura, where they formed part of the pavement with their faces 
downwards. Beyond the Aristotle, to the left, 65. Daedalus and Pasiphae; 
right, 72. Paris as a cowherd. Window-wall: 66. Wounded Adonis; 67. 
Ulysses and Diomedes carrying off the Palladium. Entrance wall : En- 
dymion ; Perseus and Andromeda, casts from the originals in the Capitoline 
museum. Left wall: 68. Paris taking leave of GSnone; 69. Hypsipyle finds 
Opheltes, who had been entrusted to her, killed by a snake; 70. Amphion 
and Zethus ; 71. Bellerophon watering Pegasus. Also several busts , small 
statues, etc. 

In the court we turn immediately to the right, and ascend the stair- 
case to the Upper Floor ('/z fr-). In the Ante-Chamber is a Colossal 
Statue of Pompey, found in the pontificate of Julius III. (1550) in digging 
the foundations of a house in the Vicolo de 1 Leutari. The body was in the 
ground of one proprietor, while the legs were in that of another. As both 
parties laid claim to the statue, the judge ordered it to be divided; but the 
pope prevented this by purchasing it for 500 scudi, and presented it to Card. 
Capodiferro. The head, although made of a separate block, belongs to the 
original. The workmanship is mediocre. 

We now traverse a room adorned with frescoes of little value to the 
Picture Gallery (provided with catalogues). I. Room, beginning opposite 
the entrance: 3. Bolognese Sell., Madonna; 7, 12. French Sch., Portraits; 10. 
Camuccini, Card. Patrizi ; 22. Caravaggio, Portrait ; 40. Sc. Oaetano, Julius 
III. ; 56. Sch. of Francia, Madonna. — II. Room : 1. Seb. del Piombo, Astro- 
nomer ; 6. Baudin, Still life ; 9. Breughel, Landscape ; 10. Outdo Reni, Judith ; 
12. O. Poussin, Landscape; 16. And. del Sarto, Visitation of Elizabeth 
(seriously damaged) ; 43. Leonardo da Vinci (a copy of the original in 
England), Christ and the scribes. — III. Room : 2. Caravaggio, St. Anna and 
the Virgin ; 4. Raphael, John the Baptist, a copy ; 15. Breughel, Landscape ; 
24. Quercino , Dido's death ; 26. Baciccio , Design of the ceiling-painting in 
Gesii; 29. Salvator Rosa, Landscape; 31. Titian, Portrait; "40. Moroni, Por- 
trait; 48, 5 49. Marco Palmezzano, God the Father, and Bearing the Cross; 51. 
Titian^!), Card. Paolo Spada; 60,70. Salv. Rosa, Landscapes; 63. Outdo Reni , 

S.Qiov.dJ Piorentini. HOME. III. Left Bank. 203 

Abduction of Helen; 67. Borgognone , Cavalry-skirmish. — IV. Room: 4. 
Quido Reni, Card. Bernardo Spada ; 9. After Titian, Paul III. ; 10. German 
Sch. , Portrait (1511); 15. Caravaggio , Laughing angel's head; 18. German 
Sch., Portrait; 26. Ger. Honthortt, Christ in the garden; 30. Caravaggio, 
St. Cecilia; 31. Maratta, Card. Fabricius Spada; 44. Andr. del Sarlo (?), 
Madonna; 54. French Sch., Portrait. 

Leaving the Piazza Capo di Ferro, and continuing our walk in 
the same direction, we reach the small Piazza de' Pellegrini. On 
the left is the back of the Pal. Santacroce, now a Monte di Pieta 
(PI. II, 14), or money-lending establishment, founded in 1539, and 
established here in 1604 (some of the numerous pictures pledged 
here are of great value). On the right is the church of S. Trinitti 
de 1 Pellegrini, erected in 1614, with a high-altar adorned with a 
picture of the Trinity, by Quido Rent. The neighbouring hospital 
is destined for the accommodation of convalescents and pilgrims. It 
contains 488 beds, and can provide dinner for 944 persons at one 
time. Italian pilgrims are entertained here at Easter for three 
days, and foreigners for four. — In the vicinity is the church of 
8. Maria in Monticelli (PI. II, 14), which was consecrated by 
Paschalis II. in 1101. It has been restored several times, so that 
the campanile and remains of mosaics in the tribune are now the 
only relics of the period of its foundation. 

The Via de' Pettinaej (PI. II, 14) leads from the Piazza de' 
Pellegrini to the Ponte Sisto. At the end of the street, on the right, 
is the small church of <S. Salvatore inOnda, re-erected in 1684, and 
on the left the Fontnnone di Ponte Sisto, constructed by Giov. Fon- 
tana under Paul V. — The Ponte Sisto, see p. 318. 

In a straight direction from the fountain, towards the N.W.y 
and near the river, runs the Via del Fontanone, prolonged by the 
Via Giulia (PI. II, 14, 10), which was built by Julius II., leading 
in 12 min. to the Ponte S. Angelo. To the left in the latter street, 
opposite the garden of the Pal. Farnese, stands the small church of 
8. Maria delta Morte, or dell' Orazione (PL II, 11), erected by Fuga 
about the middle of last century, and belonging to a burial society. 
Then to the left, the Pal. Falconieri, built by Borromini, which 
once contained the picture-gallery of Card. Fesch. On the same 
side, farther on, the Carceri Nuovi, a prison founded by Innocent X.; 
then No. 66, the Pal. Sacchetti (PI. II, 10), originally erected by 
Antonio da San Gallo as his private residence. 

At the end of the street, on the left, is S. Giovanni de' Fioren- 
tini (PL II, 10), the handsome national church of the Florentines. 
The building was begun, by the desire of Leo X., from a design by 
Sansovino, which he preferred to the competing plans of Raphael, 
Sangallo, Peruzzi, others ; and the laborious task of completing the 
substructions on the bank of the river was executed by Sangallo. 
At a later period Michael Angelo, and after his death Giacomo 
delta Porta were engaged in the work, and the facade was Anally 
added by Aless. Oalilei in 1725. The church contains nothing 

204 HI. Lift Bank. IiOMK. S. Carlo a Catinari. 

worthy of mention except a picture by Salvator Bosa in the chapel 
of the right transept (SS. Cosmas and Daniianus at the stake). 

Near the church an iron Chain-Bridge (1 soldo), constructed in 
1863, crosses the river to the Longara (p. 314). The Via Paola 
leads from the church to the Ponte S. Angelo (p. 273). 

In the Piazza Campo do' Fiori (p. 201), on the side next S. 
Andrea dellaValle, once lay the Theatre of Pompey (PI. II, 13, 14). 
In this piazza is the Pal. Iiighetti (entrance, Piazza del Biscione 
95 ), in the court of which the bronze statue of Hercules (p. 306) 
and substructions of the theatre were discovered. Numerous frag- 
ments of the walls are now incorporated with the modem building. 
The semicircular bend of the street by S. Maria, di Grottapinta 
(PI. II, 13, 5) distinctly shows the form of the ancient theatre. 

From the Piazza Campo de' Fiori the busy Via de' Gitjbbonari 
leads towards the S.E. to the Capitol and the S. quarters of the 
city. After 2 min. it expands into the Piazza S. Carlo a Catinari. 
Here, on the left, is the church of S. Carlo a Catinari (PI. II, 14), 
erected by Bosati in 1612 in honour of S. Carlo Borromeo, in the 
form of a Greek cross, and covered with a dome. 

In the 1st Chapel on the right , Annunciation , by Lanfranco. In the 
space below the dome are ii^ures of the four cardinal virtues, by Dome- 
nichino. In the transept to the right, Death of St. Anna, Andrea Sacchi. 
Over the high-altar, Card. Korromeo in the procession of the plague at 
Milan, P. da Cortona; tribune decorated by Lanfranco. The other paintings 
are of little value. 

The Pal. Santacroce (PI. II, 14, 4), situated opposite, has its 
principal facade towards the Piazza Branca. 

Farther on, the street divides: to the right, the Via del Pianto, 
see p. 205 ; to the left, the Via de' Falegnajii leads to the small 
Piazza Tartaruga (PL II, 17), named after the graceful *Fontana 
delle Tartaruyhe (tortoises), erected by Giac. delta Porta in 1585, 
and embellished with the figures of four youths in bronze, by the 
Florentine Taddeo Landini. This is the most charming fountain in 
Rome ; the design is attributed to Raphael. 

Nr. 10, Piazza Tartaruga, immediately to the right (another 
entrance, Piazza Costaguti 16), is the Palazzo Costaguti (PI. II, 
17, 20), erected about 1590 by Carlo Lombardi. On the first 
floor (closed to the public) are coiling paintings by Franc. Albani, 
Domenichino, (iu ereino (Armida with liinaldo in the dragon-chariot, 
admirably coloured), by the Cav. d'Arpino, and other masters. One 
wing of the palace (formerly Boccapaduli) was long the residence of 
the Poussins, and still contains works by them, but is not now ac- 

To the left is the Palazzo Mattei (PI. II, 17, 27), originally an 
aggregate of separate buildings which occupied the block between 
S. Catcrina de' Funari and Via Paganica. Of these the handsomest 

S. Maria in Campitelli. HOME. 111. Left Bank. 205 

is the present so-called palace (principal entrance, Via di S. Cate- 
rina de'Funari 32; side-entrance, No. 31), erected in 1616 by Carlo 
Maderna, and one of his finest productions. 

In the passages of the entrance , in the arcades , and along the 
sides of the Court, a great number of ancient reliefs are built into the 
walls. In the court are (r.) Mars with Rhea Silvia, and Apollo with tbe 
Muses; and (1.) the Calydonian hunt and Rape of Proserpine. In the 
portico, Sacrifice of Mithras, Apollo with the Muses, and a Bacchanalian 
procession, all from sarcophagi. The statues in the court and niches on 
the staircase, some of them much modernised, are of no great value. The 
stucco decorations of the ceiling on the staircases are well executed. 

Farther on, in the Via de' Falegnami, we observe on the left the 
church of S. Caterina de' Funari (PI. II, 17), erected in 1564 by 
Giac. della Porta, with a singular-looking tower, situated within the 
ancient Circus Flaminius. The interior contains a few unimportant 
pictures by A. Caracci (1st chapel on the right), Nanni, Venusti, 
Muziano, and Agresti. The adjoining convent of Augustinian nuns 
contains a school for girls. 

The street terminates in the Via, which to the left leads 
to the Via Aracoeli (p. 158), and to the right to the Piazza Campi- 
telli, beyond the next corner. Here, on the right, stands S. Maria 
in Campitelli (PI. II, 17), erected by Rinaldi under Alexander VII. 
for the more worthy reception of a miraculous image of the Virgin, 
to which the cessation of the plague in 1656 was ascribed. A smaller 
church of the same name, mentioned in the 13th cent., formerly 
stood on this site. 

The architecture of the Intekior, with its handsome projecting 
columns, has an imposing effect. — Beneath the canopy over the High- 
Altar is placed the miraculous Madonna. In the 2nd Chapel on the right, 
the Effusion of the Holy Ghost, by Luca Giordano; in the 1st Chapel on 
the left two monuments resting on lions of rosso antico. In the S. tran- 
sept the tomb of Cardinal Pacca by Pettrich. 

Opposite the church is the Pal. Pacca. — Omnibuses to S.Paolo 
Fuori, see p. 112. 

From the S.E. end of the Piazza Campitelli, to the left, the Via 
Tor de' Specchi leads to the Piazza Aracoeli (p. 208), at the foot of 
the Capitol , and to the right the Via Montanara to the Theatre of 
Marcellus (see p. 206). 

From the Piazza S. Carlo Catinari (p. 204) the Via del Pianto 
(PI. II, 14, 17) leads to the right to the Piazza Giudea, or S. Maria 
del Pianto, called after a small church (which once bore a Hebrew 
inscription on the portal lamenting the obduracy of the Jews). Ad- 
joining this piazza on the right is the Piazza Cenci (PI. II, 17), 
where on the left in the corner is situated the Synagogue, and on 
the right the Palazzo Cenci-Bolognetti. In this palace once resided 
the ill-fated Beatrice Cenci, who was executed for the murder of 
her father, a man of execrable character. Her portrait, in the Pal. 
Barberini (p. 166), is a favourite subject for reproduction with the 
Roman artists. 

206 111. Left Bank. ROME. Ghetto. 

The Via del Portico di Ottavia , formerly the Pescheria, or fish- 
market, which presents a "busy scene on Friday mornings, leads from 
the Piazza Giudea to the Portico of Octavia. Between the Pescheria 
and the Tiber lies the Ghetto (PI. II, 17), the quarter allotted by 
Paul IV. to the Jews, who in ancient and mediaeval times occupied 
a quarter in Trastevere , formerly closed by a gate. It consists of 
several streets parallel with the river, and connected by narrow 
lanes. The same pope compelled the Jews to wear yellow head- 
gear, and pay unusually heavy taxes ; and among other oppressive 
exactions, they had to provide the prizes for the horse-races at the 
Carnival. The traveller may explore this quarter for the sake of 
observing the marked oriental type of its occupants, and the charac- 
teristic industry with which they seek to counteract the disadvan- 
tages of their social position. The Via delta Fiumara, the nearest to 
the river, leads to the Ponte de' Quattro Capi (see p. 321). 

The Via del Portico di Ottavia leads in a straight direction to 
the interesting remains of the Portico of Octavia (PI. II, 17, 18~), 
which was erected by Augustus on the site of a similar structure of 
Metellus (P>. C. 149), and dedicated to his sister. Under Titus it 
was destroyed by a conflagration which raged in this quarter of the 
city, but was restored by Sept. Severus and Caracalla in 203, as 
the inscription records. This building was in the form of a colon- 
nade enclosing an oblong space, within which stood temples of Ju- 
piter Stator and Juno. Columns from this structure are frequently 
seen built into other edifices. It was adorned with many admirable 
works of art which formed part of the Macedonian booty, and it 
was here that the Medici Venus was found. In 770 the church of 
S. Angelo in Pescheria was built on the ruins of the colonnade by 
Stephen III., but, having been frequently restored, it has entirely 
lost its medieval character. In pursuance of a bull issued in 1584, 
the Jews were formerly compelled to hear sermons here on their 
Sabbath, in which the Old Testament was explained to them in 
accordance with the doctrines of the church. 

Beyond the colonnade the Via del Teatro di Marcello next leads 
to the Theatre of Marcellus (PI. II, 17, 5), which was begun by 
Caesar, and completed B. C. 13 by Augustus, who named it after his 
nephew, the son of Octavia. The twelve arches still standing on the 
external wall of the space for the spectators are now occupied by 
smiths and other artizans as workshops. The lower story, partly 
filled up, is in the Doric, the second in the Ionic style, above which, 
as in the case of the Colosseum , a third probably rose in the 
Corinthian order. It is said to have accommodated 20,000 spectators. 
The stage lay towards the Tiber. It has recently been proposed to 
purge the ruin of all unseemly adjuncts, and to form an open space 
around it. In the 11th cent, the theatre was used by Pierleone as a 
fortress. To his descendants succeeded the Savelli, whose palace 
(opposite the Ponte Quattro Capi) stands on a lofty mound of debris 

Qeo&vajih. Anatalt wn 


The Capitol. KOME. IV. Ancient Rome. 207 

within the theatre. In 1712 the palace was purchased by the Orsini, 
and in 1816-23 the histoiian Niebuhr, when Prussian ambassador, 
resided here. 

The external wall adjoins the small and busy Piazza Montanara, 
a frequent resort of the peasantry. To the left a street leads to the 
Piazza Aracceli (p. 208), and, to the right, the busy Via Bocoa della 
Verita to the piazza of that name (p. 245). Immediately to the 
right in the latter street, standing back, is the church of S. Nicola 
in Carcere, recently restored, containing, on the external wall- and 
in the interior, ancient columns which appear to have belonged to 
three different temples, including those of Spes and Juno Sospita. 
Visitors may descend and examine the foundations of these temples, 
which have been excavated (sacristan with light 1 /2 f r 0- 

IV. Ancient Rome. 

This part of the description embraces the southern portion 
of the city, beginning with the Capitol, and extending eastwards 
as far as the Lateran : i. e. the hills of the Capitoline , Palatine, 
Aventine, Calius, and the S. slope of the Esquiline. The imposing 
monuments and reminiscences of classical antiquity, more of which 
are daily being brought to light by the excavations , impart its 
characteristic aspect to this , the principal , but now almost deserted 
quarter of the Republican and Imperial city. A number of ancient 
churches , which are extremely interesting to students of Christian 
architecture, as well as the imposing collections of the Capitol and 
Lateran, also attract numerous visitors. 

The Capitol. 

This is the smallest, but historically the most important of the hills 
of Rome. It was originally merely the S. spur of the Quirinal, from 
which it was separated by a slight depression, but this hollow was 
greatly enlarged in consequence of the building operations of Trajan. The 
Capitol consists of three distinct parts: (1), the N. summit with the 
church and monastery of Aracceli (164 ft.); (2) the depression in the middle 
with the piazza of the Capitol (98 ft.); and (3) the S. W. point with the 
Pal. Caffarelli (156 ft.). It was on this piazza, the Area Capitolino, that 
Romulus is sa : d to have founded his asylum; it was here that popular 
assemblies were afterwards held; and it was here, in the year B. C. 133, 
on the occasion of the suppression of the revolt of Tiberius Gracchus, 
that, the blood of the citizens flowed for the first, time in civil warfare. 
One of the peaks of the hill was occupied by the Arx, or citadel, with 
the temple of Juno Moneta, while the other was the site of the great 
Temple of Jupiter. Topographers differed long as to which height was 
occupied hy the citadel, German scholars placing it on the Aracceli height, 
and the temple of Jupiter on the Caffarelli height, while the Italian autho- 
rities were inclined to invert this order. The Italian topographers, 
however, have recently been more disposed to take the view of the German 
sav.-nts, chiefly owing to the discoveries made in the course of the ex- 
cavations in connection with the dome-saloon of the new Capitoline Mu- 
seum (see p. 212). The temple was built by Tarquinius Superbus , the 
last of the kings, and consecrated in B.C. 509, the first year of the 
Republic. It was 800 ft. in circumference, and possessed a triple colon 

208 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. The Capitol. 

nade and three cellse, that of Jupiter being in the middle, and one for 
Juno and Minerva on each side. In the year B.C. 83, during the civil 
war, the temple was burned down, and the same fate overtook it in 
A.D. 09, on the occasion of the struggle between Vespasian and Vitelliua. 
This most sacred shrine of ancient Rome was magnificently restored by 
Domitian, and was preserved down to the year 455, when it was plun- 
dered by the Vandals and robbed of its gilded bronze tiles. After that 
period there is no trace of it in history. The numerous shrines which 
once surrounded it have been consigned to the same fate, and the whole 
of the hill now bears the stamp of modern times. 

For nearly 500 years after the time of Cassiodorus, the Goth (6th cent.), 
there is no mention of the Capitol in the annals of Koine. The hill was in 
the possession of the monastery of Aracoeli, and the name of Monte Caprino, 
or hill of goats, which was applied to the S.E. height, bears testimony 
to its desertion. The glorious traditions, however, which attached to 
this spot, gave rise to a renewal of its importance on the revival of a 
spirit of municipal independence at Rome. In the 11th century it again 
became the centre of the civic administration. The prefect of the city 
resided here; among the ruins of the venerable citadel the nobility and 
the citizens held their public assemblies; and in 1341 Petrarch was crown- 
ed as a poet in the great senate-hall here. The hill could originally be 
approached from the Forum only, the N.W. side being precipitous and 
inaccessible, but in 1348 the latter side was connected for the first time 
with the new quarter of the city by the construction of the flight of steps 
of Araceli, which was almost the only public work executed at Rome 
during the exile of the papal court at Avignon. About 1389 Boniface IX. 
converted the palace of the senate into a kind of fortress, but its present 
form dates from the 16th century. Two new approaches from the city 
having been constructed in 1536, the Capitol has since formed a kind of 
termination of the modern part of the city in the direction of the ruins 
of ancient Rome. 

From the Piazza Aracceli (PL II, 17) three approaches lead 
to the Capitoline Hill , that in the centre being the principal as- 
cent for pedestrians. On the left a lofty flight of 124 steps, con- 
structed in 1348, leads to the church of S. Maria in Aracali (the 
principal entrance, but generally closed, see below). — On the right 
the Via delle Tre Pile, which has recently been converted into an 
easy and handsome approach, on which occasion remains of the an- 
eient wall of Servius , enclosing the hill in the direction of the 
Campus Martius, were brought to light (behind the railings to the 
left as we ascend), leads past the entrance of the Pal. Caffarelli, 
which was erected in the 16th cent, by Ascanio Caffarelli, a former 
page of Charles V., and is now the residence of the German am- 
bassador. The principal approach and the Via delle Tre Pile lead to 
the Piazza del Campidoglio, see p. 210. 

*S. Maria in Aracoeli (PI. II, 20), a church of very early origin, 
is mentioned in history in the 9th cent, as <S'. Maria de Capitolio. 
The present name, derived from a well-known legend (p. 209), 
has been in use since the 14th century. The church , of which the 
Roman senate formerly enjoyed the patronage, has given a title to 
a cardinal since the time of LeoX. The facade is unfinished, having 
escaped modernisation owing to the timely remonstrances of the 
celebrated German artist Overbeck. 

The church is generally approached from the Piazza of the Capitol 
by the staircase to the left, at the hack of the Capitoline museum, and 

The Capitol. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 209 

then to the left from the first landing. Over the door here is an ancient 
mosaic of the Madonna between two nagels. 

The Interior is disfigured by modern additions. The nave is supported 
by 22 ancient columns, most of them of granite, varying greatly in style 
and dimensions. The 3rd on the left bears the inscription '■A cubiculo 
Augustorum" '. The rich ceiling of the nave was executed to commemorate 
the victory of Lepanto in 1571. 

By the wall of the principal Entrance , to the left, is the tomb of 
the astronomer Lodovico Grato (1531) , with a figure of Christ by Andrea 
Sansovino; on the right the "monument of Card. Lebretto (1465) with partially 
preserved painting. — Eight Aisle, 1st Chapel : "Frescoes from the life of 
St. Bernardino of Siena , by Pinturicchio, restored by Camuccini. Frescoes 
on the ceiling attributed to Franc, da Citta di Castello and L. Signorelli. 
The 5th Chapel (of St. Matthew) contains good pictures by Muziano. — Left 
Aisle. In the 2nd Chapel a manger (prexepe) is fitted up at Christmas, 
i. e. a gorgeous representation of the Nativity in life-size, with the richly 
decorated image of the Infant Christ (il sanio bambino) , which forms the 
principal ornament of the church. This image is believed to protect per- 
sons in imminent danger, is frequently invoked and revered, and is some- 
times conveyed to the houses of the sick, on which occasions passers-by kneel 
on its approach. During the week after Christmas, from 3 to 4 o'clock 
daily, a number of children from 5 to 10 years of age address their pe- 
titions to the bambino. At the end of the left aisle a tomb-relief of Msgr. 
Crivelli by Donatello (much damaged). — Transept. On the right and left, 
by the pillars of the nave, are two "ambos from the old choir, by Lau- 
rentius and Jacobus Cosmas. The Chapel on the right belongs to the Sa- 
velli; on the right and left (the latter originally an ancient sarcophagus) 
are monuments of the family, of the 13th cent, (of the parents and a 
brother of Honorius IV.). The left transept contains a rectangular canopy, 
borne by eight columns of alabaster, called the Cappella Santa, or di 
S. Elena. Beneath the altar, which was destroyed during the French Re- 
volution, but was restored in 1835, the remains of S. Helena are said to 
repose in an ancient sarcophagus of porphyry. The present altar also 
encloses an ancient altar, bearing the inscription Ara Primogeniti Dei, 
which is said to have been erected by Augustus. According to a legend 
of the 12th cent., this was the spot where the Sibyl of Tibur appeared 
to the emperor, whom the senate proposed to elevate to the rank of a 
god, and revealed to him a vision of the Virgin and her Son. This was 
the origin of the name, 'Church of the Altar of Heaven 1 . At the end of 
the N. transept is the monument of Matthgeus of Aquasparta (d. 1302), the 
principal of the Franciscan order, mentioned by Dante. — Choir. To 
the left, the monument of Giov. Batt. Savelli (d. 1498). From 1512 down 
to 1565 the high-altar was adorned with the Madonna of Foligno by Raphael, 
ordered for this church, afterwards at Foligno (p. 74) , and now in the 
Vatican Gallery. The donor, Sigismondo Conti da Foligno , is interred in 
the choir. The present altar-piece is an ancient picture of the Madonna, 
attributed to St. Luke. 

The adjacent Monastery, which is reached by the continuation 
of the side-steps from the piazza of the Capitol , has belonged 
to the Frati Minori Osservanti di S. Francesco since 1251 , and 
was formerly the residence of the principal of the order, but 
part of it is now occupied by the military. Fine view of ancient 
Rome from the corridors. — In the monastery garden fragments of 
very ancient walls have recently been discovered , running in a 
direction parallel to the Via dell' Arco di Settimio Severe They 
are constructed of tufa, like the walls of Servius, and perhaps be- 
longed to the fortifications of the Arx. 

The Central Approach, a gently ascending staircase paved 
with asphalte ( 'la cordonnata'), leads to the Piazza del Campidoglio. 

Baudkker. Italy II. ruh Edition. 14 

210 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. The Capitol. 

At the foot of the steps are two handsome Egyptian Lions, and at 
the top a group of the horse-taming Dioscuri (Castor and Pollux), 
which are said once to have adorned the theatre of Pompey. To the 
left of the highest steps a she-wolf is kept in a cage in reminis- 
cence of the story of the foundation of Rome. 

The design of the present * Piazza del Campidoglio, or square 
of the Capitol (PI. II, 20), is due to Michael Angelo, and its execu- 
tion was begun in 1536 by Paul III. The palaces of the ConseT- 
vatori and Senators were already in existence , but their facades 
were altered. — At the sides of the Dioscuri, in front of the ba- 
lustrade, are the so-called Trophies of Murius , from the water- 
tower of that name of the Aqua Julia (p. 178), and the statues 
of the Emp. Constantine and his son Constans from the Therm* 
of Constantine on the Quirinal; on the right the first ancient mile- 
stone of the Via Appia (on the left a modern counterpart). 

In the centre of the piazza stands the admirable bronze *Eques- 
trian Statue of Marcus Aurelius (161 -181), once gilded, and ori- 
ginally placed in the forum near the arch of Sept. Severus. In 1187 
it was erected near the Lateran, and, as the inscription records, 
transferred hither in 1 538. For its excellent state of preservation 
it has been indebted to the popular belief that it was a statue of 
Constantine, the first Christian emperor (see also p. 125). 

Beyond this monument rises the Palazzo del Senatore (PI. 11, 
20, 2) which was re-erected by Boniface IX. in 1389 on the site 
of the ancient Tabularium, and provided with its handsome flight 
of steps by Michael Angelo, under whose directions it is probable 
that the facade was constructed by Giac. della Porta. The river- 
gods which adorn it are those of the (right) Tiber and (left) 
Nile. In the centre a fountain, above which is a sitting statue 
of Rome. The palace contains a spacious hall for the meetings 
of the senate, the offices of the civic administration, an obser- 
vatory, and dwelling-apartments. The Clock-Tower was erected by 
Gregory XIII. in 1572 to replace an older one, probably belonging, 
like the four corner-towers, one of which towards the Forum, on 
the left, is still recognisable, to the edifice of Boniface. The roof of 
the clock-tower, which is embellished by a standing figure of Roma, 
commands an extensive *Vikw. The ascent is somewhat fatiguing. 
Admission on week-days 10-3, on Sundays 10-2, by permesso 
obtainable at the municipal offices : Via del Campidoglio, first gate 
on the left, on the 5th landing of the staircase turn to the left in 
the passage, and enter the third door on the right. Visitors apply 
to one of the custodians. The permesso is also available for the 
saloons of the Conservatori. — On the ground-floor of the same 
house is the entrance to the Tabularium (p. 218). 

The two palaces at the sides were erected in the 17th cent, by 
Oiacomo del Duca, with some deviations from the plans of Michael 
Angelo. On the right is the Palace of the Conservatori (PI. 7), 

The Capitol. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 211 

or Town Hall, which now contains some important collections, 
and a fire-engine station on the ground-floor. On the opposite 
side is the Capitoline Museum (PI. 12~). — The flights of steps 
with three-arched halls on the E. side of these palaces were erected 
by Vignola; that to the left by the museum leads to the church 
of S. Maria in Aracceli and the contiguous Franciscan monastery; 
that to the right, on the opposite side, to Monte Caprino (p. 218). 

On the right and left of the Palace of the Senators are the Via 
del Campidoglio, and the Via dell' Arco di Settimio Severo, both 
descending to the Forum (comp. Plan, p. 218). 

Collections op the Capitol. 
These are contained in the two side-palaces just mentioned, 
and are open daily (except on public holidays), 10-3, adm. l l^ix., 
and Sundays, 10-1, gratis. 

A. *Palack of the Conservator*. 

This palace (comp. Plan, p. 210) contains a number of antiques and 
particularly of bronzes, lately united here, the yield of the most recent 
excavations , and also a small Etruscan Museum. Here , too , are the 
'Protomoteca', or Capitoline Picture Gallery, and the so-called Saloons of 
the Conservator!. 

The principal door leads from the Piazza del Campidoglio into the 
Court, where on the right, by the door, is a statue of Caesar, and on the 
left one of Augustus. In the court lie numerous pieces of columns of 
coloured marble, capitals, fragments of friezes, etc., found during recent 
excavations ; by the right wall , hand and limbs of a colossal figure in 
marble; left, colossal head in marble, high-relief of a province on the 
pedestal. Adjacent is the cinerary urn of Agrippina, wife of Germanicus, 
which in the middle-ages was employed as a measure for corn; inscrip- 
tion , Ossa Agrippinae M. Agrippae f. divi Augusti neptis uxoris Qermanici 
Caesaris Matris C. Caesaris Aug. Germanici principis. In the centre of 
the Colonnade opposite the entrance, a statue of Roma ; at the sides statues 
of barbarians in grey marble. Left, in the corner, colossal bronze head; 
right, "antique group, horse torn by a lion. 

In the Entrance-Hall farther on, to the left, 29. Statue of a Bac- 
chante ; opposite the staircase, 30. Modern 'columna rostrata 1 , with the 
genuine fragment of an inscription in honour of C. Duilius, the victor of 
Mylse, B.C. 260, and renewed under Tiberius. On each side of the stair- 
case are Roman inscriptions built into tbe wall, most of which were found 
on the Esquiline. — In the niches on the landing of the staircase, 
left, 35. Ceres ; right, 34. Urania (inaccurately restored). Here in the 
small court , in the centre , is a bust of Hadrian ; on the pedestal an 
ancient list of streets of the year 136 A. D. Built into the walls, are 
four * reliefs from a triumphal arch of M. Aurelius, found near S. Martina 
in the Forum : on the right, 44. Sacrifice in front of the Capitoline temple ; 
on the long wall, 43. Entry of the emperor, passing the temple of Jupiter 
Tonans ; 42. Pardon of conquered enemies ; 41. His reception by Roma at the 
triumphal gate. On the walls are ancient inscriptions. On the left above 
the second landing, No. 43. Relief representing Curtius on horseback 
leaping into the chasm. — In the passage above , two reliefs from the 
triumphal arch of M. Aurelius, removed in 1653. by order of Alexander VII. 
(in the Corso near Pal. Fiano), representing the apotheosis of Faustina. 

Adjacent, on the Left, is the entrance to the collections (comp. Plan). 
We first traverse two Rooms with modern lists of Roman magistrates, 
and then enter a long Coeeidob in which the so-called Protomoteca, 
founded by Pins VII.. has recently been established. This is a collection 


212 IV. Ancient Rome. HOME. Tke Capitol. 

of busts of celebrated Italians, especially those who have distinguished 
themselves in art and science, including poets (such as Dante, Petrarch, 
and Ariosto), scholars, painters, architects, and sculptors. At the end nf 
the corridor is a monument to Canova. Several eminent foreigners have 
also be^n admitted: (1.) Winckelmann, (r.) Poussin and Raphael Mengs. 
— The last door but two in the corridor leads to the picture gallery (see 
below), and the last but one leads up two steps to the terracottas and 
bronzes which are connected with the newly arranged part of the Capito- 
line collections. The principal entrance to the latter is on the opposite 
side of the corridor (comp. Plan). 

*New Capitoline Collection. I. Room. In glass cabinets along the 
walls are arranged all kinds of bronze utensils ; then helmets, candelabra, 
and vases. Under glass : (1.) Bronze Chariot , with representations in 
relief; (r.) "Bronze Seat, with a foot-stool, adorned with inlaid silver 
work , found at the ancient Amiternum , and presented by A. Castellani. 
In the centre, also under glass, a Litter, partly inlaid with silver; 4. Sta- 
tuette of a Roman Lsr; 10. Hermaphrodite, from whose back springs an 
arabesque, designed as a bearer. — We now proceed in a straight direction 
into the — 

II. Room. The antique "Pavement, found on the Bsquiline, consists 
of tablets of many different and very rare kinds of alabaster. In the 
centre is the former Albani Campana Collection of Coins, including many 
of the imperial epoch in gold. On the walls are coins of various periods. — 
We retrace our steps hence, and turn to the right into the large octagonal — 

III. Dome Saloon, lighted from above, and constructed of iron and 
wood in the Pompeian style, by Vespignani. In the Vestibule: 2. Tomb- 
stone of Q. Sulpicius Maximus, a boy of U 1 ^ years, who, according to the 
Latin inscription, worked himself to death after having gained the prize 
over 52 competitors for extemporising in Greek verses, quotations from 
which are inscribed on each side of the statuette of the youthful poet 
(found at the Porta Salara in 1870, p. 163). 8. Sitting Statue of Terra 
Mater (Mother Earth), in a small temple with inscription, found in 1872 
in the burial ground near S. Lorenzo. In the wall are several reliefs. — 

• Farther on , in the octagonal Dome Saloon , on the right , 10. Old 
woman carrying off a young lamb, a very realistic figure, with new head ; 
11. Bust of Faustina, the elder; 14, 16. Tritons, of good workmanship; 
•15. Admirably preserved half-figure of the Emperor Commodus, with the 
attributes of Hercules. The marble still displays its fine original polish. 
The pedestal is formed by two Amazons (one only preserved) bearing a 
shield enclosed by cornucopia;, below which is the globe of the firma- 
ment; 17. Bust of Plotina, wife of Trajan; 21. Large Sarcophagus from 
Vicovaro; on the lid a recumbent group, representing a man with a 
scroll, and a woman with a lute ; on the front, the Hunt of Mcleager; on 
the left side, a Lion hunt, on the right, the Bringing home of the spoil I ; 
24. Terpsichore; 25. Well preserved youthful head (Commodus?); *26. 
Venus in the act of loosening her hair; both arms missing; 28. Poly 
hymnia; 30, 31. Colossal female statues; 33. Statue of Claudia Justa, 
with attributes of Fortune; 35. Infant Hercules with the lion's skin, 
club, and quiver, in his left hand the apples of the Hesperides, found, in 
1872 together with the Terra Mater (No. 8, see above) ; "36. Head of a 
Centaur; 38, 42. Athletes, who must be supposed standing opposite each 
other, found at Velletri; 40. Cow, of good workmanship; below it a 
sarcophagus with the four seasons ; 44. Bust of Manlia Scantilla, wife of 
the Emperor Didius Julianus ; 45. Tiberius; 4G. Colossal bust of Maece- 
nas, found at Otricoli ; 47. Characteristic portrait head of a Roman; 48. 
Bust of Didia Clara, daughter of the Emperor Didius Julianus. — By the 
Pilasters: 53. Well preserved head of ^?sculapius ; 56. Head of a boy; 
•59. Head of an Amazon, found on the Esquiline ; 62-65. Caryatides in 
the Archaic style. Over the fountain, 68. Large vase with spirited Bac- 
chanalian representations; 69. Fountain in the shape of a goblet resting 
on a wreath of leaves, and terminating in a winded Chimiera. The up- 
per part of the goblet is embellished with three delicately designed 
Meenades. According to the Greek inscription below the water- spout, 

The Capitol. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 213 

this work was executed by Pontios of Athens ; it was found in the gar- 
dens of Maecenas. 

IV. Gallery : 70. Colossal foot in marble, whose Tyrrhenian sandal is 
adorned with a pleasing composition of Tritons, Cupids, and Dolphins, 
found in 1872 in front of S. Cesareo on the Via Appia ; "75. Fighting 
Hercules , with a portrait head , composed of numerous fragments ; 78. 
Two ancient Trapezophorse , with a modern marble slab, on which are 
placed various small works in marble, and a fragment of a Roman ca- 
lendar, found at Corneto. Opposite, 130. Silenus, in a crouching attitude, 
a fountain figure, found in 1874 in the Via di Porta S. Lorenzo. — On 
the walls of the adjacent Corridor are copies of the mural paintings 
found in a columbarium near the so-called temple of Minerva Medica, 
referring to the earliest mythical history of Rome (see p. 181); 124. Marble 
vase, richly adorned with acanthus leaves; 123. Boy with a small dog; 
86. iEsculapius. On the sarcophagus to the right are various candelabra 
in stone ; 90. Sacrifice to Mithras. On the sarcophagus adorned with 
Tritons and Naiads to the left, are several Hermes (busts); 117. Relief 
in travertine with representations of sacrifices to Mithras; 115. Trilateral 
pedestal of a candelabrum, with Jupiter, Hercules, and Spes; 105, 106. 
Marble relief with scenes from the worship of Mithras, the larger of them 
bearing distinct traces of gilding and colour. A glass door, generally 
closed , next leads us into a court of the Palazzo of the Conservatori, 
where' part of the substructions of the Capitoline temple of Jupiter, and 
(in the wall to the left) the fragment of a colossal column of the temple 
are noteworthy. 

We traverse the corridor of the Protomoteca (passing the monument 
of Canova on the right), and enter the — 

I. Room of the Terracottas. Along the walls are all kinds of com- 
mon domestic utensils (pitchers, lamps, jars, etc.) and terracotta reliefs 
used as mural decorations, with the painting partly preserved; then Ar- 
retinian pottery, votive , and other objects. The remains of the oldest 
tombs found on the Esquiline, placed immediately to the left of the 
entrance, are particularly interesting. In the centre are glass cabinets, 
containing earthenware lamps, glass vessels, potsherds, bronze scales, 
and a variety of anticaglias. 

II. Room or the Bronzes. In the centre is the so-called -Capitoline 
Wolf, in the early Etruscan style, with Romulus and Remus; possibly 
the same which the rediles Cneius and Quintus Ogulnius erected in B.C. 
296. An injury on the right hind-leg is supposed to have been caused by 
lig)itning , by which, according to Cicero, the figure was struck in B.C. 
65, in the consulate of Manlius and Cotta; the twins are modern. The 
-Thorn Extractor, a boy removing a thorn from bis foot. An expressive 
-Bronze Head , said to be that of Junius Brutus who expelled the kings, 
and became the first consul; eyes restored. 36. Small three-bodied Hecate. 
Then a Colossal Hand and a Colossal Foot (comp. p. 248). Between these 
a Tripod. A Horse, sadly mutilated, but of excellent workmanship, found 
in 1849 in the Vicolo delle Palme in Trastevere, together with the frag- 
ments of a Bull ; 2. Vase, found near Porto d'Anzio, presented by King 
Mithridates to a gymnasium. Gilded Statue of Hercules, found in the 
Forum Boarium. PriesVs Boy (Camillus) and Ephesian Diana, on a tri- 
lateral altar. The glass cabinets along the walls contain fragments of 
weapons, bronze implements, etc. 

III. Room of Etruscan Terracottas, or the so-called Museo lialico, 
a collection of vases, terracottas (including two sarcophagi with figures 
on the lids), bronzes, and various anticaglias from Etruria and Latium, 
presented to the city by A. Castellani in 1866, and interesting only for 
purposes of study. 

On quitting this collection we enter the first door in the corridor on 
the right, with the inscription 'Pinacoteca', and ascend to the — 

Picture Gallery, which was founded by Benedict XIV. In a straight 
direction we enter the first saloon. The names are given by the labels 

214 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. The Capitol. 

I. First Saloon. Right wall : 2. Ouido Reni, Redeemed spirit (unfinished) ; 
6. Romanelli, St. Cecilia; 9. Albano, M. Magdalene; 13. Guercino, John the 
Baptist; 14. N. Poussin, Flora (copy of the picture in the Louvre) ; 16. Ouido 
Reni , M. Magdalene; 20. Domenichino, Cumsean Sibyl. Narrow wall: 26. 
Tintoretto, M. Magdalene ; 27. Fra Bartolommeo (?) , Presentation in |the 
Temple ; 30. Garofalo , Holy Family ; 34. Guercino , Persian Sibyl. Left 
window-wall : 42. Palma Giovane , Good Samaritan ; 44. Gaud. Ferrari, 
Madonna; 52. S. Botticelli (?), Madonna and saints; 54. Garofalo, Corona- 
tion of St. Catharine ; 70. P- Veronese , Madonna and saints (a copy). 
Entrance-wall : 76. Polid. Caravaggio, Meleager ; 78. Fr. Francia, Madonna 
and saints (1513) ; "89. Rubens, Romulus and Remus. On the two window- 
walls, above: "Ten frescoes attributed to Spagna, representing Apollo and 
the nine Muses, formerly in the hunting chateau La Magliana (see p. 334). 

Traversing a small corridor with landscapes, we next enter the — 

II. Room. 223. Paolo Veronese, Madonna with angels; 157. G. Romano, 
Judith; s 61. Guido Reni, Portrait of himself; "106. Van Dyck, Two por- 
traits; Portrait of Michael Angelo, probably by himself; '100. Van Dyclc, 
Portraits of two men ; 80. Velasquez, Portrait. 

III. Room. "132 Giov. Bellini, Portrait; 87. St. Augustine, by the 
same ; 124. Titian , Baptism of Christ ; 136. Giov. Bellini (?), Petrarch ; 
129. Portrait, by the same; 49. Domenichino, Landscape with Hercules; 
8. Garacci, Landscape with St. Magdalene; 66. Bronzino, Portrait of a 
lady ; 137. Domenichino, Landscape with St. Sebastian ; 98. School of Bel- 
lini, Holy Family. 

IV. Second Saloon. 104. Mazzolini, Adoration of the Shepherds ; 105. 
Titian, Portrait; 116. Guido Reni, St. Sebastian; 117. Guercino, Cleopatra 
andOctavian; 119. Lod. Caracci, St. Sebastian; 128. Caravaggio, Fortune- 
telling gipsy ; 139. Unknown master, St. Bernhard. Short wall : 142. Albano, 
Nativity of the Virgin; "143. Guercino, S. Petronella raised from her tomb 
and shown to her bridegroom ; 145. Giorgione (?), Holy Family. Left wall : 
41. N. Poussin, Orpheus; 164. Garofalo, Madonna; 180. Titian, Christ and 
the adulteress; 186. Carpi, Holy Family; "224. Paolo Veronese, Rape of Eu- 
ropa ; 199, 196. Cola delta Matrice, Death and Assumption of the Virgin. 

The following Sale dei Conservatori are only shown by permesso (see 
p. 211). We are first conducted to the Large Saloon, with frescoes by 
the Cavaliere d^Arpino, representing the Combat of the Horatii and the 
Curiatii, and other scenes from the period of the Kings ; it also contains a 
bronze statue of Innocent X. by Algardi, and marble statues of Urban VIII. 
by Bernini, and Leo X. by Giacomo del Duca. — II. Room : Paintings by 
Laureti; statues of the generals Marcantonio Colonna, Alexander Farnese, 
Rospigliosi, Aldnbrandini, and Barberini. — III. Room: Scenes from the 
Cimbrian war, and several antique busts. — IV. Room: Fragments of the 
"Fasti Consulares, or lists of Roman consuls, found in the 16th cent, (and 
smaller fragments in 1818 and 1872), near the temple of the Dioscuri, the 
steps to which they perhaps flanked. Along the walls are busts of Socra- 
tes, Sappho(?), Alcibiades(f), and Diogenes (?), in the hermal form, with 
modern inscriptions. — V. Room. Several antiques: jug in the form of a 
female head in bronze; two ducks; Head of Medusa, by Bernini. — 
VI. Room, formerly the assembly hall of the senate. The frieze, represent- 
ing scenes from the life of Scipio Africanus, is attributed to Ann. Caracci. 
On the walls is tapestry woven at S. Michele. Bust of Michael Angelo, 
attributed to himself. Also busts in marble of Victor Emmanuel, Cavour, 
and Mazzini. — VII. Room: Mural paintings by Sodoma, from the First 
and Second Punic Wars. — Adjacent is the old Chapel with an "Altar- 
fresco of the Madonna, probably by Pinturicchio. 

B. **Capitoline Museum. 

(Comp. Plan.) 
This museum was founded by Innocent X., and extended by 
Clement XII., Benedict XIV., Clement XIII., and Pius VI. The 
works carried off by the French were restored with few exceptions 



1 ' ' ' i ■ ■ ' ' 

Ingres so 



Gcoffrftpk.Anatall von 

Tanner * Debci, Leipzig". 

The Capitol. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 215 

to Pius VII. The collection is much less extensive than that of 
the Vatican, but is rich in admirable works. New official cata- 
logue in preparation. 

A. Oround Floor. 

Court (Cortile). Above the fountain in the centre is the Marforio 
(supposed to be derived from 'Forum Martis'), a colossal river-god holding 
a shell, probably representing the Rhine or Danube, erected in the middle 
ages in the Via di Marforio opposite the Career Mamertinus, where it was 
employed as a vehicle for the sarcastic answers to the interrogatories of 
Pasquino (see p. 199). At the sides two Pans , and several sarcophagi and 

Corridor (PI. 4), to the left of the entrance: 3. Colossal Minerva; 
6. Sarcophagus with Bacchanalian representation ; 7. Bacchante. — On the 
Left, at the end, is the entrance to the — 

I. Room (PI. 1). Sarcophagus with a lion hunt. In the centre is a 
v;ise in the Egyptian style on a marble pedestal with a Palmyrene in- 
scription. On the walls are Palmyrene inscriptions, and an ancient mosaic, 
representing Hercules spinning in female attire, and Cupids binding a lion. 
A number of reliefs and inscriptions are still awaiting arrangement. — 
II. and III. Rooms (PI. 2, 3): Inscriptions, sarcophagi, and cinerary urns; 
No. 4 , in the 3rd room , bearing a representation of the Calydonian , and 
No. 8, another hunt. 

We return to the Corridor (PI. 4). At the end to the left: 9. Pro- 
vince in high-relief. Farther on, to the left, several mediocre female 
draped statues. — To the rij;ht of the principal entrance: (right) 20. 
Diana ; 21. Young Hercules ; 22. Luna ; 26. Mercury ; (left) 25. Cyclopean 
Polyphemus with one of his victims (improperly restored); (left) 28. Ha- 
drian as a priest; (right) 29. Sarcophagus with the Calydonian hunt; right 
30. Jupiter; (right) 31. Colossal Mars (legs modern); 32. Hercules with the 
Hydra; adjoining, Leg of Hercules belonging to the statue. — Adjacent, to 
the right, is the entrance to three rooms containing inscriptions and several 
interesting sarcophagi. 

I. Room (PI. 5). 1. Ara, which stood in the market-place of Albano 
til] 1743, with archaic representation of the exploits of Hercules. Also a 
few insignificant busts. — II. Room (PI. 6). "&. Sarcophagus with battle 
between the Romans and Gauls ; the commander of the latter commits 
suicide (perhaps Anerostus, defeated B.C. 225 near Pisa) ; (left) 14. Cippus of 
T. Statilius Aper , with a wild boar (aper) at his feet. On the walls are 
inscriptions. — III. Room (PL 7). Large "sarcophagus (formerly supposed 
to be that of Alex. Severus and his mother Mammsea), with scenes from 
the life of Achilles : Achilles among the daughters of Lycomedes, (left) fare- 
well of Deidamia, (right) arming of Achilles; at the back, Priam begging 
for the body of Hector (found with the Portland Vase of the British Museum 
near Porta Maggiore). Left of the door -. 14. Sitting statue of Pluto. — We 
now return to the hall, and ascend the staircase to the — 

B. First Floor. 

Staircase (PI. 8). Into the walls are built the fragments of the marble 
Plan of Rome, an important topographic relic, executed under Sept. Seve- 
rus, found in the 16th cent, in SS. Cosma e Damiano (p. 228). Portions 
of the pieces found have been lost, but supplemented from the extant 
drawings (these parts are indicated by asterisks). On the landing of the 
stair are two female statues , groundlessly designated as Pudicitia and 
Juno Lanuvina. — On reaching the top, we first enter the — 

I. Room of the Dying Gladiator, containing the finest statues in the 
museum. In the centre: 1. ""Dying Gladiator, representing a mortally 
wounded Gaul , a Greek work of the Pergamenian school, found in the 
Gardens of Sallust together with the group of barbarians now in the 
Villa Ludovisi (p. 162). This is a work of profound interest and unrivalled 

216 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. The Capitol. 

excellence. The right arm is a restoration by Michael Angelo. The visitor 
will readily recall the exquisite lines by Byron: Childe Harold, Canto iv. 
140. — 2. (r. of the door) Apollo with lyre. Right wall : 3. Faustina, traces of 
gilding on the head; "4. Head of Dionysus, erroneously taken for a wo- 
man's (Ariadne's); 5. Amazon; 6. Alex, the Great; 7. Deineter. Wall opposite 
the entrance: 9. Head of M. Jun. Brutus, the 'tu quoque Brute' of Ceesar- 

10. Priestess of Isis ; 11. Flora from the villa of Hadrian. Left wall : s 13. An- 
tinous from Hadrian's villa ; ° 15. Satyr of Praxiteles, the best of the ex- 
tant copies; 16. Girl protecting a dove; instead of the modern snake, 
there was probably a dog, or some other animal in the original. 
Entrance-wall : 17. Zeno , found in 1701 in a villa of Antoninus Pius at 
Civita Lavinia. 

II. Stanza del Fauno. On the walls reliefs, inscriptions,, .etc., among 
them the Lex Regia of Vespasian (black tablet on the entrance-wall), whence 
Cola di Rienzi 'the last of the Tribunes' once demonstrated to the people 
the might and liberty of ancient Rome. In the centre, 1. Satyr (Fauno) 
in rosso antico, raising a bunch of grapes to his mouth, from Hadrian's 
villa, placed on a remarkable altar , dedicated to Serapis. Window-wall : 
5. Colossal head of Bacchus, on a circular ara with a rostrum, and the in- 
scription ara tranquillitatis, found together with the Ara Ventorum (No. 6) 
and the Ara Neptuni (No. 2) at Porto d'Anzio, where they were employed 
by sailors for offering sacrifices. Wall of egress : 8. Head of Mercury (?) ; 

11. Sarcophagus with relief of Luna and Endymion; MO. Head of Juno 
Sospita; 13. Boy with mask of Silenus. Right wall: 15. Small Minerva; 17. 
Mars. Entrance-wall: 20. Bust of Hercules; 21. Boy struggling with a 
goose, copy of a statue by Boethus, excavated near the Lateran in 1741; 
''26. Sarcophagus with battle of Amazons, and, on its left corner, 23. Head 
of Ariadne crowned with ivy. 

III. Large Saloon. In the centre: 1. Jupiter, in nero antico, or black 
marble, found at Porto d'Anzio, on an altar adorned with Mercury, Apollo, 
and Diana, in the archaic style. 2. and 4. * Two Centaurs in bigio morato, 
by Aristeas and Papias, found in Hadrian's villa in 1736 ; 3. Colossal statue 
of the youthful Hercules, found on the Aventine; it stands on a beautiful 
altar of Jupiter , embellished with representations of his birth, education, 
etc. ; 5. iEsculapius, in nero antico, on an altar representing a sacrifice. — 
Window-wall to the left of the entrance : 6. Portrait-statue restored as 
Hygeia; 8. Apollo with lyre; 9. M. Aurelius ; 10. Amazon; 11. Mars and 
Venus, found near Ostia ; 13. Athene.' — Wall of egress : 14. Satyr; 15. 
Apollo ; 16. Minerva ; 17. Colossal bust of Trajan with civic crown. — 
Right wall: 21. Hadrian as Mars, found near Ceprano. The two columns 
adjoining the niche were found near the tomb of Csecilia Metella. 25. Ama- 
zon; 26. Apollo; 27. Mercury; 28. Old nurse, probably from a group of 
the Children of Niobe : 30. Ceres (?). — Entrance-wall: 31. Colossal bust of 
Anton. Pius; 33. Hunter with a hare; 34. Harpocrates, god of silence, from 
Hadrian's villa. 

IV. Room of the Philosophers. On the wall valuable * Reliefs, five 
from the frieze of a temple of Neptune; over the entrance-door, death of 
Meleager; sacrificial implements; on the wall of the egress, an archaic 
Bacchanalian relief by Callimachus, etc. — In the centre the sitting consu- 
lar * statue of M. Claudius Marcellus (?), conqueror of Syracuse, B. C. 212, 
from the Giustiniani collection, formerly in the Museo Chiaramonti. Also 
93 ,:: busts of celebrated characters of antiquity, to some of which arbitrary 
mimes are affixed. 1. Virgil (?); 4, *5, 6. Socrates; 9. Aristides the orator; 
10. Seneca (V); 13. Lysias (V); 16. Marcus Agrippa; 19. Theophrastus ; 20. 
Marcus Aurelius; 21. Diogenes the Cynic; 22. Sophocles (not Archimedes) ; 
23. Thales; 24. Asclepiades; 25. Theon ; 27. Pythagoras; 28. Alexander the 
Gr. (?); 30. Aristophanes (?) ; 31. Demosthenes; 33, 34. Sophocles; 35. Al- 
cibiades (? certainly not Persius); 37. Hippocrates; 38. Aratus (?) ; 39, 40. 
Democritus of Abdera; 41, 42, 43. Euripides; 44, 45, ,! 46. Homer; 47. Epi- 
menides; 48. Cn. Domitius Corbulo, general under Claudius and Nero; 
* 49, Scirjio Africanus, recognisable by the wound on his head which he 
received when a youth at the battle of Ticinus, whilst saving his father's 
life; 52. Cato the Censor; 54. Minerva; 55- Cleopatra (?); <: 59. Arminius, 

The Capitol. ROME. II. Ancient Rome. 217 

erroneously named Cecrops ; 60. Thucydides (?) ; 61. ^schipes ; 62. Me- 
trodorus ; 64»'Epicurus ; 63. Epicurus" and Metrodorus ; 68769. Masinissa ; 
70. Antisthenes ; 72, 73. Julian the._Ap&state ; '75.. Cicero ; 76. Terence, ac- 
cording to others C. Asinius Poliio; "'82. .(Eschylu's 1 (?). The names of the 
busts by the window-wall are unknown. > 

V. Room of the Busts of the Emperors. Reliefs by the entrance- 
wall : over the door , /. Mercury, Hercules, Graces, Nymphs carrying off 
Hylas; H. '-Endymion asleep, beside him the watchful dog; F. -Perseus 
liberates Andromeda (these two belong to the eight reliefs in the Pal. Spada, 
p. 202). E. (above the door of egress): sarcophagus-relief, Muses (a cast, 
original in the Louvre). Then, above the windows, more reliefs ; B. Triumph 
of the youthful Bacchus,' A. Circus games , Bacchanalia , D. Calydonian 
hunt (this last modern). The collection of the emperors' busts is one of 
the most complete in existence; the names are for the most part verified 
by coins. In the centre : * Sitting female statue , believed to be Agrippina, 
daughter of M. Agrippa, wife of Germanicus and mother of Caligula. 
The numbering of the busts commences in the upper row , to the left 
of the entrance-door. 1. Julius Csesar; 2. Augustus; 3. Marcellus, nephew 
of the latter (?); 4, 5. Tiberius; 6. Drusus the elder; 7. Drusus , son of 
Tiberius ; 8. Antonia, wife of the elder Drusus, mother of Germanicus and 
Claudius ; 3. Germanicus ; 10. Agrippina, his wife ; " 11. Caligula, in basalt ; 
12. Claudius , son of Drusus ; 13. Messalina , fifth wife of Claudius ; 14. 
Agrippina the younger, daughter of Germanicus, mother of Nero ; 15. Njevo ; 
17. Poppaea, Nero's second wife; 18. Galba; 19. Otho ; 20. Vitellius '(?); 
21. Vespasian; 22. Titus; 23. Julia, his daughter; 24. Domitian; 26. 
Nerva (modern?); 27. Trajan; 28. Plotina, his wife; 29. Martina, his 
sister; 30. Matidia, their daughter; 31, 32.' Hadrian; 33. Sabjna, his wife; 
34. /Elius Csesar , his adopted son ; 35. Antoninus Pius ; 36.' Faustina the 
elder, his wife; 37. M. Aurelius as a boy; 38. M. Aurelius, more advanced 
in life; 39. Faustina the younger, daughter of Antoninus, wife of Aurelius; 
41. Lucius Verus;' 43. Commodus; 45. Pertinax ; 50, 51. Septim. Severus ; 
53. Caracalla; 57. Heliogabalus ; 60. Alex. Severus; * 62. Maximin; 64. Gor- 
dian Afr.; 65. Gordian; 76. Gallienus; 80. Diocletian (?)T"82. Julian the 
Apostate. We next enter the — " *~" 

VI. Corridor. At the left end: No. 76. a beautiful marble vase on an 
archaic * puteal with the 12 gods : Jupiter, Juno, Minerva, Hercules, Apollo, 
Diana, Mars, Venus, Vesta, Mercury, Neptune, and Vulcan. Then, the 
back of the visitor being turned to the window: (1.) 72. Trajan; (1.) *71. 
Pallas , found at Velletri , exactly corresponding to the statue (No. 114) in 
the Braccio Nuovo of the Vatican ; (1.) 70. M. Aurelius, as a boy ; (r.) * 69. 
Bust of Caligula; (1.) *73. Head of Silenus; (1.) 66. Augustus; (1.) 64. Ju- 
piter, on a cippus with relief: Claudia Quinta drawing a boat containing 
the image of the Magna Mater up the Tiber; (r.) 61. Venus; (r.) 56. Fe- 
male draped statue. (The door opposite leads to the Venus-room.) Left 55. 
Head of Apollo; (r.) 54. Antinous; (1.) 53. Psyche; (r.) "48. Sarcophagus 
with representation of the birth and education of Bacchus ; (r.) 44. Selene; 
(1.) 43. Head of Ariadne. Here and in the following compartments, on the 
right, are immured the inscriptions from the columbarium of Livia (found 
in 1726 near the church of Domine Quo Vadis). Right: 40. Child of Niobe; 
(1.) 39. and (r.) 38. Venus; (1.) 37. Marble vessel with Bacchanalian scenes; 
(r.) 36. Copy of the discus-thrower of Myron (Pal. Lancelotti, pp. 189, 
199), incorrectly restored as a warrior; (1.) 33. Flute-playing Satyr; (r.) 
32. Muse ; (1.) 29. Octagonal cinerary urn with Cupids in the attitudes 
of celebrated statues; '(r.) 28. Sarcophagus with the rape of Proserpine; 
(r.) 26. The child Hercules with the snakes ; (1.) 22. Archaic relief, a lute- 
player (?) ; (1.) 20. Old woman intoxicated ; (r.) 16. Sitting draped statue. 
Opposite the entrance to the Room of the Doves : (1.) * 13. Cupid bending 
his bow (after Lysippus) ; (r.) 12. Flute-playing Satyr ; (1.) 9. Recumbent 
lion; (r.) 5. Silenus; (r.) 3. Septim. Severus; (1.) 2. Faustina; (r.) 1. M. 

VII. Room of the Doves, so called from the "mosaic on the right 
wall: Doves on a Fountain-basin, found in Hadrian's Villa near Tibur, copy 
of a celebrated work by Sosus of Pergamum, mentioned by Pliny. Below it, 

218 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. The Capitol. 

a sarcophagus : 88. Prometheus forming man , whom Minerva inspires with 
life, in a style showing the transition to the Christian period of art. Farther 
on, by the right wall, a mosaic with several masks. Under them: "60. 
Sarcophagus with Selene and Bndymion. The busts 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 51, 
on the narrow wall , are particularly good. By the left wall , in the 2nd 
window, 25. the Ilian Tablet, a small relief in palombino , a soft kind of 
marble , with the destruction of Troy and flight of ./Eneas in the centre, 
and many other incidents from the legends of the Trojan war, explained 
by Greek inscriptions, probably designed for purposes of instruction, found 
near BovillEe. 

VIII. Room of Venus. Adjoining the gallery is the Venus Room, 
which contains the ~* Capitoline Venus, found in excellent preservation 
built into in a house of the Suburra, unquestionably the workmanship 
of a Greek chisel, supposed to be a copy of the Aphrodite of Cnidus by 
Praxiteles. Left, Leda with the swan, a mediocre work ; right * Cupid and 
Psyche, found on the Aventine. 

On the S. height of the Capitol, the so called Monte Caprino 
(to which a flight of steps ascends to the right at the back of the 
Palace of the Conservatori, comp. p. 211), stands the so called 
Casa Tarpeia with the Protestant hospital and the new German 
Archaeological Institute , erected in 1874-76 byLaspeyres, at the 
cost of the German government. In the garden (custodian, Monte 
Caprino 130J is shown the Rape Tarpeia, or Tarpeian Rock. If 
this be the veritable rock from which the condemned used to be 
thrown by the ancient Romans, its height and abruptness must 
have been greatly diminished since that period; as, moreover, it 
is by no means certain that this is its true situation, a visit to the 
spot may well be omitted. Ancient substructions of solid stone, 
which were discovered in the garden of the Pal. Caffarelli (p. 208) 
in 18G6, belong to the temple of the Capitoline Jupiter. 

Of the buildings which covered the Capitol in ancient times the 
only relics now existing are the imposing ruins on which the Sena- 
torial Palace has been erected (entrance by the gate in the Via del 
Campidoglio, comp. p. 210; we then enter the door to the right 
with the superscription 'Tabularium'; fee on week-days '/a f r -)- 
This edifice was the *Tabnlarium , erected B.C. 78 by the consul 
Q. Lutatius Catulus for the reception of the state archives, and 
resting on the massive substructions which surround the hill. It 
consisted of a five-fold series of vaults, the last of which opened 
towards the Forum in the form of a colonnade with half-columns 
in the Doric style, which are still visible. The vaults were used in 
the middle ages as a public salt magazine, and the stones have 
been much corroded by the action of the salt. From this point there 
is a beautiful *View of the Forum. The rooms contain architectural 
fragments from the neighbouring temples and other buildings. An 
ancient flight of steps, now partly restored, descended hence to the 
Forum, where, to the left of the temple of Vespasian, the archway 
where it issued is observed. 



Vorum Romanum. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 219 

The Forum Romanum. 

(Comp. Sketch- Plan. ) 
In the most ancient times the Capitol and Palatine were separated 
by a deep and marshy valley. The pavement by the column of Phocas 
still lies 38 ft. only above the level of the sea, and 22 ft. above the level 
of the Tiber, but 13 ft. lower than the height of an ordinary inundation. 
In consequence of the lowness of this valley, it was, as may well be 
supposed, a difficult and tedious task to raise the level and drain the 
marsh. For this purpose Tarquinius Priscus, the fifth of the kings, is 
said to have constructed the Cloaca Maxima , which still renders good 
service (p. 245); and several canalicolae, or tributary drains which fell 
into the main channel, have recently been discovered. Tradition makes 
this hollow the scene of the conflict of the Romans under Romulus 
against the Sabines under Titus Tatius after the rape of the Sabine 
women. After the hostile tribes were amalgamated into a single state, 
they chose the Forum as its centre , and it was here that some of the 
most famous scenes in the history of the Roman Republic were enacted. 
On the N. side (S. Adriano) lay the Curia Hostilia, or council-hall, which 
is said to have been erected by King Tullus Hostilius; while on the S. 
side, at the foot of the Palatine (S. Maria Liberatrice), rose the Temple 
of Vesta, with its eternal fire, and the Regia, or dwelling of the Pontifex 
Maxiruus, the president of the Roman hierarchy. The Comitium, or open 
space in the centre, was the place where popular assemblies were wont 
to be held. The Forum was bounded by streets, the most important of 
which wa3 the Via Sacra ascending to the Capitol. In the Forum and 
its environs building operations and various changes have been taking 
place at intervals for upwards of two thousand years, and it is therefore 
not to be wondered at that a number of topographical questions regarding 
it are still unsolved, and that the imagination of scholars has indulged 
in the most extravagant flights with regard to this spot more than any 
other in Rome. It is, however, ascertained that the Forum extended from 
the foot of the Capitol, sloping downwards towards the E., although it 
has sometimes been erroneously supposed that it extended from N. to S. 
The Basilica Julia marks the S. boundary of the Republican Forum, but the 
E. boundary has not yet been discovered. Along the sides of the Forum were 
ranged the tabernae veteres and novae, or shops, which were originally oc- 
cupied by butchers and other craftsmen, and afterwards by money-changers 
and goldsmiths. In the course of time a number of temples, public build- 
ings, and monuments were erected here. Of those still existing the most 
ancient is the Career Mamertinus (p. 226), or well-house, situated on the 
slope of the Capitol, the foundation of which reaches back to the period of 
the kings. Soon after the temple of the Capitoline Jupiter (p. 207), were 
founded the Temples of Saturn (B.C. 491) and Castor (484). The Temple of 
Concord (386) commemorates the termination of the protracted struggle 
between the patricians and the plebeians. At the period of the SamniteWar, 
which resulted in the extension of Rome's supremacy over the whole of 
Italy, we are informed that the Forum underwent many embellishments. 
At last, however, as it was only 150 yds. in length, its area became 
too confined for the important and multifarious business transacted within 
its precincts ; for it was not used for political and commercial purposes 
only, but for the celebration of the funerals of the nobility, for the gladiator 
combats which were introduced about the year 264, and on other public 
occasions. The first expedient for gaining space was the erection of basi- 
licas, or quadrangular courts surrounded by colonnades, adjoining the 
Forum, with a view to draw off a portion of the traffic. In 184 Cato erected 
the Basilica Porcia on the N. side; in 179 followed the Basilica JUmilia, and 
in 169 the Basilica Sempronia. The task was prosecuted with the utmost 
energy by Caesar, who extended the Forum by the addition of the Forum 
Julium (pp. 233, 235), and appears to have projected a cutting through 
the hill which connected the Capitol with the Quirinal in order to faci- 
litate communication with the new quarter which was rapidly springing 
up in the Campus Martius. He also restored the Curia Hostilia, and 

220 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. Forum Romanum. 

erected the spacious Basilica Julia on the S. side of the Forum. Augustus 
proceeded to carry out the plans of his uncle , and to that emperor is 
chiefly due the arrangement of the Forum which the present excavations are 
bringing to light. All the edifices of the Republic were restored by him 
and his successors, whose energetic building operations extended over the 
first four centuries of the Christian era. They thus endeavoured, as it 
would appear, to compensate their subjects by external magnificence for 
the loss of liberty they had sustained. Five new fora , constructed be- 
tween the time of Caesar and that of Trajan, adjoined each other on the 
N. side of the old Forum, thus connecting the central point of the original 
city with the palatial buildings of the Campus Martius. By these new 
fora the Forum of the Republic would have been well nigh eclipsed, but 
for the glorious traditions connected with it, to commemorate which it 
was profusely adorned with gilded bronzes and rare marbles, with columns, 
triumphal arches, statues, and works of art, while its history was recorded 
by innumerable inscriptions. 

These ancient buildings were restored for the last time in the reign 
of king Theodoric, in the first half of the 6th century, and the last new 
monument erected in the Forum was the Column of Phocas , dating from 
COS, but the rudeness of the architecture distinctly betrays the degraded 
taste of the period. As early indeed as the first half of the 6th cent, had 
begun the war of extermination waged by the Middle Ages against 
paganism. Ancient temples were transformed into churches, such as those 
of S. Giuseppe, S. Luca, S. Adriano, S. Lorenzo, SS. Cosma e Damiano, 
S. Francesca, and S. Maria Liberatrice. These were afterwards frequently 
altered and restored, while others of the same class, like a church of 
SS. Sergio e Bacco in the temple of Concord and another at the S.E. 
corner of the Basilica Julia, have entirely disappeared. Interspersed with 
these churches were the towers and castles of the Roman nobility, erected 
among the ruins of the ancient buildings in the style best adapted for 
the prosecution of their perpetual feuds. In most cases, the dimensions 
of the monuments of antiquity, were far too vast to admit of their being 
used for medieeval purposes, but another mode of utilising these immense 
masses of building materials readily suggested itself. Throughout a 
thousand years the edifices of ancient Rome were employed as quarries, 
from which churches and secular buildings alike derived their columns, 
their blocks of solid stone, and, owing to a still more destructive pro- 
ceeding, their supplies of lime also from the burning of marble. The fact 
that in the Basilica Julia alone there have been discovered lime-kilns and 
stone-masons' yards at three different places will convey an idea of the vast 
quantity of marble, bearing valuable inscriptions and artistic enrichments, 
which must have been destroyed in this way ; and it need hardly be observed 
that the bronzes of antiquity were still more eagerly appropriated in an 
age when metal of every kind was scarce. This accounts for the miser- 
ably small number of statues and inscriptions which modern excavations 
have yielded. After the systematic destruction of the Forum, its remains 
were gradually buried beneath the rubbish and debris of some four 
centuries, so that the ancient pavement is at places 40 ft. below the present 
level of the ground. Down to the 8th cent, the ancient level was unal- 
tered. In the 11th and 12th centuries the Forum was thickly covered 
with towers and fortress walls, which closed up the old streets, and when 
these were demolished about the year 1221, the ground appears for the 
first time to have been covered with an accumulation of rubbish. Fresh 
deposits were afterwards made when the new buildings on the neigh- 
bouring heights were in course of erection. This was particularly the 
case in 1536, when Paul III. constructed a triumphal street from the Porta 
S. Sebastiano through the arches of Constantine and Titus, and around 
the X. side of the Capitol (on which occasion the new approaches to 
the latter were formed, p. 208). He caused 200 houses which stood be- 
tween the arches of Titus and Severus to be demolished, and he constructed 
on their site the piazza as it stood until recently. The large buildings 
erected by Sixtus V. probably also contributed to the raising of the level 
of the ground. 

Forum Romanum. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 221 

In the middle ages, and down to the present day, the Forum was 
popularly known as the Campo Vaccino. Its desolate area was covered 
with the teams of buffaloes and oxen of the peasantry, and smiths and 
carpenters established their workshops around it , while a few isolated 
columns, protruding from the rubbish, alone formed a reminiscence of its 
departed glory. And thus it remained until the 19th century. As early 
as 1519 Raphael had indeed formed a plan for restoring the ancient city, 
and especially the Forum, by means of extensive excavations; and during 
his lifetime , and subsequently, particularly in 1548-47, the work was 
begun in the neighbourhood of the temple of Castor and Faustina. The 
object in view, however, being merely the discovery of monuments and 
works of art, the excavations were soon filled up again, and in the 17lh 
and ISth centuries were entirely discontinued. At length, during the present 
century, the plan was revived by the modern spirit of investigation. In 
1803 the arch of Severus , in 1813 the column of Phoeas , and in 181G-19 
the Clivus Capitolinus with its temples, were disinterred under the super- 
intendence of Carlo Feci , while the French during their occupation of 
Rome appear to have directed their attention to more productive loca- 
lities. In 1835, and during the republic in 1848, part of the Basilica Julia 
was excavated by Canina, but from that year down to 1871 the work was 
discontinued. The Italian government resumed the excavations again 
with considerable energy ; and by these last operations the Basilica, the 
temples of Castor and Csesar, and a great part of the Comitium and 
the neighbouring streets have been brought to light, and an admirable 
clue to the arrangements of the whole locality has thus been obtained. 
The excavations are under the superintendence of Commend. Pietro iiosa, but 
serious obstacles are presented to the work by the growing requirements of 
modern business. It is hoped however, that the undertaking, which was 
planned and begun when the Renaissance was at its zenith and has since 
been so frequently resumed, will ere long be finally and satisfactorily com- 
pleted, and that the most memorable spot in the history of Europe will 
at length be fully brought to light and purged of the unseemly accumu- 
lations of the rubbish heaped upon it by the neglect of centuries. 

Admission. The excavations are shown gratuitously daily till sunset. 
The Entrance is at the back of the temple of Castor. — The following 
description is in the order of the buildings as they present themselves 
to the visitor approaching them from the Capitol. 

Descending from the piazza of the Capitol through the Via del 
Campidoglio to the right, past the Senatorial Palace (ooinp. p. 211), 
we enjoy from the lower end another good *Suryey op the Forum. 
The excavated portions are divided by the modern street into two 
halves. The smaller to the left below contains among other relics 
the temple of Saturn, to which the eight unfiuted columns belong, 
the three columns of the temple of Vespasian, the arch of Septirnius 
Severus, and immediately below in the corner the colonnade of the 
twelve gods. The second division comprises the column of Phoeas, 
the three columns of the temple of Castor, the great Basilica, the 
Comitium with its enclosure of brickwork, and the bare walls of 
the temple of Caesar. Beyond these, to the left, is the temple of 
Faustina now converted into a church, then the huge arches of the 
basilica of Constantine, the Colosseum, the arch of Titus, and to the 
right the ruins and gardens of the Palatine. 

Here, on the S.W. slope of the hill (Clivus Capitolinus), an- 
ciently descended the Suera Via, the basalt pavement of which is 
visible below. 

The first building faring us, of which eight granite columns are 

222 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. Forum Romanum. 

still standing on a basement 16 ft. in height, is the* Temple of Sa- 
turn, originally consecrated by the consuls Sempronius andMiuucius, 
B.C. 491, and restored by Munatius Plancus about B.C. 44, where 
from the earliest times the jErarium Publicum , or government 
treasury, fwas established. 

The inscription, Senatus populusque Romanus incendio con&umptum 
restilnit, refers to a later restoration , undertaken hastily and without 
taste, the columns being of unequal thickness and placed at irregular 
intervals. Of the lofty flight of steps by which the portico was approached 
there are now but scanty traces. The back is concealed by the street. 
In the 15th cent., according to Poggio's statement, the ruin was in much 
better preservation. 

Below the temple of Saturn, but concealed by the modern road, once 
rose the Triumphal Arch erected in A.D. 16 to the emperor Tiberius, to 
commemorate the defeat of the Germanic tribes and the recovery of the 
Roman insignia which had been lost at the battle of the Teutoburgian 
Forest. Fragments of the arch and inscriptions still lie scattered about. 

Below the Tabularium (p. 218), of the upper gallery of which 
one arch only now stands, and in the angle formed with it by the 
street , lies the Schola Xantha with the Colonnade of the Twelve 
Gods fdeorum consentium) , whose images were erected here in 
A.D. 367 by Vettius Agorius Pratextatus, the prafectus urbi, and 
one of the principal champions of expiring paganism. The struc- 
ture was destined for the use of scribes and notaries. The name 
Schola Xantha is derived from a certain Fabius Xanthus by whom 
it was once restored. In 1858 the ruin was much modernised. 

To the right of this the Tabularium is adjoined by the Ruin of 
the Three Columns, or * Temple of Vespasian, erected under Domi- 
tian, and restored by Sep f imius Severus. 

The inscription ran thus: 'Divo Vespasiano Augusto Senatus populusque 
romanus imperator Caesar Severus et Antoninus Pii Felices Augusti 
restituerunl.'' Of this a part of the last word only is preserved. The 
columns and entablature bear testimony to the excellence of the work- 
manship. The temple has six columns in front, which were 49 ft. in 
height, and 4V2 ft. in diameter at the base. An egress of the Tabularium 
(p. 186) through the posterior wall of the cella has evidently been 
built up. 

Farther on, to the right, and with its back to the Tabularium, 
is the Temple of Concordia, founded in B.C. 366 by M. Furius 
Camillus, and rebuilt on a larger scale by Tiberius, B.C. 7. It was 
dedicated to Concord to commemorate the termination of the pro- 
tracted struggle between the patricians and plebeians. 

The smaller projecting rectangle of the raised substructure was the 
temple itself, while the larger edifice behind, projecting on both sides 
of the temple (but concealed on one side by the ascent to Aracceli), was 
the Senate-Hall, the threshold of which is still distinguishable. On the 
ruins of this temple was erected the church of SS. Sergio and Bacco, 
which was taken do-\vn in the 16th century. 

In front of the temple of Concordia, and above the Via Sacra 
(Clivus CapitolinusJ, rises the * Triumphal Arch of Septimius Se- 
verus, 75 ft. in height, 82 ft. in breadth, with three passages. It 
was erected in honour of that emperor and his sons Caracalla and 
Geta in A.D. 203, to commemorate his victories over the Parthians, 
Arabians, and Adiaboni, and was surmounted by a brazen chariot 

Forum Romanum. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 223 

with six horses, on which stood Severus, crowned by Victory. Ca- 
racalla afterwards erased the name of his brother Geta, whom he 
had murdered. The letters were, as was usual with inscriptions of 
this kind, originally inlaid with metal. 

Above the arches are figures of Victory; at the sides, crowded scenes 
from the wars of the emperor. Side next the Forum : (1.), Raising of the 
siege of Nisibis in the Parthian war; (r.), Treaty with Armenia, Siege of 
Atra. Side next the Capitol: (r.), Siege and capture of Babylon; (I.), 
Conquest of Ctesiphon and Seleucia. On the bases of the columns, 
Captive barbarians. All these figures are in the degraded style of the 
sculpture of that period. • In the middle ages the arch was temporarily 
converted by the ruling powers into a kind of castle, and was deeply 
imbedded in rubb'sh, but was unearthed by Pius VII. in 1803. 

The arched wall by the arch of Severus is the remains of the Rostra, 
or orator's tribune, a name derived from the iron prows of the war- 
ships of Antium with which the tribune was adorned after the capture 
of that town in B.C. 338. At the end of it was the Umbilicus urbis 
Jtomae, or ideal centre of the city and empire, the remains of which 
are recognisable. At the other end, below the street, are a few traces 
of the Miliarium Jureum, or central milestone of the roads radiating 
from Rome, erected by Augustus in B.C. 28. It is, however, doubtful 
whether these names are correctly applied to these remains. 

From this part of the excavations , passages lead under the mo- 
dern street to the second division, which embraces the excavations 
made in 1848 and those of a recent period. 

The visitor should first notice the direction of the streets, in 
order to obtain an idea of the topography of the ancient forum. 
On the S. side, between the brick pedestals and the basilica, there 
descends from the temple of Saturn a street to which another cor- 
responded on the N. side, where the excavations have not yet been 
begun. At the lowest part of the ground, where it begins to slope 
upwards towards the Velia and Palatine, the longitudinal street is 
intersected by a cross-street coming from the Tiber, which separates 
the Basilica from the temple of Castor, and must also have inter- 
sected the northern longitudinal street near the temple of Caesar. 
This was the busy Vicus Tuscus, which led from the Forum to the 
Velabrum and to the cattlemarket by the river (j>. 245). A second 
parallel transverse street, also coming from the river, ran between 
the temple of Saturn and the basilica, and was called the Vicus 
Jugarius. Thus was formed the Centre of the Forum, an oblong 
rectangle, bounded by four streets , from which it is distinguished 
by being paved with slabs of travertine instead of blocks of basalt, 
and being a little raised above the streets and approached by steps. 
This in all probability was the Comitium, or space set apart for 
public assemblies and other important business. On the S. side of 
this rectangle, at equal distances, are placed seven square pedestals 
of brick, which were once covered with marble, and were probably 
connected by means of railings or chains for the purpose of separat- 
ing the comitium from the street. In the comitium, on theW. side, 
rises the — 

^Column of Phocas, 54 ft. in height, which was erected in 608 
in honour of the tyrant Phocas of the Eastern Empire, by the exarch 

224 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. Forum Romanum. 

Smaragdus, having been taken by him from some older building 
for the purpose. It was formerly crowned with a gilded statue of 
Phocas. For a long period this column formed the distinctive mark 
of the Forum — 'the nameless column with a buried base' (Byron^ 
— but it was at length disinterred in 1813 at the cost of the 
Duchess of Devonshire. 

To the right of the column of Phocas are twojRefo'e/s('anaglypha'J, 
which were formerly built into the walls of a mediaeval tower. They 
were discovered in 1872 and left undisturbed, after the removal 
of the tower. They are of topographical value as they bear reference 
to the different localities of the Forum. 

The Rostra which recur in both reliefs, the 'flcus ruminalis', or fig- 
tree under which the she-wolf is said to have reposed, and the statue of 
Marsyas enable us to identify the scene of action as the republican Fo- 
rum. The first relief (next to the Capitol) alludes to Trajan's 'alimenta', 
or institution for poor children: on the right is the emperor, iu front of 
him is Italy, holding a child by the hand (destroyed) and another in her 
arms to which Trajan hands a 'tessera 1 , or ticket; on the left is a magis- 
trate with his lictors, proclaiming his edict from the rostra. The second 
relief represents the remission of the arrears of succession-duty, the re- 
cords of which are being set on fire in Trajan's presence. On the inner 
sides are a wild boar, a ram, and a bull, the victims which were sacri- 
ficed at the solemn public celebration of the Suovetaurilia. 

The main arm of the Cloaca Maxima (p. 245), which was dis- 
covered in 1872, runs past the E. end of the comitium, and under 
the Basilica Julia. 

The ^Basilica Julia was founded by Caesar with a view to enlarge 
the Forum, and inaugurated in B.C. 46, after the battle of Thapsus, 
but before its completion. Augustus extended it, but did not witness 
its completion, as it was destroyed by a fire The building was again 
twice injured by fire towards the end of the 3rd century. It was 
restored several times, the last being in A.D. 377. The building is 
mentioned in history for the last time in the 7th cent., and it was 
probably destroyed in the 8th. After several partial excavations, it 
was entirely extricated in 1871, when remains of a mediaeval church, 
limekilns , and human bones at no great depth were discovered. 
This spot had formerly been the burial-place of the adjoining hos- 
pital della Consolazione. 

The Ground Plan of the basilica is a rectangle, about 111 yds. long 
and 53 yds. wide. A ilight of six, and at places nine, steps ascended to 
the basilica from the street. Along the four sides were double aisles 
which enclosed a Central Space, about 90 yds. by 17 yds., paved with 
variegaled African and Phrygian marble, and separated from the aisles 
by iron railings. The greater part of the pavement has been restored, 
a few fragments of the original only having been preserved. The valuable 
material of which the pavement was composed renders it probable that 
this space was covered with a roof. The sittings of the tribunal of the 
Cenf.umviri, in four different sections, took place here. The Aisles were 
paved with white marble, on which are still seen a number of circles, 
and occasionally writing, scratched on the surface by visitors. These 
were used by them in playing a game resembling draughts, to which the 
ancient Romans were as devoted as the modern. The aisles were separated 
by a triple row of Columns, sixteen on each side, and ten at each end, 
const meted of brick and encrusted with travertine. On the side next the 

Forum Romanum. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 225 

street the pillars were adorned with Doric half-columns built against 
them. Ten only of the ancient pillars, tip to a height of about 16 ft., 
are now preserved at the S.W. corner of the building. All the other trunks 
of pillars which are seen here have recently been reconstructed, partly 
w ith the original materials. The pillars supported arches , which have 
also been restored, but their original spring is still clearly distinguishable. 
The building had an upper story to which the steps still traceable on 
the . side ascended. On this side the basilica was adjoined by older 
buildings, constructed of tuffstone, which seem to have been 'tabernse 1 , 
or shops, but have not yet been thoroughly excavated or explored. 

To the E. of the Basilica, and separated from it by the street, is 
the * Temple of Castor and Pollux, dedicated to the twin gods out 
of gratitude for the assistance they were supposed to have rendered 
to the Romans at the battle of Lake Regillus in B.C. 496, in which 
the Latini were defeated, and inaugurated in 484. It was afterwards 
rebuilt by Tiberius and re-consecrated in A.D. 6. This was one of 
the most famous temples of the Republic, and was frequently used 
for the meetings of the senate. 

The basement of the cella rises to a height of 22 ft., and was ap- 
proached by a flight of 18 steps, with two lateral flights, of which that 
on the E. side only is preserved. The building was mainly constructed 
of concrete, which was faced with blocks of tufa, and around these were 
placed the blocks of travertine which supported the enclosing colonnade. 
These blocks, however, as well as the steps on the W. side, have entirely 
disappeared (although the impression made by them on the concrete is 
still visible), and the width of the building has thus been diminished by 
about one half. On the E. side stands a fragment of the Stylobate, with 
three columns of Parian marble, which are among the finest of the kind 
now existing (height 46 ft., diameter 5 ft.). The Corinthian capitals and 
the architrave are both in a very superior style of workmanship. The 
temple had eight columns in front and probably thirteen on each side. 
The length, however, has not been precisely ascertained, the posterior 
part being still covered by the modern street. Remains of the mosaic 
pavement of the Cella are still to be seen, lying about 3 ft. below the 
level of the portico and the surrounding colonnade. This peculiarity was 
probably occasioned by the alterations made by Tiberius. 

Towards the E. of the temple of Castor are remains of the pave- 
ment of an ancient street, with fragments of ancient and mediaeval 
buildings, the purpose of which cannot yet be ascertained. A ring 
here, provided with a runlet, is supposed to be a remnant of the 
Puteal Libonis, or the enclosure of a spot which had been struck 
by lightning. Copious springs arise in this locality, with which the 
drainage descending from the Palatine unites. 

On the E. side of the Forum, with its front towards the Capitol, 
is situated the Temple of Caesar, to which Caesar, in addition to the 
other alterations made by him, transferred the tribune of the orators. 
This was now named the Rostra Julia, and from it, on the occasion 
of the funeral of the murdered dictator on the 19th or 20th March, 
B.C. 44, Mark Antony pronounced the celebrated oration which 
wrought so powerfully on the passions of the excited populace. A 
funeral pyre was hastily improvised, and the unparalleled honour 
accorded to the illustrious dead of being burned in view of the most 
sacred shrines of the city. A column with the inscription 'parenti 
patriae,' was afterwards erected here to commemorate the event. At 

Bakdkkku. Italy II. 5th Krtition. 15 

226 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. Forum Romanum. 

a later period Augustus erected this temple in honour of 'Divus Ju- 
lius', his deified uncle and adoptive father, and dedicated it to hini 
in B.C. '29, after the battle of Actium. At the same time he adorned 
the Rostra with the prows of the captured Egyptian vessels. 

The foundation of the substructions of the temple , consisting of 
concrete, were discovered in 1S72, but their covering of solid stone has 
been removed. In front of the temple there are the remains of a plat- 
form, still partly paved with slabs of stone , which is believed to have 
been the rostra of imperial Rome. Its present form appears to have 
resulted from subsequent alterations. 

Between the temple of Caesar and that of Faustina situated to 
the E. of it are several ruins of late Roman and early mediaeval 
buildings with remains of a pavement in marble mosaic. The 
temple of Faustina is now connected with the excavated part of the 
Forum , a cutting having been made through the street which 
passes it, and the rubbish having been cleared away. In front of 
the temple runs an ancient street with the ruts of wheels still 
visible. From this street the temple is approached by a flight of 
steps interrupted in the middle by a projecting platform. 

The * Temple of Faustina, of which the portico (with ten co- 
lumns, six. of which form the facade) and part of the cella are still 
standing, was dedicated by Antoninus in 141 to his wife, the elder 
Faustina, and re-dedicated to that emperor himself after his death. 
The first line of the inscription, Divo Antonino et divae Faustinae 
ex S.C., was then added. In the interior of the temple is the church 
of S. Lorenzo in Miranda. 

The portico was excavated in 1807 and 1810. (In front of it once 
stood the Arena Fabicmus, erected in honour of Fabius Maximus, the con- 
queror of the Allobrogi, in A.I). 123.) The columns are of cipolline, or 
marble of Euboea, and are 4G ft. in height. The cella is of peperine, the 
marble incrustation of which has entirely disappeared. — The date of the 
foundation of the church is unknown, and the earliest record of it dates 
from 1430. The facade was erected in 1602. The entrance is at present 
in the Via di S. Lorenzo in Miranda. 

We now quit the excavated parts of the forum. 

To the left of the Via dell' Arco di Settimio Severo ascending 
to the Capitol, at the entrance to the Via di Marforio, we observe 
the small church of S. Giuseppe de' Falegnami. Below it (entrance 
in the first-named street, ] /2 fr) is the Career Mamertinus, one of 
the most ancient structures in Rome. It was originally built over a 
well, named Tullianum, and thence traditionally attributed to Ser- 
vius Tullius, and it was afterwards used as a prison. 

It consists of two chambers, one below the other, of very ancient 
construction. Tie upper is an irregular quadrilateral, which was probably 
once adjoined by other similar chambers. An inscription on the front 
records that the building was restored in B.C. 22. The lower chamber, 
which was originally only accessible through a hole in the ceiling, is 
19 ft. long, 10 ft, wide, and fi'/2 ft. high. The vaulting is formed by the 
gradual projection of the side walls until they meet. It contains a spring, 
which, according to the legend, St. Peter, who was imprisoned here under 
"Nero, miraculously caused to tlow in order to baptise his jailors. The 
building has therefore been named S. Pietro in Carcere since the 15th 
century. In this dungeon perished .Tugurlha after having been deprived 
of food for s : " *■<•<"> v. ^r ii n i nO itgix^ and other conquered enemies. 

Forum Iiomanum. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 227 

Sallust, in recording the execution of Catiline's confederates, describes the 
prison thus: — 'Est in c;ircere locus, quod Tullianura appellator, circiter 
duodecim pedes liumi depressus. Eum miniunt undique parietes atque 
insuper camera lapideis fornicibus vincta; sed incultu tenebris odore 
foeda atque terribilis ejus facies est.' 

Nearly opposite stands the church of SS. Luca e Martina, erected 
on the site of an ancient building. It consists of an upper and 
lower church; the latter being of very ancient origin, and the former 
erected in the 17th cent, by Pietro da Cortona. 

On the opposite side of the Via Bonella, which leads to the Aca- 
demy of S. Luca (p. 234) and the Forum of Augustus (p. 234), is 
the church of S. Adriano, with its unadorned facade, uninteresting 
like the last-mentioned, and also occupying the site of an ancient 
edifice, probably the Curia Hostilia, which was subsequently re- 
erected under the name of Curia Julia by Caesar and Augustus, and 
was used as an assembly-hall by the senate. The church was erected 
by Honorius I. in the 7th cent, and afterwards restored. 

The Velia. 

The Colosseum. Baths of Titus. 

A hill, named the Velia in ancient times, connects the Palatine 
and EsquiLine, its highest point being marked by the Arch of Titus 
(97 ft.). How far the Forum, the lowest part of which was at the 
end of the Vicus Tuseus (p. 223), extended up this hill, is a point 
which the result of future excavations must determine. The Via 
Sacra is flanked by an uninterrupted series of public monuments. 
The following description therefore forms a continuation of that of 
the ruins already mentioned. 

Beyond the temple of Faustina (p. 226), and separated from 
it by a street, is — 

*SS. Cosma e Damiano (PI. II, 20, 5), erected by Felix IV. 
(526-30), having been incorporated with an ancient circular temple, 
to the portico of which the two columns of cipollino half projecting 
from the ground to the right of the church, in front of the Ora- 
torium della Via Crucis , probably belonged. The temple was er- 
ected by the Emp. Maxentius to his son Romulus, and is sometimes 
erroneously called a temple of the Penates. The level of the pave- 
ment was so much raised by Urban VIII. in 1633, that an upper 
and a lower church were formed. The entrance, with the columns 
of porphyry and bronze doors, is ancient. 

Interior. The church is entered by the rotunda. On the arch of the 
choir and in the tribune are interesting Mosaics of the 6th cent., the period 
of the founder, perhaps the most beautiful of their kind at Rome , but 
freely restored about 1660 (best light towards evening). Those on the 
arch, which has been shortened during a restoration, represent the Lamb 
with the Book and seven seals, according to Revelations iv. ; adjoining 
these the seven candlesticks , four angels , and two of the symbols (angel 
and eagle) of the Evangelists. The arms with wreaths , below , belong- 
ed to two prophets. In the tribune: Christ, to whom the saints Cosmas and 
Damianus are conducted by Peter and Paul ; on the left side St. Felix with 
the church (new), on the right St. Theodoras. Beneath, Christ as the Lamb, 
towards whom the twelve lambs (apostles) turn. 


228 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. The Velia. 

The Lowek Chdkch (entrance to the left in the tribune; sacristan i/ 2 fr.) 
is unattractive. It contains the tomb of SS. Cosmas, Damianus, and Felix, 
an ancient altar, remains of an ancient pavement, and somewhat lower a 
spring, said to have been called forth by St. Felix. 

At the back of this church were found the remains of an ancient 
plan of Rome (p. 215), other fragments of which were discovered in 1867- 
68. The ancient wall to which the plan was affixed belonged to Ves- 
pasian's Temple of Peace. 

"We next reach the three colossal arches of the * Basilica of Con- 
stantino (PI. II , 20, 23") 1 erected by Maxentius, but afterwards 
altered by his conqueror Constantine. The entrance originally faced 
the Colosseum, but afterwards the Via Sacra. It was a basilica of 
three halls, with vaulting of vast span, which has served as a model 
to modern architects, as, for example, in the construction of the 
vaulting of St. Peter's, which is of equal width. 

The Ground Plan is in the form of a rectangle, about 100 yds. in 
length, and 88 yds. in width. The principal apse, opposite the entrance 
from the Colosseum, now forms part of a granary. After the opening 
of the second entrance on the side next the Palatine, a second apse 
was added. The tunnel vaulting of the S. aisle has been preserved; 
width 66 ft., depth 54 ft., height 78 ft. The span of the nave was about 
80 ft. ; its height 112 ft., and its width 66 ft. In front of the central 
pillars stood eight huge columns of white marble of the Corinthian 
order, the only one of which now extant has been placed in front of 
S. Maria Maggiore (p. 175). 

The traveller should not omit to ascend to the summit of the ruin 
in order to enjoy the magnificent "' Panorama of ancient Rome which it 
commands. We follow the street between the Temple of Faustina and 
S. Cosma e Damiano to the end, traverse a lane to the right, and proceed 
by the Via del Tempio della Pace to the left into the Via del Colosseo. 
At the corner here, immediately to the right, is No. 61, an institution for 
poor girls (visitors ring; 1 fr.), from the garden of which we ascend a 
flight of steps. A window adjoining the stairs affords the best view of the 
Colosseum , to the left of which are the Thermae of Titu9 on the Es- 
quiline; to the right the circular S. Stefano ; nearer, S. Giovanni e Paolo 
with the new dome, both on the Cselius. Beyond the Colosseum the 
Alban, and to the left the Sabine Mts. To the S. the Palatine with the 
ruins of the imperial palaces and two monasteries, and the opposite bank 
of the Tiber with the Villa Panifili. Towards the W. the Capitol; to 
the right of it, between the domes of two churches, Trajan's column is 
visible; ahove the latter Monte Mario; farther to the right the Torre di 
Nerone and the Quirinal. Towards the N. the church of S. Pietro in 
Vincoli with its magnificent palm , and S. Maria Maggiore , recognised 
by its two domes and Romanesque tower, both on the Esquiline. 

Adjoining the basilica of Constantine, and partly occupying the 
site of a temple of Venus and Roma (p. 229), is the church of — 
S. Francesca Romana (PL II, 23), or S. Maria Nuova, standing 
on the site of an older church of Nicholas I. founded about 860, re- 
erected after a Are by Honorius III. about 1216, and modernised 
by Carlo Lombardo in 1615. Festival, 9th March. 

Interior. On the right, 2nd Chapel : (r.) Monument of Card. Vulcani 
(d. 1322) and that of the papal commandant and general Antonio Rido (d. 1475). 
3rd Chapel : Miracles of St. Benedict , altar-piece by Subleyras. In the 
Tkibunk mosaics of the 12th cent, (lately restored) : in the centre Madonna, 
(1.) SS. John and James, (r.) Peter and Andrew. Over the high-altar an 
ancient Madonna, traditionally attributed to St. Luke, which is said alone 
to have escaped destruction in the conflagration. To the right of the apse : 
monument of Gregory XI., who transferred the papal residence from Avignon 

The Velia. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 229 

to Rome (d. 1378), with a relief by Olivieri. Here on the right, built into 
the wall, are two stones on which Peter and Paul are said to have knelt 
when they prayed for the punishment of Simon Magus. In the Confessio a 
group of the saints with an angel, by Meli. Under the tribune (closed, but 
the sacristan escorts visitors with a light, if desired) is the tomb of the saint, 
and over the altar a marble relief by Bernini. — Sacristy. On the left wall 
a Madonna with four saints, by Sinibaldo, a pupil of Perugino, 1524. — The 
sacristan now shows a Codrt behind the church , with the well-preserved 
western "apse of the Temple of Venus and Roma (fee '/« f r 0- 

On the summit of the Velia, by the Palatine, rises the * Trium- 
phal Arch of Titus, erected to commemorate the defeat of the Jews 
(A.D. 70), and dedicated to him under his successor Domitian in 
81, as the inscription on the side next the Colosseum records: — 
Senntus populusque Romanus divo Tito divi Vespasiani filio Vespasiano 
Augusto. The arch is embellished with fine reliefs. 

Outside : On the same side as the inscription, is a representation of a 
sacrificial procession on the frieze. Inside: Titus crowned by Victory in 
a quadriga driven by Roma \ opposite, the triumphal procession with the 
captive Jews, table with the show-bread, and candlestick with seven 
branches. — In the middle ages the arch was used as a fortress by the 
Frangipani, crowned with battlements, and strengthened by new walls. 
When these were removed in 1822 under Pius VII., the arch lost its 
support, and had to be reconstructed, as the inscription on the other side 
informs us. The central part, composed of marble, is therefore alone 
ancient, while the restored parts are of travertine. 

The street now descends, passing various ruins , to the Colos- 
seum. On the left is the double apse of the Temple of Venus and 
Roma, or Templum Urbis (PI. II, 20), erected by Hadrian from a 
plan by himself in 135, and restored after a fire by Maxentius in 
307. This was one of the most superb temples in Rome. The gilded 
bronze tiles were removed to St. Peter's by Honorius I. in 626. 

There were evidently two temples under the same roof, with entran- 
ces from the sides next the Colosseum and next the Capitol, and with 
adjacent cellae, so that there was a niche on each side of the central 
wall for the image of a god. One half is built into the monastery of 
S. Francesca Romana (p. 228), while the other towards the Colosseum 
is open. The vestibules of the cellse had each four columns in front. 
Around this ran a first colonnade of ten columns at the ends , and 
twenty at the sides (length 120 yds., width 58 yds.). This colonnade was 
enclosed by a second, consisting of about 200 columns, 180 yds. long, 
and 110 yds. wide, and projecting as far as the street, where it was 
supported by massive substructions. To this colonnade belonged the 
granite shafts scattered about here. The cellse were encrusted with the 
rarest marbles. 

Descending hence to the Colosseum, we observe the remains of 
an extensive square Basis of masonry to the left below. Here once 
stood the gilded bronze Colossal Statue of Nero, as god of the sun, 
surrounded with rays, and about 117 ft. in height, executed by 
Zenodorus by order of the emperor himself, to grace the golden 
palace which he erected with lavish splendour after the burning of 
Rome in A.D. 64. The palace fell to decay soon after the emperor's 
death (in 68), and the statue was removed thence by Hadrian to 
this pedestal. In the space occupied by an artificial lake in the 
gardens of Nero, Vespasian founded the — 

** Colosseum (PI. II, 24), or, as it was originally called, the 

230 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. The Colosseum. 

Amphithentrum Flavium , the largest theatre, and one of the most 
imposing structures in the world, completed by Titus in A.D. 80. 
It was inaugurated by gladiatorial combats , continued during 100 
days, in which 5000 wild animals were killed , and naval contests 
were exhibited ; and 87,000 spectators could be accommodated within 
its walls. The building has been known since the 8th cent, under 
its present name, derived probably from the colossal statue of Nero 
with which it was once adorned. 

Having been injured by a fire in the reign of Macrinus, it was 
restored by Alexander Severus. In 248 the Emp. Philip here celebrated 
the 1000th anniversary of the foundation of Rome with magnificent games. 
In 405 gladiator-combats were abolished by Honorius as inconsistent with 
the spirit of Christianity, but wilil-beast fights continued down to the tin e 
of Theodoric the Great. In the Middle Ages the Colosseum was employed 
by the Roman barons, especially the Frangipani, as a stronghold. In 1312 
the Annibaldi were compelled to surrender it to the Emperor Henry VII., 
who presented it to the Roman senate and people. In 1332 the Roman no- 
bility again introduced bull-fights. After this period, however, the destruction 
of the Colosseum began, and the stupendous pile began to be regarded ;is 
a kind of quarry. In the 15th cent. Paul II. here procured the materials 
for the construction of the Pal. di S. Marco (di Venezia) , Card. Riario 
for the Cancelleria, and Paul III. (1534-49) for the Palazzo Farnese. 
Sixtus V. proposed to establish a cloth-manufactory here, and Clement XI. 
actually used the building as a salt-magazine. Benedict XIV. (1740-58) 
was the first to protect the edifice from farther demolition by consecrating 
the interior to the Passion of Christ, on account of the frequency with 
which the blood of martyrs had flowed there , and erecting small chapels 
within it , which were removed in 1874. The following popes, parti- 
cularly Pius VII. and Leo XII., have averted the imminent danger of the 
fall of the ruins by the erection of huge buttresses. The steps in the interior 
were restored by Pius IX. 

The Colosseum is constructed of blocks of travertine, originally 
held together by iron cramps, and tufa and bricks have also been 
used in the interior. The numerous holes bored in the stone were 
made in the middle ages, for the purpose of extracting the then 
very valuable iron. According to the most trustworthy statistics 
the external circumference of the elliptical structure measures 576 
yds., or nearly one-third of a mile, the long diameter 205 yds., 
the shorter 170 yds., the arena 93 yds. by 58 yds., and the height 
156 ft. Above the arena rise the tiers of seats, intersected by steps 
and passages, most of which are now in ruins and only partially 

The exterior of the still preserved N.E. portion, on the side 
next the Esquiline , consists of four stories, the three first being 
formed by arcades, the pillars of which are adorned with half-columns 
of the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian order in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd 
stories respectively. A wall with windows between Corinthian 
pilasters forms the 4th story. Statues were placed in the arcades of 
the 2nd and 3rd stories, as appears from the representations on 
ancient coins. At the ends of tbe diameters are the four triple 
Principal Entrancks , those next to the Esquiline and Cselius 
being destined for the emperor, the others for the solemn proces- 
sion before the beginning of the games, and for the introduction 

The Colosseum . ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 231 

of the animals and machinery. On the side next the Esquiline are 
seen traces of the stucco-decorations, which were restored under 
Pius VII., and were once used as models by Giovanni da Udine, 
the pupil of Raphael. The arcades of the lowest story served as 
entrances for the spectators, and were furnished with numbers up to 
lxxx. (Nos. xxiii. to liv. still existj, in order to indicate the stair- 
cases to the different seats. Below, on the exterior , are two rows 
of arcades , and then a massive substructure for the seats. Every 
fourth arch contains a staircase. 

Part of the Tiers op Seats is still distinguishable, the foremost 
of which, called the Podium , was destined for the emperor, the 
senators, and the Vestal Virgins. The emperor occupied a raised 
seat here, called the Pulvinar, and the others had seats of honour. 
Above the Podium rose three other classes of seats, the first of which 
was allotted to the knights. The humbler spectators occupied the 
last division, in a colonnade, on the roof of which were stationed 
sailors of the imperial fleet for the purpose of stretching sail-cloth 
over the whole amphitheatre to exclude the burning rays of the sun. 
Apertures are still seen in the external coping, with corbels below 
them, for the support of the masts to which the necessary ropes 
were attached. 

Under the Arena were chambers and dens for the wild beasts, 
and an apparatus by means of which the arena could be laid under 
water. Since 1874 excavations have been made with a view to 
disclose all these arrangements, in the course of which fragments of 
columns, marble slabs (some of them bearing combats of wild beasts 
and gladiators scratched on them) , and other architectural relics 
have been discovered. The purposes of the various rooms are not 
yet ascertained. The water, which abounds here owing to the low- 
ness of the situation, has inundated a great part of the excavations, 
and renders it impossible to visit them. 

Although one-third only of the gigantic structure remains, the 
ruins are still stupendously impressive. An architect of the previous 
century estimated the value of the materials still existing at l 1 /2 
million scudi, which according to the present value of money would 
be equivalent to at least half a million pounds sterling. The Colos- 
seum has ever been a symbol of the greatness of Rome, and gave 
rise in the 8th cent, to a prophetic saying of the pilgrims of that 
age: — 

'While stands the Colosseum. Rome shall stand, 

When falls the Colosseum, Rome shall fall, 

And when Rome falls, with it shall fall the World!' 

Those who desire to explore the ruins are recommended to ascend 
to the Upper Stories (the custodian is to be found at the entrance next 
to the Palatine; fee l fa fr.). We ascend a steep wooden staircase of 56 
steps to the first story. Of the three arcades here we select the inner, 
as it affords a survey of the interior. Over the entrance towards the 
Palatine a modern staircase of 48 steps ascends to the 2nd, and then to 
the left direct to a projection i:i the 3rd story. The "View from the 

2'-52 IV. Ancient Rome. HOME. Arch of Conslantine. 

restored balustrade to the right in the 4th story , to which another flight 
of 55 steps ascends, is still more extensive. It embraces the Cselius with 
S. Stefano Rotondo and S. Giovanni e Paolo; farther off, the Aventine 
with S. Balbina, in the background S. Paolo Fuori le Mura ; nearer, to 
the right, the Pyramid of Cestius; to the right the Palatine, to which 
the arches of the Aqua Claudia approach. 

The Colosseum is profoundly impressive by Moonlight, or when illu- 
minated, e. g. by Bengal Lights (comp. p. 115). The traveller is strongly 
recommended to avail himself of a fine moonlight night for the purpose. 
The custodian is generally to be found at the entrance next the Capitol, 
on the right side. The Flora found among the ruins of the Colosseum 
once comprised 420 species, which were collected by an English botanist, 
but most of them have disappeared owing to an over-zealous system of 

Retracing our steps , and quitting the Colosseum by the same 
gate , we perceive on the left , in front of the edifice , the so-called 
Meta Sudans, the partially restored fragment of a magnificent foun- 
tain erected by Domitian. Farther on, to the left, between the Caelius 
and Palatine, spanning the Via Triumphalis which here united with 
the Via Sacra, stands the — 

*Triumplial Arch of Constantino (PI. II, 24), the best-preserved 
of these structures, erected after the victory over Maxentius at Saxa 
Rubra, near the Ponte Molle, in 311, when Constantine declared 
himself in favour of Christianity. The inscription runs thus : — 
Imp. Caes. Fl. Constantino Maximo pio felici Augusto Senatus Po- 
pulusque Bomanus , quod instinctu divinitatis mentis magnitudine 
cum exercitu suo tarn de tyranno quam de omni ejus factions uno 
tempore justis rem publicam ultus est armis arcum triumphis insignem 
dicavit. The arch has three passages, and is adorned with admirable 
*Sculptures from a triumphal arch of Trajan which stood at the 
entrance to Trajan's Forum, contrasting strongly with the rude ad- 
ditions made in the age of Constantine. 

The following are from the Akch op Trajan : the captive Dacians 
above (ancient; one entirely, but the heads and hands of the others are 
new); the Reliefs (facing the Colosseum), to the left: 1. Trajan's entry 
into Rome, to the right of which: 2. Prolongation of the Via Appia; 
3. Trajan causing poor children to be educated; 4. Trajan condemning 
a barbarian; on the other side, to the left: 5. Trajan crowning the Par- 
thian king Parthamaspates ; 6. Soldiers conducting two barbarians into 
Trajan's presence; 7. Trajan addressing the army; 8. Trajan sacrificing. 
The eight Medallions below these reliefs represent sacrifices and hunting- 
scenes ; on the narrow sides two battles with the Dacians ; below the 
central arch, the vanquished imploring pardon, and Trajan crowned by 
Victory. — The contrast between the art of Trajan's and that of Con- 
stantine's age is exhibited by the smaller reliefs inserted between the me- 
dallions, representing the achievements of Constantine in war and in 
peace. In 1804 Pius VII. caused the ground to be lowered to its original 
level. In the 10th cent, the arch was converted into a castle, and after- 
wards came into the possession of the Frangipani. 

On the opposite side, a few hundred paces from the Colosseum, 
in the ViaLabicana, first gate to the left (whence the Via della Pol- 
veriera ascends to the left between walls in F) min. to S. Pietro in 
Vincoli, p. 183), are situated on the Esquiline the — 

Thermae of Titus (PI. II, 26; open daily from 9 a.m. till sun- 
set ; admission 1 fr. ; on Sundays gratis). Maecenas once possessed 

Forum of Nerva. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 2.33 

a villa here, which was afterwards incorporated with the golden pa- 
lace of Nero. On the site of the latter, in the year 80, Titus has- 
tily erected his sumptuous Thermae, which were altered and enlarg- 
ed by Domitian, Trajan, and others. The ruins are scattered over 
several vineyards, and a small part only, excavated in 1813, is ac- 

The earlier structure of Neko is easily distinguished from that of 
Titus. The long vaulted parallel passages first entered belong to the 
Thermse. They form together a semicircular substructure, the object of 
which is not clearly ascertained. Most of the chambers beneath , which 
were filled up by Titus in the construction of his baths, and re-excavated 
at the beginning of the 16th cent., belonged to the golden palace of Nero. 
A suite of seven rooms is first entered here ; to the left, near that in the 
centre, are remains of a spring. Traces of the beautiful Paintings, which 
before the discovery of Pompeii were the sole specimens of ancient deco- 
ration of this description , and served as models for Giovanni da TJdine 
and Raphael in the decoration of the loggie, are still observed. Colon- 
nades appear to have flanked both sides of these rooms. A passage leads 
hence to a bath-room. To the left, at right angles with this suite , are 
a number of small and unadorned rooms, probably the dwellings of the 
slaves i to the left again, opposite the first suite, is a passage once lighted 
from above, the vaulting of which was adorned with beautiful frescoes 
still partially visible. 

Fora of the Emperors. Academy of St. Luke. 

Tn the plain to the N.E. of the Forum of the Republic lay the 
Fora of the Emperors , which were erected by their founders rather 
as monuments and ornaments to the city than for political purposes, 
and were chiefly used for judicial proceedings. The principal edi- 
fice in these fora was always a temple. The Forum Julium, the first 
of the kind , was begun by Caesar and completed by Augustus ; the 
second was constructed by Augustus ; the Temple of Peace (p. 228) 
of Vespasian is often mentioned as a third ; a fourth was founded 
by Domitian ; and lastly, the most magnificent of all, the Forum of 
Trajan. They are enumerated here in their order from the Temple 
of Peace , which probably lay on the site of the basilica of Con- 
stantine, to the Forum of Trajan, as they all adjoined each other 
within this area. 

Adjacent to the Temple of Peace lay the forum founded by 
Domitian and completed by Nerva, whence called the Forum of 
Nerva , sometimes also Forum Transitorium from being intersected 
by an important street. Here stood a temple of Minerva, taken down 
by Paul V. in order to obtain marble for the decoration of the Fon- 
tana Paolina on the Janiculus, and a small temple of Janus. Remains 
of the external walls exist in the so-called * Colonacce , two half- 
buried Corinthian columns, with entablature richly decorated with 
reliefs (representing the practice of the arts, weaving, etc. , which 
were specially protected by the goddess ; casts of them in the col- 
lection of the Academie Franchise, p. 114); above them is an attic 
with a Minerva. This fragment , situated at the intersection of the 
Via Alessandrina and the Via della Croce Bianca , at the E. corner 

234 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. Accademia di S. Luca. 

(PI. II, 20), is well calculated to afford an idea of tie grandeur 
of the original structure. 

The following cross-street is the Via Bonella, in which, No. 44, 
not far from the Forum, is the — 

Accademia di S. Luca (PI. II, 20), a school of art founded in 
1595 , the first director of which was Federico Zucchero. It was 
re-organised in 1874, and placed under the directorship of the 
sculptor Prof. E. Wolff. The picture gallery belonging to the 
Academy , open daily, from 9-3, is a second-rate collection, con- 
taining few works of importance. 

We ascend the staircase, into the walls of which are built a few 
casts from Trajan's Column (disfigured with whitewash). On the first land- 
ing is the entrance to the collection of the competitive works of the pupils 
(closed) such as Kessel's Discus-thrower reposing, in plaster; Christ on the 
Mt. of Olives, drawing by Seitz; reliefs by Thorvaldsen and Canova; Gany- 
mede giving water to the eagle, by Thorvaldsen, and several casts from the 

We ascend another staircase, and ring at the entrance to the — 

Picture Gallery 0/2 fr.). A small Ante-Chambek (with engravings, etc.) 
leads to the I. Saloon, lighted from above. Entrance-wall: Berghem, Land- 
scape; Tempesta, Wharf; Old Dutch Sch., Madonna and Descent from the 
Cross ; Rubens , Venus crowned by graces ; Van Dyck , Madonna ; Titian, 
St. Jerome ; Jos. Vernet, Wharf. Short wall : G. Poussin , two Landscapes. 
Second wall : Ribera, Scribes disputing ; P. Veronese, Venus ; Van Dyck (?), 
Portrait; Titian, Portrait; Vanity; Claude Lorrain, Coast Landscape; Jos. 
Vernet, Wharf. On the second short wall, busts of Betti, Tenerani, and 
Thorvaldsen. — The saloon is adjoined on one side by a Small Room, 
principally containing portraits of artists; among them, on the pillar, 
Virginie Lebrun ; on the short wall , Byron ; in the upper part of the 
right short wall, second row, to the right Angelica Kauffmann; below, by 
the entrance, Salvator Rosa , Concert of cats. — On the other side is 
the II. Saloon, also lighted from above. On the entrance-pillars : Cana- 
letto, Architectural design; Maratta, Madonna; on the back of this picture 
there is a "copy , by Marc Antonio , of the first design of Raphael's Trans- 
figuration (figures nude ; original supposed to have been lost). Left wall : 
Titian, Discovery of the guilt of Calisto, inferior to the other mytholo- 
gical pictures of this master; Guido Reni , Foi'tuua; "Raphael, Boy as 
garland-bearer, being a relic of a fresco in the Vatican, sawn out of the 
wall, and freely retouched; Guido Cagnacci , Lucrezia, an admirable work 
of this master , a painter of no great note of the school of Guido Reni ; 
Guercino, Venus and Cupid (al fresco). Short wall : Bronzino , St. Andrew ; 
Venet. Sch. , Portrait; Guido Reni, Cupid; Raphael (?), St. Luke painting 
the Madonna, besile him Raphael observing him, entirely disfigured by 
retouching, and a work which must have been of little value even when 
it was in better condition, as the want of uniformity in the colouring shows 
that several different hands have been engaged upon it (originally an 
altar-piece in St. Martino); Tintoretto, Portrait; After Titian, Tribute-mo- 
ne>. Right wall: Poussin, Bacchanalian dance; Pellegrini, Hebe; Galatea, 
copy oy Giulio Romano from Raphael; J. Vernet, Wharf; P. Veronese, 
Susanna: Guido Reni, Bacchus and Ariadne. Round the upper part of this 
saloon i ; a double row of portraits of artists. 

The Via Bonella is terminated towards the N. by an ancient wall 
with a gateway. In front of the latter, to the left, are three beauti- 
ful and lofty * Corinthian columns with entablature, which belonged 
to one of the sides of the Temple of Mars Vltor in the Forum of 
Augustus (PI. II, 20). The forum was enclosed by a lofty *wall of 
peperine blocks (a grey volcanic rock), a portion of which, about 

Forum of Trajan. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 235 

150 yds. in length, is seen near the temple, and particularly at the 
gateway (Arco de' Pantani). This wall was adjoined by the back 
of the temple erected by Augustus in consequence of a vow which 
he made while engaged in war against Caesar's murderers, and in- 
augurated by him in B.C. 2. The forum is now occupied by the 
nunnery of the Annunziata. The original level is about 16 ft. be- 
low the surface. This locality was a swamp in the lGth cent., 
whence the modern name ('pantano' = swamp). 

Between tliis and the ancient republican Forum lay the Forum of 
Caesar, or Forum Julium, with a temple of Venus Genetrix. Scanty 
remains of the external wall of tuffstone are seen to the left in the 
court of No. 18 Vicolo del Ghettarello, which diverges to the right from 
the Via di Marforio between Nos. 47 and 46. 

We now ascend to the left through the Arco de' Pantani by the 
huge wall which now forms part of the nunnery , and a little farther 
on descend to the left by the Via di Campo Carleo (in the court 
No. 6, wall of Trajan's forum , see below) to the busy Via Ales- 
sandrina, whence immediately to the right we enter the — 

*Forum of Trajan (PI. II, 19), which adjoined the Forum of 
Augustus. It was an aggregate of magnificent edifices, said to have 
been designed by the architect Apollodorus of Damascus (111-114). 

This was considered the most magnificent of the numerous palatial 
edifices of Rome. Ammianus (16, 10) thus describes it on the occasion 
of the visit of the Emp. Constantine in 356: — 'Verum cum ad Trajani 
forum venisset, singularem sub omni caelo structuram, ut opinamur, 
etiam numinum adsensione mirabilem, haerehat adtonitus per giganteos 
contextus circumferens mentem nee relatu effabiles nee rursus mortali- 
bus adpetendos'. According to a legend of the 7th cent., Gregory the 
Great, while admiring the ancient splendour of the forum one day, and 
saddened by the thought that so just and benignant a monarch as its 
founder should be condemned to everlasting perdition, succeeded by his 
prayers in obtaining the release of Trajan's soul from purgatory. In 
the 10th cent, this forum lay in ruins, and the church of S. Nicolao had 
been erected by the column. This was succeeded by other churches. In 
1587 Sixtus V. crowned the column with a bronze statue of St. Peter. 
At length, in 1812-14, the French government caused two nunneries and 
other buildings to be demolished, and thus partially brought to light 
the centre of the forum. 

The project of effecting an easy communication between the old 
town and the buildings in the Campus Martius by means of a vast 
cutting between the Capitol and the Quirinal was at length carried 
out by Trajan. This passage must have been about 200 yds. in 
width, and of still greater length. In the part already excavated 
(about 120 by 50 yds.) have been discovered the foundations of 
four rows of columns, belonging to the five-hailed Basilica Vlpia, 
which lay with its sides towards the end of the present piazza. 
The central hall was 27 yds., and the whole building 61 yds. in 
width. The pavement consisted of slabs of rare marble. It is 
uncertain whether the remains of granite columns which have been 
found and erected here are in their original positions. — Between 
this Basilica and the Forum of Augustus lay the Forum Trajani 
properly so called, part of the S.E. semicircular wall of which is 

236 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. Trajan's Column. 

still seen in the court of No. 6 "Via del Campo Carleo. two stories 
in height. The chambers of the ground floor were probably shops. 
In the centre of this forum stood Trajan's equestrian statue. 

On the N. side of the basilica rises **Trajan's Column, con- 
structed entirely of marble, the shaft of which is 87 ft. high, and 
the whole, including the pedestal and statue, 147 ft.; diameter 
11 ft. below, and 10 ft. at the top. Around the column runs a 
spiral band, 3 ft. wide and 660 ft. long, covered with admirable 
*Rbliefs from Trajan's war with the Dacians, comprising, besides 
animals, machines, etc., upwards of 2500 human figures, the height 
of those below being 2 ft., and gradually increasing as they ascend. 
(The figures can be more conveniently examined on the cast in the 
Lateran, see p. 271.) Beneath this monument Trajan was interred, 
and on the summit stood his statue, now replaced by that of St. 
Peter. In the interior a staircase of 184 steps ascends to the top 
(closed at present). The height of the column at the same time in- 
dicates how much of the Quirinal and Capitoline had to be levelled 
in order to make room for these buildings : — 'ad declarandum 
quanta altitudinis mons et locus tantis operibus sit egestus', as 
the inscription, dating from 114, records. The height of the co- 
lumn and pedestal was 100 ancient Roman feet (97 Engl. ft.). 

To this forum also belonged a temple, dedicated to Trajan by 
Hadrian, a library, and a triumphal arch of Trajan, all situated on 
the other side of the column. Some of the reliefs from the arch 
were removed to embellish the arch of Constantine (p. 232). 

On the N. side of the piazza are two churches. That on the 
right, del Nome di Maria, was erected in 1683 after the liberation 
of Vienna from the Turks, and restored in 1862. That on the left, 
S. Maria di Loreto , begun by Sangallo in 1507, contains in the 
2nd chapel on the right a statue of St. Susanna by Fiammingo, 
and over the high altar a picture of the school of Perugino. 

Three streets lead hence towards the N. to the Piazza SS. Apo- 
stoli (p. 153). — Ascending to the right (E.) the Via Magnanapoli 
leads in 16 min. straight to S. Maria Maggiore(pp. 169, 175); while 
to the left it leads to the Quirinal (p. 167). — The street to the left 
leads to the Piazza S. Marco, or if it be quitted by the first street 
to the right, the Piazza di Venezia (p. 155) is reached. 

The Palatine. 

(Comp. Sketch-Plan.) 
The Palatine Hill, situated on the S. side of the Forum, rises in 
the form of an irregular quadrangle. In ancient times it was bounded 
on the N. side, towards the Capitol, by the Velabrum and the Forum 
Boarium (p. 244); on the W., towards the Aventine, by the Circus Ma- 
ximus (p. 247) ; on the S., towards the Cselius, by the Via Triumphalis 
and the Via Appia (now Via di S. Gregorio). The hill is 1900 yds. in 
circumference , and the highest point (S. Bonaventura) is 168 ft. above 
the sea-level, or 114 ft. above the level of ancient Rome. The Palatine 
was the original site and the centre of the embryo mistress of the 






SpiefSazione de ninneri. 
It Scalo/ie d ' ingresso. 

3. Cizvo cCdbt Vittoria,. 

4 . Porta Rornasut . 

5 . Auaicratorio ■ 

6 . Casct diXiria . 


8 J(CHptBpoT r tico. 

10. Taoluw del Palazzo. 
W.Atrio ossia Vestibuto. 

12. Ternpio di Giarv Staiore. 

13 . Porta SMugiorus . 
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\h.Jsanzt delta- cinta 

aniichissxma . 
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M. Basilica imperiale.. 
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22. Bihlioteca. . 
Zk.T&npio dz Giore TSfifore. 

ZQ.Scesa aZ Grco. 
21. Palazzo di Settunio 

28. Studio. 

2§.Meta drllo StaxHo . 
yk.Actjrua Claudia. 
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$i.lTjp&*caZe ■ 

Wagner"* D«bas , Leipzig- 

The Palatine. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 237 

world, the Roma Quadrata, fragments of whose walls have been brought 
to light at five different places, thus enabling us to trace the situation 
of these venerable fortifications with tolerable precision. The wall 
appears to have encircled the whole of the hill about half-way 
up its slopes, and to have been penetrated by gates at three places 
only. The situation of two of these , the Porta Mugionis or Mugonia 
(PI. 13) , and the Porta Romana or Romanula (PI. 4) , has been as- 
certained by the most recent excavations. Tradition places on this 
hill the dwellings of its heroes Evander, Faustulus, and Romulus; and 
a reminiscence of them was preserved down to a very late period by a 
number of ancient temples and shrines. The orator Hortensius, Catiline, 
Cicero, and his bitter enemy the tribune Clodius, and other celebrated 
men of the republican period possessed houses here. Augustus was 
born on the Palatine, and after the battle of Actium he transferred his 
residence to this ancient seat of the kings. His palace, the Domus 
Augustana, lay on the site of the Villa Mills, lately a nunnery; and 
adjoining it were a large temple of Apollo erected by him and the Greek 
and Latin library (PI. 22, 23) which is so highly extolled in Roman 
literature. The Emp. Tiberius, the house of whose birth was discovered 
here a few years ago (PI. 6), extended his palace, the Domus Tiberiana, 
towards the Velabrum, and the foolish Caligula connected it with the 
Forum (p. 238). The buildings of Nero, which exceeded all reasonable 
bounds, were abandoned by Vespasian, who confined his imperial resi- 
dence to the Palatine. His palace, the Domus Flavia, was much extended 
by his son Doinitian, and thenceforward the Palatium, the ancient name 
of the hill, became synonymous with the imperial palace. Of the sub- 
sequent emperors, some of whom altered and restored the buildings, 
Septimius Severus appears to have been the only one who extended the 
Flavian palace. He erected the Septizonium, an edifice seven stories 
high, at the S.W. angle of the hill, part of which was still standing in 
the 16th cent., but was at length removed by Sixtus V. The Palatium 
participated in the general decline of the city. It was occupied by 
Odoacer, Theodoric, and the Emp. Heraclius (629), but from the 10th 
cent, onwards the ruins were occupied by monasteries, fortified castles, 
and gardens. 

The area of the Palatine i3 now occupied by two recently dissolved 
religious houses , the monastery of S. Bonaventura , opposite the arch of 
Titus, and the Villa Mills, once a nunnery of the order of St. Francis de 
Sales ; by three vineyards, the Vigna Nussiner on the N.W. side, the 
Vigna del Collegio Inglese at the S. W. corner , and the Vigna di S. Se- 
bastiano on the S. ; and finally by the Orti Farnesiani , which cover the 
whole of the N. E. part of the hill. These gardens were laid out by 
Paul HI. Farnese, who proposed to erect a magnificent villa here in the 
style of the 16th century. Extensive excavations were begun here in 1726 
under the superintendence of Bianchini, but the treasures of art found on 
that occasion were afterwards transferred to Naples, and the place again 
entirely neglected. In 1861 Napoleon III. purchased the property from 
King Francis II. for 250,000 fr., and at a great expense caused the ruins 
of the imperial palaces to be systematically excavated under the able 
superintendence of the architect Comm. Pietro Rosa. The Vigna Nussiner 
was presented to the city by the Emperor of Russia in 1857, after he had 
caused excavations to be made in it during the preceding nine years ; 
and since 1866 important discoveries have also been made by the Cav. 
Visconli in the Vigna del Collegio Inglese, which was purchased by 
Pius IX. Since the annexation of Rome to the kingdom of Italy, and the 
purchase of the Farnese Gardens by the Italian government in Dec. 1870, 
for a sum of 650,000 fr., all these excavations have been entrusted to the 
sole management of M. Rosa. Notwithstanding the great difficulties 
which have attended the prosecution of the work, the rubbish being 
20 ft. deep at places, very important topographical discoveries have been 
made here, although as yet few works of art have been found. The cha- 
racter of the ruins brought to light cannot always be precisely ascer- 

238 I V. Ancient Rome. ROME. The Palatine. 

tained, but they convey a striking idea of the structures with which the 
Palatine was once covered. 

The excavations are open to the public daily; comp. p. 117. The 
ruins may be inspected in the course of an afternoon, but their imposing 
character, coupled with the beautiful and varied views commanded by 
the Palatine, render them well worthy of repeated visits. — The streets, 
temples, houses, and palaces are furnished at places with notices of the 
most important passages in ancient literature supposed to relate to them ; 
but their identification is necessarily a matter of great difficulty, and 
many of the names must be regarded as mere conjectures. 

31. Rosa has drawn a Plan of the entire region, which is reproduced 
photographically and exposed to view at different points. — Permission to 
sketch and take measurements is given by M. Contigliozzi , Capo dell' 
Ufficio Tecnico della Direzione Generale delle Antichita, to whom an in- 
troduction should be obtained. 

We begin with the ruins brought to light in the old Farnese 
Gardens. The entrance is in the Campo Vaccino, on the right as 
we approach from the Forum, opposite the Basilica of Constantine, 
and is inscribed : 'Orti Farnesiani'. 

Ascending the first flight of steps (PI. 1) to the space in front of 
the dwelling of the director, we turn to the right and enter a small 
*Museum (PI. 2), where the most interesting objects found during 
the excavations, either in the originals or in casts, are collected. 

In the centre, near the entrance, young Bacchus led by a nymph; 
statue of a youth in basalt; small Bacchus; torso of a Venus Genetrix. 
To the left, by the posterior wall, cast of a Cupid in the act of pouring 
out wine (original at Paris, found in the Nymphseum of the Flavian 
palace); on the right, torso of a satyr by Praxiteles; three female busts 
in nero antico. Left row: "head of iEsculapius, perhaps belonging to 
the torso with the snake on the right; female portrait-head; on the right, 
head of a dead barbarian; left, heads of Nero and Drusus. By the left 
wall, objects in ivory, bronze, and terracotta; and specimens of the dif- 
ferent kinds of stone found among the ruins. By the right wall, coins, 
glasses, objects in ivory, fragments of stucco, brick-stamps. Among the 
terracotta fragments by the wall of the entrance are two interesting 
"reliefs with representations of mysteries. 

We now descend the stone steps to the right to the Clivus Vic- 
toriae (PI. 3), the ancient pavement of which is visible on both 
sides. This stree